Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4922

Search results for: aqueous solution

4922 Selective Extraction Separation of Vanadium and Chromium in the Leaching/Aqueous Solution with Trioctylamine

Authors: Xiaohua Jing

Abstract:

Efficient extraction for separation of V and Cr in the leaching/aqueous solution is essential to the reuse of V and Cr in the V-Cr slag. Trioctylamine, a common tertiary amine extractant, with some good characters (e.g., weak base, insoluble in water and good stability) different from N1923, was investigated in this paper. The separation factor of Cr and V can be reached to 230.71 when initial pH of the aqueous solution is 0.5, so trioctylamine can be used for extracting Cr from the leaching/aqueous solution contained V and Cr. The highest extraction percentages of Cr and V were 98.73% and 90.22% when the initial pH values were 0.5 and 1.5, respectively. Via FT-IR spectra of loaded organic phase and trioctylamine, the hydrogen bond association mechanism of extracting V and Cr was investigated, which was the same with the way of extracting the two metals with primary amine N1923.

Keywords: selective extraction, trioctylamine, V and Cr, separation factor, hydrogen bond association

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4921 Utilization of Fishbone for the Removal of Nickel Ions from Aqueous Media

Authors: Bukunola A.Oguntade, Abdul- Azeez A. Oderinde

Abstract:

Fishbone is a type of waste generated from food and food processing industries. Fishbone wastes are usually treated as the source of organic matter for the by-production. It is a rich source of hydroxyapatite (HAP). In this study, the adsorption behavior of fishbone was examined in a batch system as an economically viable adsorbent for the removal of Ni⁺² ions from aqueous solution. The powdered fishbone was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron microscope (SEM). The study investigated the influence of adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration on the removal of Nickel (II) ions at room temperature. The batch kinetics study showed that the optimum adsorption of Ni(II) was 98% at pH 7, metal ion concentration of 30 mg/L. The results obtained from the experimental work showed that fishbone can be used as an adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

Keywords: adsorption, aqueous media, fishbone, kinetic study

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4920 Effect of Sodium Chloride in the Recovery of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Aidaoui Ahleme, Hasseine Abdelmalek

Abstract:

Acetic acid is one of the simplest and most widely used carboxylic acids having many important chemical and industrial applications. Total worldwide production of acetic acid is about 6.5 million tonnes per year. A great deal of efforts has been made in developing feasible and economic method for recovery of carboxylic acids. Among them, Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) has been demonstrated to be a highly efficient separation technique. The study of efficiently separating and recovering Acetic acid from aqueous solutions is an important significance on industry and environmentally sustainable development. Many research groups in different countries are working in this field and some methods are proposed in the literature. In this work, effect of sodium chloride with different content (5%, 10% and 20%) on the liquid-liquid equilibrium data of (water+ acetic acid+ DCM) system is investigated. The addition of the salt in an aqueous solution introduces ionic forces which affect liquid-liquid equilibrium and which influence directly the distribution coefficient of the solute. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that when the percentage of salt increases in the aqueous solution, the equilibrium between phases is modified in favor of the extracted phase.

Keywords: acetic acid recovery, aqueous solution, salting-effect, sodium chloride

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4919 Development of Micelle-Mediated Sr(II) Fluorescent Analysis System

Authors: K. Akutsu, S. Mori, T. Hanashima

Abstract:

Fluorescent probes are useful for the selective detection of trace amount of ions and biomolecular imaging in living cells. Various kinds of metal ion-selective fluorescent compounds have been developed, and some compounds have been applied as effective metal ion-selective fluorescent probes. However, because competition between the ligand and water molecules for the metal ion constitutes a major contribution to the stability of a complex in aqueous solution, it is difficult to develop a highly sensitive, selective, and stable fluorescent probe in aqueous solution. The micelles, these are formed in the surfactant aqueous solution, provides a unique hydrophobic nano-environment for stabilizing metal-organic complexes in aqueous solution. Therefore, we focused on the unique properties of micelles to develop a new fluorescence analysis system. We have been developed a fluorescence analysis system for Sr(II) by using a Sr(II) fluorescent sensor, N-(2-hydroxy-3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-phenyl)-1-aza-18-crown-6-ether (BIC), and studied its complexation behavior with Sr(II) in micellar solution. We revealed that the stability constant of Sr(II)-BIC complex was 10 times higher than that in aqueous solution. In addition, its detection limit value was also improved up to 300 times by this system. However, the mechanisms of these phenomena have remained obscure. In this study, we investigated the structure of Sr(II)-BIC complex in aqueous micellar solution by combining use the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron reflectivity (NR) method to understand the unique properties of the fluorescence analysis system from the view point of structural chemistry. EXAFS and NR experiments were performed on BL-27B at KEK-PF and on BL17 SHARAKU at J-PARC MLF, respectively. The obtained EXAFS spectra and their fitting results indicated that Sr(II) and BIC formed a Sr(18-crown-6-ether)-like complex in aqueous micellar solution. The EXAFS results also indicated that the hydrophilic head group of surfactant molecule was directly coordinated with Sr(II). In addition, the NR results also indicated that Sr(II)-BIC complex would interact with the surface of micelle molecules. Therefore, we concluded that Sr(II), BIC, and surfactant molecule formed a ternary complexes in aqueous micellar solution, and at least, it is clear that the improvement of the stability constant in micellar solution is attributed to the result of the formation of Sr(BIC)(surfactant) complex.

Keywords: micell, fluorescent probe, neutron reflectivity, EXAFS

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4918 Adsorption of Methyl Violet Dye from Aqueous Solution onto Modified Kapok Sawdust : Characteristics and Equilibrium Studies

Authors: Widi Astuti, Triastuti Sulistyaningsih, Masni Maksiola

Abstract:

Kapok sawdust, an inexpensive material, has been utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet in aqueous solution. To increase the adsorption capacity, kapok sawdust was reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution having various concentrations. Various physico-chemical parameters such as solution pH, contact time and initial dye concentration were studied. Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherm model were used to analyze the equilibrium data. The research shows that the experimental data fitted well with the Redlich-Peterson model, with the value of constants are 41.001 for KR, 0.523 for aR and 0.799 for g.

Keywords: kapok sawdust, methyl violet, dye, adsorption

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4917 An Investigation on the Removal of Synthetic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by a Functional Polymer

Authors: Ali Kara, Asim Olgun, Sevgi Sozugecer, Sahin Ozel, Kubra Nur Yildiz, P. Sevinç, Abdurrahman Kuresh, Guliz Turhan, Duygu Gulgun

Abstract:

The synthetic dyes, one of the most hazardous chemical compound classes, are important potential water pollutions since their presence in water bodies reduces light penetration, precluding the photosynthesis of aqueous flora and causing various diseases. Some the synthetic dyes are highly toxic and/or carcinogenic, and their biodegradation can produce even more toxic aromatic amines. The adsorption procedure is one of the most effective means of removing synthetic dye pollutants, and has been described in a number of previous studies by using the functional polymers. In this study, we investigated the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solution by using a functional polymer as an adsorbent material. The effect of initial solution concentration, pH, and contact time on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent were studied in details. The results showed that functional polymer has a potential to be used as cost-effective and efficient adsorbent for the treatment of aqueous solutions from textile industries.

Keywords: functional polymers, synhetic dyes, adsorption, physicochemical parameters

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4916 Application of Synthetic Monomers Grafted Xanthan Gum for Rhodamine B Removal in Aqueous Solution

Authors: T. Moremedi, L. Katata-Seru, S. Sardar, A. Bandyopadhyay, E. Makhado, M. Joseph Hato

Abstract:

The rapid industrialisation and population growth have led to a steady fall in freshwater supplies worldwide. As a result, water systems are affected by modern methods upon use due to secondary contamination. The application of novel adsorbents derived from natural polymer holds a great promise in addressing challenges in water treatment. In this study, the UV irradiation technique was used to prepare acrylamide (AAm) monomer, and acrylic acid (AA) monomer grafted xanthan gum (XG) copolymer. Furthermore, the factors affecting rhodamine B (RhB) adsorption from aqueous media, such as pH, dosage, concentration, and time were also investigated. The FTIR results confirmed the formation of graft copolymer by the strong vibrational bands at 1709 cm-1 and 1612 cm-1 for AA and AAm, respectively. Additionally, more irregular, porous and wrinkled surface observed from SEM of XG-g-AAm/AA indicated copolymerization interaction of monomers. The optimum conditions for removing RhB dye with a maximum adsorption capacity of 313 mg/g at 25 0C from aqueous solution were pH approximately 5, initial dye concentration = 200 ppm, adsorbent dose = 30 mg. Also, the detailed investigation of the isothermal and adsorption kinetics of RhB from aqueous solution showed that the adsorption of the dye followed a Freundlich model (R2 = 0.96333) and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results further indicated that this absorbent based on XG had the universality to remove dye through the mechanism of chemical adsorption. The outstanding adsorption potential of the grafted copolymer could be used to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution as a low-cost product.

Keywords: xanthan gum, adsorbents, rhodamine B, Freundlich

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4915 Optimization Study of Adsorption of Nickel(II) on Bentonite

Authors: B. Medjahed, M. A. Didi, B. Guezzen

Abstract:

This work concerns with the experimental study of the adsorption of the Ni(II) on bentonite. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, stirring rate, initial concentration of Ni(II), masse of clay, initial pH of aqueous solution and temperature on the adsorption yield, were carried out. The study of the effect of the ionic strength on the yield of adsorption was examined by the identification and the quantification of the present chemical species in the aqueous phase containing the metallic ion Ni(II). The adsorbed species were investigated by a calculation program using CHEAQS V. L20.1 in order to determine the relation between the percentages of the adsorbed species and the adsorption yield. The optimization process was carried out using 23 factorial designs. The individual and combined effects of three process parameters, i.e. initial Ni(II) concentration in aqueous solution (2.10−3 and 5.10−3 mol/L), initial pH of the solution (2 and 6.5), and mass of bentonite (0.03 and 0.3 g) on Ni(II) adsorption, were studied.

Keywords: adsorption, bentonite, factorial design, Nickel(II)

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4914 Acidic Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Heat Treated and Polymer Modified Waste Containing Boron Impurity

Authors: Asim Olgun, Ali Kara, Vural Butun, Pelin Sevinc, Merve Gungor, Orhan Ornek

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated the possibility of using waste containing boron impurity (BW) as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange 16 from aqueous solution. Surface properties of the BW, heat treated BW, and diblock copolymer coated BW were examined by using Zeta Meter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polymer modified sample having the highest positive zeta potential was used as an adsorbent. Batch adsorption studies were carried out. The operating variables studied were the initial dye concentration, contact time, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 3. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and the isotherm fit well to the Langmuir model.

Keywords: zeta potential, adsorption, Orange 16, isotherms

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4913 The Solvent Extraction of Uranium, Plutonium and Thorium from Aqueous Solution by 1-Hydroxyhexadecylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid

Authors: M. Bouhoun Ali, A. Y. Badjah Hadj Ahmed, M. Attou, A. Elias, M. A. Didi

Abstract:

In this paper, the solvent extraction of uranium(VI), plutonium(IV) and thorium(IV) from aqueous solutions using 1-hydroxyhexadecylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HHDPA) in treated kerosene has been investigated. The HHDPA was previously synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The effects contact time, initial pH, initial metal concentration, aqueous/organic phase ratio, extractant concentration and temperature on the extraction process have been studied. An empirical modelling was performed by using a 25 full factorial design, and regression equation for extraction metals was determined from the data. The conventional log-log analysis of the extraction data reveals that ratios of extractant to extracted U(VI), Pu(IV) and Th(IV) are 1:1, 1:2 and 1:2, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the extraction process was exothermic heat and spontaneous. The obtained optimal parameters were applied to real effluents containing uranium(VI), plutonium(IV) and thorium(IV) ions.

Keywords: solvent extraction, uranium, plutonium, thorium, 1-hydroxyhexadecylidene-1-1-diphosphonic acid, aqueous solution

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4912 Synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Chitosan Nanocomposite for Methylene Blue Adsorption

Authors: S. Melvin Samuel, Jayanta Bhattacharya

Abstract:

In the present study, a graphene oxide/chitosan (GO-CS) composite material was prepared and used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The synthesized GO-CS adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of MB was conducted in batch mode. The effect of parameters influencing the adsorption of MB such as pH of the solution, initial MB concentration, shaking speed, contact time and adsorbent dosage were studied. The results showed that the GO-CS composite material has high adsorption capacity of 196 mg/g of MB solution at pH 9.0. Further, the adsorption of MB on GO-CS followed pseudo second order kinetics and equilibrium adsorption data well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The study suggests that the GO-CS is a favorable adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Methylene blue, Graphene oxide-chitosan, Isotherms, Kinetics.

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4911 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology

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4910 Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Uranium(vi) from Aqueous Solution Using 1-Hydroxyalkylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acids

Authors: M. Bouhoun Ali, A. Y. Badjah Hadj Ahmed, M. Attou, A. Elias, M. A. Didi

Abstract:

The extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions has been investigated using 1-hydroxyhexadecylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HHDPA) and 1-hydroxydodecylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HDDPA), which were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR spectroscopy. In this paper, we propose a tentative assignment for the shifts of those two ligands and their specific complexes with uranium(VI). We carried out the extraction of uranium(VI) by HHDPA and HDDPA from [carbon tetrachloride + 2-octanol (v/v: 90%/10%)] solutions. Various factors such as contact time, pH, organic/aqueous phase ratio and extractant concentration were considered. The optimum conditions obtained were: contact time= 20 min, organic/aqueous phase ratio = 1, pH value = 3.0 and extractant concentration = 0.3M. The extraction yields are more significant in the case of the HHDPA which is equipped with a hydrocarbon chain, longer than that of the HDDPA. Logarithmic plots of the uranium(VI) distribution ratio vs. pHeq and the extractant concentration showed that the ratio of extractant to extracted uranium(VI) (ligand/metal) is 2:1. The formula of the complex of uranium(VI) with the HHDPA and the DHDPA is UO2(H3L)2 (HHDPA and DHDPA are denoted as H4L). A spectroscopic analysis has showed that coordination of uranium(VI) takes place via oxygen atoms.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, uranium(vi), 1-hydroxyalkylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acids, hhdpa, hddpa, aqueous solution

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4909 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Authors: Pramod Kumar, A. V. N. Swamy, C. V. Sowjanya, C. V. Ramachandra Murthy

Abstract:

Biosorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available marine algae Chlorella sp. The ability of marine algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to remove heavy metal ion (Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions has been studied in this work. The biosorption properties of the biosorbent like equilibrium agitation time, optimum pH, temperature and initial solute concentration were investigated on metal uptake by showing respective profiles. The maximum metal uptake was found to be 10.27 mg/g. To achieve this metal uptake, the optimum conditions were found to be 30 min as equilibrium agitation time, 4.6 as optimum pH, 60 ppm of initial solute concentration. Lead concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The process was found to be well fitted for pseudo-second order kinetics.

Keywords: biosorption, heavy metal ions, agitation time, metal uptake, aqueous solution

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4908 Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Cement

Authors: W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj

Abstract:

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) is one of the most attractive bioceramics due to its moldable and shape ability to fill complicated bony cavities or small dental defect positions. In this study, CPCs were produced by using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca4O(PO4)2) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, CaHPO4) in equimolar ratio (1/1) with aqueous solutions of acetic acid (C2H4O2) and disodium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) in combination with sodium alginate in order to improve theirs moldable characteristic. The concentrations of the aqueous solutions and sodium alginate were varied to investigate the effects of different aqueous solution and alginate on properties of the cements. The cement paste was prepared by mixing cement powder (P) with aqueous solution (L) in a P/L ratio of 1.0 g/ 0.35 ml. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyses phase formation of the cements. Setting times and compressive strength of the set CPCs were measured using the Gilmore apparatus and Universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that CPCs could be produced by using both basic (Na2HPO4.2H2O) and acidic (C2H4O2) solutions. XRD results show the precipitation of hydroxyapatite in all cement samples. No change in phase formation among cements using difference concentrations of Na2HPO4.2H2O solutions. With increasing concentration of acidic solutions, samples obtained less hydroxyapatite with a high dicalcium phosphate dehydrate leaded to a shorter setting time. Samples with sodium alginate exhibited higher crystallization of hydroxyapatite than that of without alginate as a result of shorten setting time in basic solution but a longer setting time in acidic solution. The stronger cement was attained from samples using acidic solution with sodium alginate; however it was lower than using the basic solution.

Keywords: calcium phosphate cements, TTCP, DCPA, hydroxyapatite, properties

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4907 Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Uranium (VI) from Aqueous Solution Using 1-Hydroxyalkylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acids

Authors: Mustapha Bouhoun Ali, Ahmed Yacine Badjah Hadj Ahmed, Mouloud Attou, Abdel Hamid Elias, Mohamed Amine Didi

Abstract:

The extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions has been investigated using 1-hydroxyhexadecylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HHDPA) and 1-hydroxydodecylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HDDPA), which were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR spectroscopy. In this paper, we propose a tentative assignment for the shifts of those two ligands and their specific complexes with uranium(VI). We carried out the extraction of uranium(VI) by HHDPA and HDDPA from [carbon tetrachloride + 2-octanol (v/v: 90%/10%)] solutions. Various factors such as contact time, pH, organic/aqueous phase ratio and extractant concentration were considered. The optimum conditions obtained were: contact time = 20 min, organic/aqueous phase ratio = 1, pH value = 3.0 and extractant concentration = 0.3M. The extraction yields are more significant in the case of the HHDPA which is equipped with a hydrocarbon chain, longer than that of the HDDPA. Logarithmic plots of the uranium(VI) distribution ratio vs. pHeq and the extractant concentration showed that the ratio of extractant to extracted uranium(VI) (ligand/metal) is 2:1. The formula of the complex of uranium(VI) with the HHDPA and the DHDPA is UO2(H3L)2 (HHDPA and DHDPA are denoted as H4L). A spectroscopic analysis has showed that coordination of uranium(VI) takes place via oxygen atoms.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, uranium(VI), 1-hydroxyalkylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acids, HHDPA, HDDPA, aqueous solution

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4906 Speciation Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Application to Atrazine

Authors: K. Benhabib, X. Pierens, V-D Nguyen, G. Mimanne

Abstract:

The main hypothesis of the dynamics of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is that steady-state mass transfer is respected throughout the SPME extraction process. It considers steady-state diffusion is established in the two phases and fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. An improved model is proposed in this paper to handle with the situation when the analyte (atrazine) is in contact with colloid suspensions (carboxylate latex in aqueous solution). A mathematical solution is obtained by substituting the diffusion coefficient by the mean of diffusion coefficient between analyte and carboxylate latex, and also thickness layer by the mean thickness in aqueous solution. This solution provides an equation relating the extracted amount of the analyte to the extraction a little more complicated than previous models. It also gives a better description of experimental observations. Moreover, the rate constant of analyte obtained is in satisfactory agreement with that obtained from the initial curve fitting.

Keywords: pesticide, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods, steady state, analytical model

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4905 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, H. Kiani, M. Parvizi

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: Initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: chromium, adsorption, Taguchi method, activated carbon

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4904 Arsenic(III) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Fly Ash

Authors: Olushola Ayanda, Simphiwe Nelana, Eliazer Naidoo

Abstract:

In the present study, the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of As(III) ions from aqueous solution onto fly ash (FA) was investigated in batch adsorption system. Prior to the adsorption studies, the FA was characterized by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area determination. The effect of contact time, initial As(III) concentration, FA dosage, stirring speed, solution pH and temperature was examined on the adsorption rate. Experimental results showed a very good compliance with the pseudo-second-order equation, while the equilibrium study showed that the sorption of As(III) ions onto FA fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous, moreover, the maximum percentage removal of As(III) achieved with approx. 2.5 g FA mixed with 25 mL of 100 mg/L As(III) solution was 65.4 % at pH 10, 60 min contact time, temperature of 353 K and a stirring speed of 120 rpm.

Keywords: arsenic, fly ash, kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamics

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4903 Facile, Cost Effective and Green Synthesis of Graphene in Alkaline Aqueous Solution

Authors: Illyas Isa, Siti Nur Akmar Mohd Yazid, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

We report a simple, green and cost effective synthesis of graphene via chemical reduction of graphene oxide in alkaline aqueous solution. Extensive characterizations have been studied to confirm the formation of graphene in sodium carbonate solution. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical properties of the prepared graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode using potassium ferricyanide as a redox probe. Based on the result, with the addition of graphene to the glassy carbon electrode the current flow increases and the peak also broadens as compared to graphite and graphene oxide. This method is fast, cost effective, and green as nontoxic solvents are used which will not result in contamination of the products. Thus, this method can serve for the preparation of graphene which can be effectively used in sensors, electronic devices and supercapacitors.

Keywords: chemical reduction, electrochemical, graphene, green synthesis

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4902 Parameters Affecting the Removal of Copper and Cobalt from Aqueous Solution onto Clinoptilolite by Ion-Exchange Process

Authors: John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto

Abstract:

Ion exchange is one of the methods used to remove heavy metal such as copper and cobalt from wastewaters. Parameters affecting the ion-exchange of copper and cobalt aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite are the objectives of this study. Synthetic solutions were prepared with the concentration of 0.02M, 0.06M and 0.1M. The cobalt solution was maintained to 0.02M while varying the copper solution to the above stated concentrations. The clinoptilolite was activated with HCl and H2SO4 for removal efficiency. The pHs of the solutions were found to be acidic hence enhancing the copper and cobalt removal. The natural clinoptilolite performance was also found to be lower compared to the HCl and H2SO4 activated one for the copper removal ranging from 68% to 78% of Cu2+ uptake with the natural clinoptilolite to 66% to 51% with HCl and H2SO4 respectively. It was found that the activated clinoptilolite removed more copper and cobalt than the natural one and found that the electronegativity of the metal plays a role in the metal removal and the clinoptilolite selectivity.

Keywords: clinoptilolite, cobalt and copper, ion-exchange, mass dosage, pH

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4901 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Due to annealing the average grain size increased by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: electrodeposition, non-aqueous medium, SEM, XRD

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4900 Iridium-Based Bimetallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Production through Glycerol Aqueous-Phase Reforming

Authors: Francisco Espinosa, Juan Chavarría

Abstract:

Glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel production that can be used for aqueous-phase reforming to obtain hydrogen. Iridium is a material that has high activity and hydrogen selectivity for steam phase reforming. Nevertheless, a drawback for the use of iridium in aqueous-phase reforming is the low activity in water-gas shift reaction. Therefore, in this work, it is proposed the use of nickel and copper as a second metal in the catalyst to reach a synergetic effect. Iridium, iridium-nickel and iridium-copper catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and evaluated in the aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol using CeO₂ or La₂O₃ as support. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, and EDX. The reactions were carried out in a fixed bed reactor feeding a solution of glycerol 10 wt% in water at 270°C, and reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that IrNi/CeO₂ reached highest glycerol conversion and hydrogen production, slightly above 70% and 43 vol% respectively. In terms of conversion, iridium is a promising metal, and its activity for hydrogen production can be enhanced when adding a second metal.

Keywords: aqueous-phase reforming, glycerol, hydrogen production, iridium

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4899 The Hydrotrope-Mediated, Low-Temperature, Aqueous Dissolution of Maize Starch

Authors: Jeroen Vinkx, Jan A. Delcour, Bart Goderis

Abstract:

Complete aqueous dissolution of starch is notoriously difficult. A high-temperature autoclaving process is necessary, followed by cooling the solution below its boiling point. The cooled solution is inherently unstable over time. Gelation and retrogradation processes, along with aggregation-induced by undissolved starch remnants, result in starch precipitation. We recently observed the spontaneous gelatinization of native maize starch (MS) in aqueous sodium salicylate (NaSal) solutions at room temperature. A hydrotropic mode of solubilization is hypothesized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM) of starch dispersions in NaSal solution were used to demonstrate the room temperature gelatinization of MS at different concentrations of MS and NaSal. The DSC gelatinization peak shifts to lower temperatures, and the gelatinization enthalpy decreases with increasing NaSal concentration. POM images confirm the same trend through the disappearance of the ‘Maltese cross’ interference pattern of starch granules. The minimal NaSal concentration to induce complete room temperature dissolution of MS was found to be around 15-20 wt%. The MS content of the dispersion has little influence on the amount of NaSal needed to dissolve it. The effect of the NaSal solution on the MS molecular weight was checked with HPSEC. It is speculated that, because of its amphiphilic character, NaSal enhances the solubility of MS in water by association with the more hydrophobic MS moieties, much like urea, which has also been used to enhance starch dissolution in alkaline aqueous media. As such small molecules do not tend to form micelles in water, they are called hydrotropes rather than surfactants. A minimal hydrotrope concentration (MHC) is necessary for the hydrotropes to structure themselves in water, resulting in a higher solubility of MS. This is the case for the system MS/NaSal/H₂O. Further investigations into the putative hydrotropic dissolution mechanism are necessary.

Keywords: hydrotrope, dissolution, maize starch, sodium salicylate, gelatinization

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4898 The Effect of Ionic Strength on the Extraction of Copper(II) from Perchlorate Solutions by Capric Acid in Chloroform

Authors: A. Bara, D. Barkat

Abstract:

The liquid-liquid extraction of copper (II) from aqueous solution by capric acid (HL) in chloroform at 25°C has been studied. The ionic strength effect of the aqueous phase shows that the extraction of copper(II) increases with the increase in ionic strength. with different ionic strengths 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.1M in the aqueous phase. Cu (II) is extracted as the complex CuL2(ClO4).

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, ionic strength, copper (II), capric acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
4897 Heteromolecular Structure Formation in Aqueous Solutions of Ethanol, Tetrahydrofuran and Dimethylformamide

Authors: Sh. Gofurov, O. Ismailova, U. Makhmanov, A. Kokhkharov

Abstract:

The refractometric method has been used to determine optical properties of concentration features of aqueous solutions of ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide at the room temperature. Changes in dielectric permittivity of aqueous solutions of ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide in a wide range of concentrations (0÷1.0 molar fraction) have been studied using molecular dynamics method. The curves depending on the concentration of experimental data on excess refractive indices and excess dielectric permittivity were compared. It has been shown that stable heteromolecular complexes in binary solutions are formed in the concentration range of 0.3÷0.4 mole fractions. The real and complex part of dielectric permittivity was obtained from dipole-dipole autocorrelation functions of molecules. At the concentrations of C = 0.3 / 0.4 m.f. the heteromolecular structures with hydrogen bonds are formed. This is confirmed by the extremum values of excessive dielectric permittivity and excessive refractive index of aqueous solutions.

Keywords: refractometric method, aqueous solution, molecular dynamics, dielectric constant

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
4896 Sorption of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution by Surfactant-Modified Bentonite: Kinetic and Factorial Design Study

Authors: B. Guezzen, M. A. Didi, B. Medjahed

Abstract:

An organoclay (HDTMA-B) was prepared from sodium bentonite (Na-B). The starting material was modified using the hexadecyltrimethylammonium ion (HDTMA+) in the amounts corresponding to 100 % of the CEC value. Batch experiments were carried out in order to model and optimize the sorption of Congo red dye from aqueous solution. The pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models have been developed to predict the rate constant and the sorption capacity at equilibrium with the effect of temperature, the solid/solution ratio and the initial dye concentration. The equilibrium time was reached within 60 min. At room temperature (20 °C), optimum dye sorption of 49.4 mg/g (98.9%) was achieved at pH 6.6, sorbent dosage of 1g/L and initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, using surfactant modified bentonite. The optimization of adsorption parameters mentioned above on dye removal was carried out using Box-Behnken design. The sorption parameters were analyzed statistically by means of variance analysis by using the Statgraphics Centurion XVI software.

Keywords: adsorption, dye, factorial design, kinetic, organo-bentonite

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
4895 Catalytic Degradation of Tetracycline in Aqueous Solution by Magnetic Ore Pyrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Allah Bakhsh Javid, Ali Mashayekh-Salehi, Fatemeh Davardoost

Abstract:

This study presents the preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of a novel natural mineral-based catalyst for destructive adsorption of tetracycline (TTC) as water emerging compounds. Degradation potential of raw and calcined magnetite catalyst was evaluated at different experiments situations such as pH, catalyst dose, reaction time and pollutant concentration. Calcined magnetite attained greater catalytic potential than the raw ore in the degradation of tetracycline, around 69% versus 3% at reaction time of 30 min and TTC aqueous solution of 50 mg/L, respectively. Complete removal of TTC could be obtained using 2 g/L calcined nanoparticles at reaction time of 60 min. The removal of TTC increased with the increase in solution temperature. Accordingly, considering its abundance in nature together with its very high catalytic potential, calcined pyrite is a promising and reliable catalytic material for destructive decomposition for catalytic decomposition and mineralization of such pharmaceutical compounds as TTC in water and wastewater.

Keywords: catalytic degradation, tetracycline, pyrite, emerging pollutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
4894 Preconcentration and Determination of Cyproheptadine in Biological Samples by Hollow Fiber Liquid Phase Microextraction Coupled with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Sh. Najari Moghadam, M. Qomi, F. Raofie, J. Khadiv

Abstract:

In this study, a liquid phase microextraction by hollow fiber (HF-LPME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detector was applied to preconcentrate and determine trace levels of Cyproheptadine in human urine and plasma samples. Cyproheptadine was extracted from 10 mL alkaline aqueous solution (pH: 9.81) into an organic solvent (n-octnol) which was immobilized in the wall pores of a hollow fiber. Then, it was back-extracted into an acidified aqueous solution (pH: 2.59) located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. This method is simple, efficient and cost-effective. It is based on pH gradient and differences between two aqueous phases. In order to optimize the HF-LPME, some affecting parameters including the pH of donor and acceptor phases, the type of organic solvent, ionic strength, stirring rate, extraction time and temperature were studied and optimized. Under optimal conditions enrichment factor, limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD(%), n=3) were up to 112, 15 μg.L−1 and 2.7, respectively.

Keywords: biological samples, cyproheptadine, hollow fiber, liquid phase microextraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
4893 Application of Liquid Emulsion Membrane Technique for the Removal of Cadmium(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Aliquat 336 as a Carrier

Authors: B. Medjahed, M. A. Didi, B. Guezzen

Abstract:

In the present work, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique was applied for the extraction of cadmium(II) present in aqueous samples. Aliquat 336 (Chloride tri-N-octylmethylammonium) was used as carrier to extract cadmium(II). The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of various parameters affected the ELM formation and its stability and testing the performance of the prepared ELM on removal of cadmium by using synthetic solution with different concentrations. Experiments were conducted to optimize pH of the feed solution and it was found that cadmium(II) can be extracted at pH 6.5. The influence of the carrier concentration and treat ratio on the extraction process was investigated. The obtained results showed that the optimal values are respectively 3% (Aliquat 336) and a ratio (feed: emulsion) equal to 1:1.

Keywords: cadmium, carrier, emulsion liquid membrane, surfactant

Procedia PDF Downloads 193