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Search results for: thyroid function

3953 The Differences of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Serum to Determine Follicular Adenoma and Follicular Carcinoma of Thyroid

Authors: Tery Nehemia Nugraha Joseph, J. D. P. Wisnubroto

Abstract:

Thyroid cancer is a healthcare problem with high morbidity and mortality. Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are thyroid tumors from the thyroid follicular cells differentiation with a microfollicular pattern that consists of follicular cuboidal cells. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and powerful mitogen for endothelial cells and increases vascular permeability. Therefore, due to an increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), VEGF production is activated in the thyroid that leads to the end of mitogenic TSH stimulation and initiation of angiogenesis. The differences in VEGF levels in the follicular carcinoma of thyroid tissue with follicular adenoma thyroid can be used as a basis in differentiating the two types of neoplasms. This study aims to analyze VEGF in the serum so that it can be used to differentiate the types of thyroid carcinoma before surgery. This study uses a cross-sectional research design. Samples were carried out by taking serum samples, and the VEGF levels were calculated. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The results found a significant difference between VEGF levels in the follicular carcinoma thyroid group and VEGF levels in the follicular adenoma thyroid group with a value of p = 0.007 (p < 0.05). The results obtained are 560,427 ± 160,506 ng/mL in the type of follicular carcinoma thyroid and 320.943 ± 134.573 ng/mL in the type of follicular adenoma thyroid. VEGF levels between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are different. VEGF levels are higher in follicular carcinoma thyroid than follicular adenoma thyroid.

Keywords: follicular adenoma thyroid, follicular carcinoma thyroid, thyroid, VEGF

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3952 Weight Gain After Total Thyroidectomy

Authors: Yong Seong Kim, Seongbin Hong, So Hun Kim, Moonsuk Nam

Abstract:

Background: Patients who undergo thyroidectomy due to thyroid cancer often complain weight gain, although they are on suppressive thyroid hormone treatment. The aim of this study is to know whether thyroid cancer patients gain the weight after thyroidectomy and weight change is dependent on estrogen state or use of rhTSH. Material and Method: We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. Two hundred two patients who underwent total thyroidectomy were included. As a control group, patients with thyroid nodule and euthyroidism were matched for age, gender, menopausal status. The weight changes occurring over first one year and thyroid function were assessed. Results: Mean age was 51±12 years and patients was composed with 38% of premenopausal, 15 % perimenopausal women, 37% of postmenopausal women and 20% of men. Patients with thyroid cancer gained 2.2 kg during the first year. It’ was not significantly different with control. However, weigh change in perimenopausal and post menopausal women gained more weight than control (P <0.05). Age, baseline body weight and weight gain were not correlated. Discussion: Patient who had undergone thyroidectomy gained more weight than their control, especially in peri- and postmenopausal women. Patients in this age should be monitored for their weight carefully.

Keywords: weight gain, thyroidectomy, thyroid cancer, weight chance

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3951 Frequency and Factors Associated with Thyroid Dysfunction: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study from a Tertiary Care Center in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Naeem Lakanwall, Jamshid Abdul-Ghafar

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Background: Endocrinopathies are a commonly occurring entity, particularly those of the thyroid gland; however, there is a lack of scientific literature from Afghanistan, a country with very limited health care facilities and resources. To our best knowledge, this is the first study aimed to describe the frequency of occurrence and factors associated with thyroid dysfunction in the Afghan population. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency and to identify factors associated with thyroid dysfunction among individuals coming to a tertiary care facility in Kabul, Afghanistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to Sep 2018 at the Department of Clinical Pathology, French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (FMIC), Kabul, Afghanistan. Blood samples were obtained, serum TSH levels were analyzed, and the patients were divided into three diagnostic categories according to their serum TSH concentrations: 1) hypothyroidism, 2) hyperthyroidism, 3) normal. Results: A total of 127 individuals were included in the final analysis. The majority of study participants (77%) were females. A large number of the participants (92%) did not have a family history of thyroid dysfunction. 74% of the participants in the study had normal TSH levels classified as normal thyroid function, (14%) had lower TSH levels, and (12%) higher TSH levels, classified as hyper and hypothyroid, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of the current study showed a high frequency of thyroid dysfunctions from a single center. Further large-scale studies are needed to find out the prevalence and document this entity for better health outcomes in the country.

Keywords: Afghanistan, factors, frequency, hypothyroid, hyperthyroid, thyroid, thyroid stimulating hormone

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3950 Thyroid Malignancy Concurrent with Hyperthyroidism: Variations with Thyroid Status and Age

Authors: N. J. Nawarathna, N. R. Kmarasinghe, D. Chandrasekara, B. M. R. S. Balasooriya, R. A. A. Shaminda, R. J. K. Senevirathne

Abstract:

Introduction: Thyroid malignancy associated with hyperthyroidism is considered rare. Retrospective studies have shown the incidence of thyroid malignancy in hyperthyroid patients to be low (0.7-8.5%). To assess the clinical relevance of this association, thyroid status in a cohort of patients with thyroid malignancy were analyzed. Method: Thyroid malignancies diagnosed histologically in 56 patients, over a 18 month period beginning from April 2013, in a single surgical unit at Teaching Hospital Kandy were included. Preoperative patient details and progression of thyroid status were asessed with Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, free Thyroxin and free Triiodothyronine levels. Results: Amongst 56 patients Papillary carcinoma was diagnosed in 44(78.6%), follicular carcinomas in 7(12.5%) and 5(8.9%) with medullary and anaplastic carcinomas. 12(21.4%) were males and 44(78.6%) were females. 20(35.7%) were less than 40years, 29(51.8%) were between 40 to 59years and 7(12.5%) were above 59years. Cross tabulation of Type of carcinoma with Gender revealed likelihood ratio of 6.908, Significance p = 0.032. Biochemically 12(21.4%) were hyperthyroid. Out of them 5(41.7%) had primary hyperthyroidism and 7(58.3%) had secondary hyperthyroidism. Mean age of euthyroid patients was 43.77years (SD 10.574) and hyperthyroid patients was 53.25years(SD 16.057). Independent Samples Test t is -2.446, two tailed significance p =0.018. When cross tabulate thyroid status with Age group Likelihood Ratio was 9.640, Significance p = 0.008. Conclusion: Papillary carcinoma is seen more among females. Among the patients with thyroid carcinomas, those with biochemically proven hyperthyroidism were more among the older age group than those who were euthyroid. Hence careful evaluation of elderly hyperthyroid patients to select the most suitable therapeutic approach is justified.

Keywords: age, hyperthyroidism, thyroid malignancy, thyroid status

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3949 Effects of the Food Colour Erythrosine on Thyroid Gland Function in Experimental Rats

Authors: Maha M.Saber, Eitedal Daoud, Moetazza M. Alshafei, Lobna M. Abd El-Latif

Abstract:

Children in the third world consumes many food products colored red like sweets and soft drink without knowing its effect on health or the type of color used in these products Erythrosine (ER,FD & C Red No.3) is one of the most common coloring agent used in these products and in coloring cherry in compotes. The possible adverse effect of erythrosine ER on the thyroid gland function is investigated in albino rats. Forty-five adult male albino rats were divided to three groups two groups will receive ER orally in doses 68 and I36mg/kg respectively. Third group will receive distilled water for three months Sections of thyroid glands were examined for histopathological, morphometric analysis and MIB-I Ki67 (proliferative marker). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxin (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH) were determined, results showed histological changes in the two treatment groups versus control group in the group with 68mg/kg dose show vaculation of the cytoplasm of follicular cells and pleomorphism of their nuclei. While the other treated group {136mg /kg} showed congestion of blood vessels, hyperplasia of the interstitial cells and increased multilayer of the follicular cells. Highly significant increase in the mean area of the thyroid follicles in both treated groups compared to control group.Erythrosine treated groups showed a very highly significant decrease (P < 0.001) in serum concentration of T3 and T 4 while TSH showed a very highly significant increase versus control.

Keywords: erythrosine, thyroid, morphometrics, proliferative marker

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3948 Thyroid Hormones and Thyrotropin Status in Nepalese Postmenopausal Women

Authors: S. A. Khan, B. Mishra, O. Sherchan

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Background and Aims: Thyroid disorder is the most common endocrine disorder after diabetes mellitus. Females are more vulnerable to this disease, and old age is an important risk factor. This study was undertaken to investigate the burden of thyroid disorder in Nepalese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, we included 271 post-menopausal women. Three ml of blood was collected following standard protocol after taking the written consent. Serum was separated and analyzed for free T3, free T4, and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) by Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) method in Snibe Maglumi 1000 analyzer. Data obtained was analyzed in SPSS Version 21. P < 0.05 was set for statistical significant at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results: Majority of the participants belong to Janjati (46.5%) ethnicity, followed by Brahmin/Chhetri (41.7%), residing either in urban or suburban locality. Most of them were non-vegetarian, non-smoker, and non-alcoholic. Subjects were divided into hyperthyroid (TSH < 0.3 uIU/ml), hypothyroid (TSH > 4.5 uIU/ml), and euthyroid (TSH=0.3-4.5 uIU/ml) based on TSH value. We reported 10.3% hyperthyroid and 29.2% hypothyroid cases. TSH was significantly correlated with T3 (r=-0.244; p < 0.001) T4 (r=-0.398; p < 0.001); age (r=-0.138; p=0.023) and BMI (r=0.123; p=0.043). Multiple linear regression model for TSH reveals only T3 and T4 were significantly associated with TSH (p < 0.001; p=0.001). Conclusion: To conclude, nearly 39.5% of the postmenopausal women had thyroid disorder. Postmenopausal women are vulnerable to thyroid disorder; therefore, requires regular thyroid monitoring.

Keywords: thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH, T3, T4, thyroid disorder

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3947 Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Hemodialysis

Authors: Benghezel Hichem

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Thyroid dysfunction in hemodialysis subjects is represented mainly by hypothyroidism. The objective of our work is to determine the thyroid profile of our hemodialysis patients and to highlight the prevalence of different thyroid disorders. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed on a mono centric 2 months (February and March 2013) on 42 hemodialysis patients (11 male and 31 female). We made the dosage of thyroid hormones Thyrotropin (TSH) ((free thyroxin ) FT4 and free Triodothyronin ) FT3) by chemiluminescence immunoassay method on cobas 6000 Roche Diagnostics. The results: The prevalence of biological hypothyroidism was 18% (7% with a high TSH isolated and a mean +/- SD 9.44 +/- 6.29, 5% with high TSH, and with low FT4 a mean +/- SD is 8.18 +/- 0.53 for TSH and 9.69 +/- 0.22 for FT4, One patient with a high TSH, and low FT4, FT3. 4% of patients with a low T3 syndrome with a mean +/- SD of 3.93 +/- 0,3 for FT3), we notice that 5% of patients with hyperthyroidism TSH collapsed and mean +/- SD of TSH is 0.017 +/- 0,001. Conclusion: The biological Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder in chronic hemodialysis.

Keywords: hypothyroidism, hemodialysis, thyréostimulin, free thyroxin, triodothyronin

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3946 Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Hypothyroidism Activity of Lepidium sativum Ethanolic Extract

Authors: Reham Hajomer, Ikram Elsiddig, Amna Hamad

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Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress) belonging to Brassicaceae family is an annual herb locally known as El-rshad. In Ayurveda it is an important medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice, liver problems, spleen diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, menstrual problems, fracture, arthritis, inflammatory conditions and for treatment of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones (Triiodithyronine T3 and Thyroxine T4) which are commonly caused by iodine deficiency. It’s divided into primary and secondary hypothyroidism, the primary caused by failure of thyroid function and secondary due to the failure of adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the pituitary gland or thyroid -releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus. The disease is most common in women over age 60. The objective regarding this study is to know whether Lepidium sativum would affect the level of thyroid hormones. The extract was prepared with 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The anti-hypothyroidism activity was tested by using thirty male Wistar rats weighing (100-140 g) were used in the experiment. They were grouping into five groups, Group 1: Normal group= Administered only distilled water. Then 10 mg/kg Propylthiouracil was added to the drinking water of all other groups to induce hypothyroidism. Group 2: Negative control without any treatment; Group 3: Test group= treated with oral administration of 500mg/kg extract; Group 4: treated with oral administration of 250mg/kg of the extract; Group 5: Standard group (positive control) = treated with intraperitoneal Levothyroxine. All rats were incubated for 20 days at animal house with room temperature of proper ventilation provided with standard diet. The result show that the Lepidium sativum extract was found to increases the T3 and T4 in the propylthiouracil induced rats with values (0.29 ng/dl T3 and 0.57 U T4) for the 500mg/kg and (0.27 ng/dl T3 and 0.517 U T4) for the 250mg/kg in comparison with standard with values (0.241 ng/dl T3 and 0.516 U T4) so that Lepidium sativum can be stimulatory to thyroid function and possess significant anti-hypothyroidism effect with p-values ranges from (0.000006*-0.893472). In conclusion, from results obtained, Lepidium sativum plant extract was found to posses anti-hypothyroidism effects so its act as an agent that stimulates thyroid hormone secretion.

Keywords: anti-hypothyroidism, extract, lepidium, sativum

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3945 Study on the Effect Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extracts on Rat Liver Injuries Induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

Authors: Asmaa F. Hamouda, Randa M Shrourou

Abstract:

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) constitute apportion of regular human diet. The effect of Cabbage(CE) and Ginger extracts(GE) separately on liver nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(T.G), high density lipoprotein(HDL cholesterol), low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) in rats treated and untreated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was studied. The levels of NO, MDA, as well as serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, TC, T.G, LDLand TSH showed an elevation and decline in HDL, T3, and T4 in rats treated with CCl4 as compared to control. Treatment of rats with GE pre, during, and post CCl4 administration improved NO, MDA, as well as serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, TC, T.G, HDL, LDL, TSH, T3, T4 as compared to CCl4, indicates that GE improve thyroid function and reduced oxidative stress as well as injuries induced by CCl4. Treatment of rats with CE pre, during, and post CCl4 administration did not improved in the thyroid hormones and lipid profile levels as compared to CCl4. These findings suggest that ginger treatment exerts a protective effect on metabolic disorders by decreasing oxidative stress.

Keywords: liver injuries, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), ginger (Zingiber officinale), thyroid function

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3944 Prevalence of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Authors: Arghavan Tonkaboni, Shamsolmolouk Najafi, Mohmmad Taghi Kiani, Mehrzad Gholampour, Touraj Goli

Abstract:

Introduction: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a multifactorial recurrent oral lesion; which is an autoimmune disease. TH1 cytokines are the most important etiological factors. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases and generally coexists with other autoimmune diseases. This study assessed the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods: This case control study assessed 100 known RAS patients who were diagnosed clinically by oral medicine specialists; venous blood samples were analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total thyroxine (fT4), thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-TG) levels. Results: Fifty patients with RAS aged between 18-42 years (28.5±5.8) and 50 healthy volunteers aged 19-45 years (27.3±5.4) participated. In RAS patients, fT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher (P=0.031, P=0.706); however, fT4 level was lower in the RAS group (P=0.447). Anti TG and anti-TPO levels were significantly higher in the RAS group (P=0.008, P=0.067). Conclusion: Our study showed that ATD prevalence was significantly higher in RAS patients. Based on this study, we recommend assessment of thyroid hormones and antibodies in RAS patients.

Keywords: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, thyroid antibodies, thyroid hormone, thyroid autoimmune disease

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3943 Evaluation of Prevalence of the Types of Thyroid Disorders Using Ultrasound and Pathology of One-Humped Camel in Iran: Camelus dromedarius

Authors: M. Yadegari

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The thyroid gland is the largest classic endocrine organ that effects many organs of the body and plays a significant role in the process of Metabolism in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid disorders diagnosed by ultrasound and microscopic Lesions of the thyroid during the slaughter of apparently healthy One Humped Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran. Randomly, 520 male camels (With an age range of 4 to 8 years), were studied in 2012 to 2013. The Camels’ thyroid glands were evaluated by sonographic examination. In both longitudinal and transverse view and then tissue sections were provide and stained with H & E and finally examined by light microscopy. The results obtained indicated the following: hyperplastic goiter (21%), degenerative changes (12%), follicular cysts (8%), follicular atrophy (4%), nodular hyperplasia (3%), adenoma (1%), carcinoma (1%) and simple goiter colloid (1%). Ultrasound evaluation of thyroid gland in adenoma and carcinoma showed enlargement and irregular of the gland, decreased echogenicity, and the heterogeneous thyroid parenchyma. Also, in follicular cysts were observed in the enlarged gland with no echo structures of different sizes and decreased echogenicity as a local or general. In nodular hyperplasia, increase echogenicity and heterogeneous parenchymal were seen. These findings suggest the use of Ultrasound as a screening test in the diagnosis of complications of thyroid disorders. Pathology also to be used for the diagnosis of thyroid problems and other side effects.

Keywords: thyroid gland, one humped camel, sonography, pathology

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3942 The Proportion of and Factors Associated With Thyroid Dysfunction among Individuals Referred To A Tertiary Care Facility in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Naeem Lakanwall

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Background:The thyroid gland, located just below the vocal cord on each side of and anterior to the trachea, is one of the main endocrine glands. Its normal weight is 15 to 20 grams in adults. The thyroid secretes two most important hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, usually called T4 and T3, respectively. These hormones greatly increase the metabolic rate of the body. In addition to T3 and T4, the thyroid gland secrets calcitonin as well which is a significant hormone for calcium metabolism. Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate the proportion of and to identify factors associated with thyroid dysfunction among individuals coming to a tertiary care facility in Kabul, Afghanistan. Material and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study design was conducted from July to Sep 2018. Blood samples were obtained, serum TSH levels were measured, and the patients were divided into three diagnostic categories according to their serum TSH concentrations. 1) Hypothyroidism 2) Hyperthyroidism 3) Normal thyroid Results: A total of 127 individuals were part of the sample for the final analysis. The majority of study participants (77%) were females. A large number of the participants (92%) did not have a family history of thyroid dysfunction and the majority of the female participants, (85%) were not pregnant in the last two years. Furthermore, 98% of participants, were non-smokers. Conclusion: The findings of the current study showed a high prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in individuals coming to FMIC for thyroid functions tests. The findings also indicated that aging and smoking are the factors associated with thyroid dysfunctions. Further studies are needed to find out the prevalence of and factors associated with thyroid dysfunctions.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Kabul, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, triiodothyronine, thyroxine

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3941 Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Presenting with Solitary Bony Metastases to the Frontal Bone of the Skull

Authors: Christy M. Moen, Richard B. Townsley

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Introduction: Metastasis to the frontal bone in thyroid cancer is extremely rare. A literature review found only six cases of thyroid cancer that metastasised to the frontal bone, with two of those involving further bone sites. Case Report: The patient was originally referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery team with an isolated mass on her forehead. Biopsies were performed, which showed this was likely a metastatic deposit from thyroid cancer. CT-PET scan showed this was an isolated lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy, and the forehead lesion was managed with radiotherapy. On interval scanning, the patient’s bony lesion had increased in size and had new lung nodules, which likely represented further metastasis. Conclusion: Isolated bony metastases to the frontal bone are rare. An important clinical principle to remember is that a bony metastasis from an unknown primary is more likely than primary bone cancer.

Keywords: cancer, thyroid, head and neck, surgery

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3940 Stability Analysis for an Extended Model of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

Authors: Beata Jackowska-Zduniak

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We formulate and analyze a mathematical model describing dynamics of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid homoeostatic mechanism in endocrine system. We introduce to this system two types of couplings and delay. In our model, feedback controls the secretion of thyroid hormones and delay reflects time lags required for transportation of the hormones. The influence of delayed feedback on the stability behaviour of the system is discussed. Analytical results are illustrated by numerical examples of the model dynamics. This system of equations describes normal activity of the thyroid and also a couple of types of malfunctions (e.g. hyperthyroidism).

Keywords: mathematical modeling, ordinary differential equations, endocrine system, delay differential equation

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3939 Evaluation and Association of Thyroid Function Tests with Liver Function Parameters LDL and LDH Level Before and after I131 Therapy

Authors: Sabika Rafiq, Rubaida Mehmood, Sajid Hussain, Atia Iqbal

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Background and objectives: The pathogenesis of liver function abnormalities and cardiac dysfunction in hyperthyroid patients after I131 treatment is still unclear. This study aimed to determine the effects of radioiodine I131 on liver function parameters, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) before and after I131 therapy hyperthyroidism patients. Material & Methods: A total of 52 patients of hyperthyroidism recommended for I131were involved in this study with ages ranging from 12–65 years (mean age=38.6±14.8 & BMI=11.5±3.7). The significance of the differences between the results of 1st, 2nd and 3rd-time serum analysis was assessed by unpaired student’s t-test. Associations between the parameters were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. Results: Significant variations were observed for thyroid profile free FT3 (p=0.04), FT4 (p=0.01), TSH (p=0.005) during the follow-up treatment. Before taking I131 (serum analyzed at 1st time), negative correlation of FT3 with AST (r=-0.458, p=0.032) and LDL (r=-0.454, p=0.039) were observed. During 2nd time (after stopping carbimazole), no correlation was assessed. Two months after the administration of I131 drops, a significant negative association of FT3 (r=-0.62, p=0.04) and FT4(r=-0.61, p=0.02) with ALB were observed. FT3(r=-0.82, p=0.00) & FT4 (r=-0.71, p=0.00) also showed negative correlation with LDL after I131 therapy. Whereas TSH showed significant positive association with ALB (r=0.61, p=0.01) and LDL (r=0.70, p=0.00) respectively. Conclusion: Current findings suggested that the association of TFTs with biochemical parameters in patients with goiter recommended for iodine therapy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. The significant changes increased in transaminases and low-density lipoprotein levels after taking I131drops are alarming signs for heart and liver function abnormalities and warrant physicians' attention on an urgent basis.

Keywords: hyperthyroidism, carbimazole, radioiodine I131, liver functions, low-density lipoprotein

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3938 Clinical Implication of Hyper-Intense Signal Thyroid Incidentaloma on Time of Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography

Authors: Inseon Ryoo, Soo Chin Kim, Hyena Jung, Sangil Suh

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Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of hyper-intense signal thyroid incidentalomas on the time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) using correlation study with ultrasound (US). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 3,505 non-contrast TOF-MRA performed at an institution between September 2014 and May 2017. Two radiologists correlated the thyroid incidentalomas detected on TOF-MRA with US features which was obtained within three months interval between MRA and US examinations in consensus method. Results: The prevalence of hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules incidentally detected on TOF-MRA was 1.2% (43/3505). Among them, 35 people (81.4%) underwent US examinations, and total 45 hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules were detected on US exams. Of these 45 nodules, 35 nodules (72.9%) were categorized as benign (K-TIRADS category 2) on US exams. Fine needle aspiration was performed on 9 nodules according to the indications recommended by Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology. All except one high-suspicious thyroid nodule were confirmed as benign (Bethesda 2) on cytologic exams. One high-suspicious nodule on US showed a non-diagnostic result (Bethesda 1) on cytologic exam. However, this nodule collapsed after aspiration of thick colloid material. Conclusions: Our study showed that the most hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules detected on TOF-MRA were benign. Therefore, if a hyper-intense signal incidentaloma is found on TOF-MRA, further evaluation, especially invasive biopsy of the nodules could be suspended unless the patient had other symptoms or clinical factors suggesting the need for further evaluation.

Keywords: incidentaloma, thyroid nodule, TOF MR angiography, ultrasound

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3937 Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

Authors: Biswabandhu Bankura, Srikanta Guria, Madhusudan Das

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Purpose: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. Methods: 200 hypothyroid patients (case) and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control) were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14) was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Results: Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. Key Findings: The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

Keywords: thyroid peroxidase, hypothyroidism, mutation, in vitro assay, transfection

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3936 Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

Authors: Biswabandhu Bankura, Srikanta Guria, Madhusudan Das

Abstract:

Purpose: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. Methods: 200 hypothyroid patients (case) and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control) were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14) was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Results: Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. Key Findings: The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

Keywords: thyroid peroxidase, hypothyroidism, mutation, in vitro assay, transfection

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3935 Revalidation and Hormonization of Existing IFCC Standardized Hepatic, Cardiac, and Thyroid Function Tests by Precison Optimization and External Quality Assurance Programs

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam

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Revalidating and harmonizing clinical chemistry analytical principles and optimizing methods through quality control programs and assessments is the preeminent means to attain optimal outcome within the clinical laboratory services. Present study reports revalidation of our existing IFCC regularized analytical methods, particularly hepatic and thyroid function tests, by optimization of precision analyses and processing through external and internal quality assessments and regression determination. Parametric components of hepatic (Bilirubin ALT, γGT, ALP), cardiac (LDH, AST, Trop I) and thyroid/pituitary (T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4) function tests were used to validate analytical techniques on automated chemistry and immunological analyzers namely Hitachi 912, Cobas 6000 e601, Cobas c501, Cobas e411 with UV kinetic, colorimetric dry chemistry principles and Electro-Chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLi) techniques. Process of validation and revalidation was completed with evaluating and assessing the precision analyzed Preci-control data of various instruments plotting against each other with regression analyses R2. Results showed that: Revalidation and optimization of respective parameters that were accredited through CAP, CLSI and NEQAPP assessments depicted 99.0% to 99.8% optimization, in addition to the methodology and instruments used for analyses. Regression R2 analysis of BilT was 0.996, whereas that of ALT, ALP, γGT, LDH, AST, Trop I, T3, T4, TSH, FT3, and FT4 exhibited R2 0.998, 0.997, 0.993, 0.967, 0.970, 0.980, 0.976, 0.996, 0.997, 0.997, and R2 0.990, respectively. This confirmed marked harmonization of analytical methods and instrumentations thus revalidating optimized precision standardization as per IFCC recommended guidelines. It is concluded that practices of revalidating and harmonizing the existing or any new services should be followed by all clinical laboratories, especially those associated with tertiary care hospital. This is will ensure deliverance of standardized, proficiency tested, optimized services for prompt and better patient care that will guarantee maximum patients’ confidence.

Keywords: revalidation, standardized, IFCC, CAP, harmonized

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3934 Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with an Interval of 40 Years. Report of an Autopsy Case

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

Abstract:

A 75-year-old woman took thyroidectomy forty years previously. Enlarged masses were seen at autopsy just above and below the left clavicle. We proved the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and lung metastasis by histological examinations. The prognosis of PTC is excellent; the 10-year survival rate ranges between 85 and 99%. Lung metastases may be found in 10% of the patients with PTC. We report an unusual case of recurrence of PTC with metastasis to the lung.

Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer, lung metastasis, autopsy, histopathological findings

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3933 A Four-Year Study of Thyroid Carcinoma in Hail Region: Increased Incidence

Authors: Laila Seada, Hanan Oreiby, Fawaz Al Rashid, Ashraf Negm

Abstract:

Background and Objective: In most areas of the world, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing over the last decade, mostly due to a combination of early detection of the neoplasm resulting from sensitive procedures and increased population exposure to radiation and unrecognized carcinogens. Methods: Cases of thyroid cancer have been retrieved from the cancer registry at King Khalid Hospital during the period from August 2012 to April 2016. Age, gender and histopathologic types have been recorded. Results: Thyroid carcinoma ranked as the second most common malignancy in females (25%) after breast cancer (31%). It constituted 20.8% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases. As for males, it ranked the 4th type of malignancy after gastrointestinal cancer, lymphomas and soft tissue sarcomas. Mean age for females and males was 38.7 +/- 13.2 and 60.25 +/- 11.5 years, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p value = 0.0001). Fifty-five (82%) were papillary carcinomas including 10 follicular variant of papillary (FVPC), and eight papillary micro carcinomas (PMC) and two tall cell/oncocytic variants. Follicular carcinomas constituted two (3.1%), while two (3.1%) were anaplastic, and two (3.1%) were medullary. Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence in Hail is ranking as the 2nd most common female malignancy similar to other regions in the Kingdom. However, this high incidence contrasts with much lower rates worldwide.

Keywords: thyroid, hail, papillary, microcarcinoma

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3932 Evaluation of Existence of Antithyroid Antibodies, Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase and Anti-Thyroglobulin in Patients with Hepatitis C Viral Infections

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Sana Anwar, Sarah Sughra Asghar

Abstract:

Chronic hepatitis or Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has been identified as one of the factors that could elicit autoimmune disease resulting in the development of auto-antibodies. Furthermore, HCV is implicated in contravening of forbearance to antigens, therefore, inciting auto-reactivity. In this regard, several near and past studies noted the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and production of anti-thyroid antibodies (ATAb) such as anti-thyroid peroxidase (AntiTPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (AntiTG) in patients with HCV. Likewise, one of the etiologies of augmentation of thyroid disease is basically interferon therapy for HCV infections, for which a number of autoimmune diseases have been noted including Grave’s disease, Hishimoto thyroiditis. A prospectively case-control study was therefore carried out at department of clinical biochemistry lab services and chemical pathology in collaboration with department of clinical microbiology, at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi Pakistan for the period January 2015 to December 2017. Two control groups were inducted for comparison purpose, control group 1 = without HCV infection and with thyroid disorders (n = 20), control group 2 = with HCV infection and without thyroid disorders (n = 20), whereas HCV infected were n = 40 where more than half were noted to be positive for either of HCV IgG and Ag. In HCV group, patients with existing sub-clinical hypothyroidism and clinical hyperthyroidism were less than 5%. Analysis showed the presence of AntiTG in 12 HCV patients (30%), AntiTPO in 15 (37.5%) and both AntiTG and antiTPO in 10 patients (25%). Only 3 patients were found with the history of anti-thyroid auto-antibodies (7.5%) and one with parents and relatives with auto-immune disorders (2.5%). Patients that remained untreated were 12 (30%), under treatment 18 (45%) and with complete-course of treatment 10 (25%). As per review of the literature, meta-analysis of evident data and cross-sectional studies of selective cohorts (as studied in presented research), thyroid connection is designated as one of the most recurrent endocrine ailment associated with chronic HCV infection. Moreover, it also represents an extrahepatic disease in the continuum of HCV syndrome. In conclusion, HCV patients were more likely to encompass thyroid disorders especially related to development of either of ATAb or both antiTG and AntiTPO.

Keywords: Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection, anti-thyroid antibodies, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies

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3931 Chronic Pesticides Exposure and Certain Endocrine Functions Among Farmers in East Almnaif District, Ismailia, Egypt

Authors: Amani Waheed, Mostafa Kofi, Shaymaa Attia, Soha Younis, Basma Abdel Hadi

Abstract:

Background: Exposure to pesticides is one of the most important occupational risks among farmers in developing countries. Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. Objective: To investigate thyroid and reproductive hormones and fasting blood glucose levels among farmers chronically exposed to pesticide from East Almnaif district, Ismailia governorate. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 farmers with active involvement pesticides handling and 43 participants not occupationally exposed to pesticides as the control group. A structured interview questionnaire measuring the sociodemographic characteristics, pesticides exposure characteristics, and safety measures was used. General examination including measurements of height, weight, and blood pressure was done. Moreover, levels of plasma cholinesterase enzyme (PChE), glucose, as well as reproductive and thyroid hormones (TSH, T4, and testosterone) were determined. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between both groups regarding their age, educational level, smoking status, and body mass index. The mean duration of exposure was 20.60 11.06 years. Majority of farmers (76.7%) did not use any personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticides handling. The mean systolic blood pressure among exposed farmers was greater (134.88 17.18 mm Hg) compared to control group (125 14.69 mm Hg) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.003). The mean diastolic blood pressure was higher (84.02 8.69 mm Hg) compared to control group (78.79 8.98 mm Hg) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.006). The pesticide exposed farmers had statistically significant lower level of PChE (3969.93 1841U/L) than control group (4879.29 1950.08 U/L). Additionally, TSH level was significantly higher in exposed farmers (median =1.39µIU/ml) compared to controls (median = 0.91 µIU/ml) (p=0.032). While, the exposed group had a lower T4 level (6.91 1.91 µg/dl) compared to the control group (7.79 2.10µg/dl), with the statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.045). The exposed group had significantly lower level of testosterone hormone (median=3.37 ng/ml) compared to the control group (median= 6.22 ng/ml) (p=0.003). While, the exposed farmers had statistically insignificant higher level of fasting blood glucose (median =89 mg/dl) than the controls (median=88 mg/dl). Furthermore, farmers who did not use PPE had statistically significant lower level of T4 (6.57 1.81µg/dl) than farmers who used PPE during handling of pesticides (8.01 1.89 µg/dl). Conclusion: Chronic exposure to pesticides exerts disturbing action on reproductive function and thyroid function of the male farmers.

Keywords: chronic occupational pesticide exposure, Diabetes mellitus, male reproductive hormones, thyroid function

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3930 THRAP2 Gene Identified as a Candidate Susceptibility Gene of Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases Pedigree in Tunisian Population

Authors: Ghazi Chabchoub, Mouna Feki, Mohamed Abid, Hammadi Ayadi

Abstract:

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), including Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), are inherited as complex traits. Genetic factors associated with AITDs have been tentatively identified by candidate gene and genome scanning approaches. We analysed three intragenic microsatellite markers in the thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 2 gene (THRAP2), mapped near D12S79 marker, which have a potential role in immune function and inflammation [THRAP2-1(TG)n, THRAP2-2 (AC)n and THRAP2-3 (AC)n]. Our study population concerned 12 patients affected with AITDs belonging to a multiplex Tunisian family with high prevalence of AITDs. Fluorescent genotyping was carried out on ABI 3100 sequencers (Applied Biosystems USA) with the use of GENESCAN for semi-automated fragment sizing and GENOTYPER peak-calling software. Statistical analysis was performed using the non parametric Lod score (NPL) by Merlin software. Merlin outputs non-parametric NPLall (Z) and LOD scores and their corresponding asymptotic P values. The analysis for three intragenic markers in the THRAP2 gene revealed strong evidence for linkage (NPL=3.68, P=0.00012). Our results suggested the possible role of THRAP2 gene in AITDs susceptibility in this family.

Keywords: autoimmunity, autoimmune disease, genetic, linkage analysis

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3929 The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function

Authors: Nur Rokhman

Abstract:

A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.

Keywords: Secton method, interpolation, non linear function, numerical solution

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3928 Hyperthyroidism in a Private Medical Services Center, Addis Ababa: A 5-Year Experience

Authors: Ersumo Tessema, Bogale Girmaye Tamrat, Mohammed Burka

Abstract:

Background: Hyperthyroidism is a common thyroid disorder especially in women and characterized by increased thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. The disorder manifests predominantly as Graves’ disease in iodine-sufficient areas and has increasing prevalence in iodine-deficient countries in patients with nodular thyroid disease and following iodine fortification. In Ethiopia, the magnitude of the disorder is unknown and, in Africa, due to scarcity of resources, its management remains suboptimal. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern and management of patients with hyperthyroidism at the United Vision Medical Services Center, Addis Ababa between August 30, 2013, and February 1, 2018. Patients and methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of medical records of all patients with hyperthyroidism at the United Vision Private Medical Services Center, Addis Ababa. A questionnaire was filled out; the collected data entered into a computer and statistically analyzed using the SPSS package. The results were tabulated and discussed with literature review. Results: A total of 589 patients were included in this study. The median age was 40 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.0:7.9. Most patients (93%) presented with goiter and the associated features of toxic goiter except weight loss, sweating and tachycardia were uncommon. Majority of patients presented more than two years after the onset of their presenting symptoms. The most common physical finding (91%), as well as diagnosis, was toxic nodular goiter. The most frequent (83%) derangement in the thyroid function tests was a low thyroid-stimulating hormone, and the most commonly (94%) used antithyroid drug was a propylthiouracil. The most common (96%) surgical procedure in 213 patients was a near-total thyroidectomy with a postoperative course without incident in 92% of all the patients. Conclusion: The incidence and prevalence of hyperthyroidism are apparently on the increase in Addis Ababa, which may be related to the existing severe iodine-deficiency and or the salt iodation program (iodine-induced hyperthyroidism). Hyperthyroidism predominantly affects women and, in surgical services, toxic nodular goiter is more common than diffuse goiter, and the treatment of choice in experienced hands is a near-total thyroidectomy.

Keywords: Ethiopia, grave’s disease, hyperthyroidism, toxic nodular goiter

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3927 Early Hypothyroidism after Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Authors: Nejla Fourati, Zied Fessi, Fatma Dhouib, Wicem Siala, Leila Farhat, Afef Khanfir, Wafa Mnejja, Jamel Daoud

Abstract:

Purpose: Radiation induced hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) ranged from 15% to 55%. In reported data, it is considered as a common late complication of definitive radiation and is mainly observed 2 years after the end of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of early hypothyroidism within 6 months after radiotherapy. Patients and methods: From June 2017 to February 2020, 35 patients treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCR) for NPC were included in this prospective study. Median age was 49 years [23-68] with a sex ratio of 2.88. All patients received intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at a dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 daily fractions with weekly cisplatin (40mg/m²) chemotherapy. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and Free Thyroxine 4 (FT4) dosage was performed before the start of radiotherapy and 6 months after. Different dosimetric parameters for the thyroid gland were reported: the volume (cc); the mean dose (Dmean) and the %age of volume receiving more than 45 Gy (V45Gy). Wilcoxon Test was used to compare these different parameters between patients with or without hypothyroidism. Results: At baseline, 5 patients (14.3%) had hypothyroidism and were excluded from the analysis. For the remaining 30 patients, 9 patients (30%) developed a hypothyroidism 6 months after the end of radiotherapy. The median thyroid volume was 10.3 cc [4.6-23]. The median Dmean and V45Gy were 48.3 Gy [43.15-55.4] and 74.8 [38.2-97.9] respectively. No significant difference was noted for all studied parameters. Conclusion: Early hypothyroidism occurring within 6 months after CCR for NPC seems to be a common complication (30%) that should be screened. Good patient monitoring with regular dosage of TSH and FT4 makes it possible to treat hypothyroidism in asymptomatic phase. This would be correlated with an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. The results of our study do not show a correlation between the thyroid doses and the occurrence of hypothyroidism. This is probably related to the high doses received by the thyroid in our series. These findings encourage more optimization to limit thyroid doses and then the risk of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, hypothyroidism, early complication, thyroid dose

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3926 Development of a Bi-National Thyroid Cancer Clinical Quality Registry

Authors: Liane J. Ioannou, Jonathan Serpell, Joanne Dean, Cino Bendinelli, Jenny Gough, Dean Lisewski, Julie Miller, Win Meyer-Rochow, Stan Sidhu, Duncan Topliss, David Walters, John Zalcberg, Susannah Ahern

Abstract:

Background: The occurrence of thyroid cancer is increasing throughout the developed world, including Australia and New Zealand, and since the 1990s has become the fastest increasing malignancy. Following the success of a number of institutional databases that monitor outcomes after thyroid surgery, the Australian and New Zealand Endocrine Surgeons (ANZES) agreed to auspice the development of a bi-national thyroid cancer registry. Objectives: To establish a bi-national population-based clinical quality registry with the aim of monitoring and improving the quality of care provided to patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer in Australia and New Zealand. Patients and Methods: The Australian and New Zealand Thyroid Cancer Registry (ANZTCR) captures clinical data for all patients, over the age of 18 years, diagnosed with thyroid cancer, confirmed by histopathology report, that have been diagnosed, assessed or treated at a contributing hospital. Data is collected by endocrine surgeons using a web-based interface, REDCap, primarily via direct data entry. Results: A multi-disciplinary Steering Committee was formed, and with operational support from Monash University the ANZTCR was established in early 2017. The pilot phase of the registry is currently operating in Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia, with over 30 sites expected to come on board across Australia and New Zealand in 2018. A modified-Delphi process was undertaken to determine the key quality indicators to be reported by the registry, and a minimum dataset was developed comprising information regarding thyroid cancer diagnosis, pathology, surgery, and 30-day follow up. Conclusion: There are very few established thyroid cancer registries internationally, yet clinical quality registries have shown valuable outcomes and patient benefits in other cancers. The establishment of the ANZTCR provides the opportunity for Australia and New Zealand to further understand the current practice in the treatment of thyroid cancer and reasons for variation in outcomes. The engagement of endocrine surgeons in supporting this initiative is crucial. While the pilot registry has a focus on early clinical outcomes, it is anticipated that future collection of longer-term outcome data particularly for patients with the poor prognostic disease will add significant further value to the registry.

Keywords: thyroid cancer, clinical registry, population health, quality improvement

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3925 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb

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The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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3924 Hypocalcaemia Inducing Heart Failure: A Rare Presentation

Authors: A. Kherraf, M. Bouziane, L. Azzouzi, R. Habbal

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Introduction: Hypocalcaemia is a rare cause of heart failure. We report the clinical case of a young patient with reversible dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to hypocalcaemia in the context of hyperparathyroidism. Clinical case: We report the clinical case of a 23-year-old patient with a history of thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma 3 years previously, who presented to the emergency room with a progressive onset dyspnea and edema of the lower limbs. Clinical examination showed hypotension at 90/70 mmHg, tachycardia at 102 bpm, and edema of the lower limbs. The ECG showed a regular sinus rhythm with a prolonged corrected QT interval to 520ms. The chest x-ray showed cardiomegaly. Echocardiography revealed dilated cardiomyopathy with biventricular dysfunction and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 45%, as well as moderate mitral insufficiency by restriction of the posterior mitral leaflet, moderate tricuspid insufficiency, and a dilated inferior vena cava with a pulmonary arterial pressure estimated at 46 mmHg. Blood tests revealed severe hypocalcemia at 38 mg / l with normal albumin and thyroxine levels, as well as hyperphosphatemia and increased TSH. The patient received calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation and was treated with beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and diuretics with good progress and progressive normalization of cardiac function. Discussion: The cardiovascular manifestations of hypocalcaemia usually appear with deeply low serum calcium levels. This can lead to hypotension, arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation, prolonged QT interval, or even heart failure. Heart failure is a rare and serious complication of hypocalcemia but most often characterized by complete normalization of myocardial function after treatment. The etiology of the hypocalcaemia, in this case, was probably related to accidental parathyroid removal during thyroidectomy. This is why careful monitoring of calcium levels is recommended after surgery. Conclusion: Hypocalcemic heart failure is rare but reversible heart disease. Systematic monitoring of serum calcium should be performed in all patients after thyroid surgery to avoid any complications related to hypoparathyroidism.

Keywords: hypocalcemia, heart failure, thyroid surgery, hypoparathyroidism

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