Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: Awad G. Abdellatif

55 Camel Thorn Has Hepatoprotective Activity Against Carbon Tetrachloride or Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity but Enhances the Cardiac Toxicity of Adriamycin in Rodents

Authors: Mudafara Bengleil, Salmin Alshalmani, N. El Zuki, Awad G. Abdellatif, Huda M. Gargoum, Abdelkader A. Debani, Omran El Fitouri

Abstract:

In this study, the administration of 660 mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of the Alhgigraecorum (camel thorn) to mice, showed a significant decrease in the level of transaminases in animals treated with a combination of CTE plus carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or acetaminophen as compared to animals receiving CCl4 or acetaminophen alone. The histopathological investigation also confirmed that camel thorn extract protects the liver against damage-induced either by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen. On the other hand, the cardiac toxicity produced by adriamycin was significantly increased in the presence of the ethanolic extract of camel thorn. Our study suggested that camel thorn can protect the liver against the injury produced by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen, with an unexpected increase in the cardiac toxicity–induced by adriamycin in rodents.

Keywords: ethanolic, alhgigraecorum, tetrachloride, acetaminophen

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
54 Analgesic and Anti-inflammatoryactivities of Camel Thorn in Experimental Animals

Authors: Awad G. Abdellatif, Abdelkader H. El Debani, Huda Gargoum

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate analgesic and the anti-inflammatory effects Camel Thorn Extract (CTE) in rodents. Male albino mice weighing 20-25 gm. were divided into different groups each of 8 mice. The control was given normal saline i. p., the first group was given normal saline i. p. the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, groups received different doses of CTE (330, 660, and 1300 mg/kg) respectively and the 6th group received 5mg/kg of morphine i. p. All groups (except the control group) were given acetic acid 40 min after receiving the different treatment. The number of writhes was recorded 5 min after acetic acid injection for 15 min and the % of inhibition of writhing were calculated. Different groups of rats weighing 180- 220 gm., were divided into three groups each of 5 rats. At the beginning, the volumes of the right and left paw in animals were measured by using of the plethysmometer. The 1st group was given 660 mg /kg i. p. of CTE, the 2nd group received indomethacin (5 mg/kg i. p.). One hour later, edema was induced by sub planter injection of 0.1 ml of 1 % freshly prepared suspension of carrageenan into the right hind paws of the rats. The volume of the injected paws and contra-lateral paws were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours using plethysmometer. The volume of the left paw of the rat was subtracted from the volume of the right paw of the same animal. Our results showed that 330,660 and 1300 mg/kg produced 14, 49 and 84%of inhibition of writhes, indicating that CTE has a strong analgesic activity. Our data also showed that the % of inhibition of edema at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min was 14,51,71,61, and 56% in the animals given camel thorn extract whereas these figures in animals given endomethacin were 14, 24, 54, 52, and 54%. These results indicate that camel thorn has anti-inflammatory activities. The mechanism of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities needs further investigations.

Keywords: pharmaceutical medicine, camel thorn, imdomethacin, morphine

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
53 Medical Images Enhancement Using New Dynamic Band Pass Filter

Authors: Abdellatif Baba

Abstract:

In order to facilitate medical images analysis by improving their quality and readability, we present in this paper a new dynamic band pass filter as a general and suitable operator for different types of medical images. Our objective is to enrich the details of any treated medical image to make it sufficiently clear enough to give an understood and simplified meaning even for unspecialized people in the medical domain.

Keywords: medical image enhancement, dynamic band pass filter, analysis improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
52 The Effects of Integrating Knowledge Management and e-Learning: Productive Work and Learning Coverage

Authors: Ashraf Ibrahim Awad

Abstract:

It is important to formulate suitable learning environments ca-pable to be customized according to value perceptions of the university. In this paper, light is shed on the concepts of integration between knowledge management (KM), and e-learning (EL) in the higher education sector of the economy in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A discussion on and how KM and EL can be integrated and leveraged for effective education and training is presented. The results are derived from the literature and interviews with 16 of the academics in eight universities in the Emirate. The conclusion is that KM and EL have much to offer each other, but this is not yet reflected at the implementation level, and their boundaries are not always clear. Interviews have shown that both concepts perceived to be closely related and, responsibilities for these initiatives are practiced by different departments or units.

Keywords: e-Learning, Knowledge Management, Universities, UAE, learning integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
51 Used MATLAB Code to Study the Vehicle Bridge Coupling Vibration Based On the Method of Newmark-β

Authors: Saidi Abdelkrim, Hamouine Abdelmadjid, Abdellatif Megnounif

Abstract:

The study of interaction between vehicles and bridge structures has become extremely important. Large deflections and vibration induced by heavy and high-speed vehicles affect significantly the safety and efficiency of bridge. The vibration of a bridge caused by passage of vehicles is one of the most imperative considerations in the design of a bridge as a common sort of transportation structure. A major goal of this study is to create a simplified model of a vehicle bridge system in MATLAB. The model will then be used to study the influence of parameters to vehicle-bridge vibrations.

Keywords: vehicle-bridge interaction, Newmark-β, MATLAB code

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
50 Simple Fabrication of Au (111)-Like Electrode and Its Applications to Electrochemical Determination of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Zahrah Thamer Althagafi, Mohamed I. Awad

Abstract:

A simple method for the fabrication of Au (111)-like electrode via controlled reductive desorption of a pre-adsorbed cysteine monolayer onto polycrystalline gold (poly-Au) electrode is introduced. Then, the voltammetric behaviour of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the thus modified electrode is investigated. Electrochemical characterization of the modified electrode is achieved using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. For the binary mixture of DA and AA, the results showed that Au (111)-like electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and AA. This allows highly selective and simultaneous determination of DA and AA. The effect of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric responses of DA and AA was investigated. The enrichment of the Au (111) facet of the poly-Au electrode is thought to be behind the electrocatalytic activity.

Keywords: Self-Assembly, Electrocatalysis, Dopamine, Electroanalysis, ascorbic acid, gold electrode, monolayers, cysteine

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49 Cloud Effect on Power Generation of Grid-Connected Small PV Systems

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Ahmed Alsalaymeh, Iyad Muslih, Ali Alshduifat

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, mainly small scale, are rapidly being deployed in Jordan. The impact of these systems on the grid has not been studied or analyzed. These systems can cause many technical problems such as reverse power flows and voltage rises in distribution feeders, and real and reactive power transients that affect the operation of the transmission system. To fully understand and address these problems, extensive research, simulation, and case studies are required. To this end, this paper studies the cloud shadow effect on the power generation of a ground mounted PV system installed at the test field of the Renewable Energy Center at the Applied Science University.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, MPPT, cloud effect, power transients

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
48 The Effect of Street Dust on Urban Environment

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Essam A. Morsy, Said Munir, Abdulaziz R. Seroji, Abdel Hameed A. A. Awad, Atif M. F. Mohammed

Abstract:

Street dust has been knoweldged as an important source of air pollution. It does not remain deposited in a place for long, as it is easily resuspended back into the atmosphere. Street dust is a complex mixture derived from different sources: Deposited dust, traffic, tire, and brake wear, construction and demolition processes. The present study aims to evaluate the elementals ”iron, calcium, lead, cadmium, nickel, silicon, and selenium” and microbial “bacteria and fungi” contents associated street dust at the holy mosque areas. The street dust was collected by sweeping an arera~1m2 along the both sides of the road. The particles with diameter ≤ 1.7 µm constitued the highest percentages of the total particulate ≤45 µm. Moreover, The crustal species: iron and calcium were found in the highest concentrations, and proof that demolition and constricution were the main source of street dust. Also, the low biodiversity of microorganisms is attributed to severe weather conditions and characteristics of the arid environment.

Keywords: Microbial, Environment, Dust, street

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
47 Shade Effect on Photovoltaic Systems: A Comparison between String and Module-Based Solution

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Iyad M. Muslih

Abstract:

In general, shading will reduce the electrical power produced from PV modules and arrays in locations where shading is unavoidable or caused by dynamic moving parts. This reduction is based on the shade effect on the I-V curve of the PV module or array and how the DC/AC inverter can search and control the optimum value of power from this module or array configuration. This is a very complicated task due to different patterns of shaded PV modules and arrays. One solution presented by the inverter industry is to perform the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) at the module level rather than the series string level. This solution is supposed to reduce the shade effect on the total harvested energy. However, this isn’t necessarily the best solution to reduce the shade effect as will be shown in this study.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, MPPT, shade effect, I-V curve

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46 Recent Development of Materials for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)

Authors: Mohammed Jourdani, Hamid Mounir, Abdellatif El Marjani

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been developed as a promising power source for transportation and stationary applications, and power devices for computers and mobile telephones. This paper discusses and summarizes the latest developments of materials and remaining challenges of PEMFC. The different contributions to the material of all components and the efficiencies are analyzed. Many technical advances are introduced to increase the PEMFC fuel cell efficiency and life time for transportation, stationary and portable utilization. By the last years the total cost of this system is decreasing. However, the remaining challenges that need to be overcome mean that it will be several years before full commercialization can take place.

Keywords: Materials, Efficiency, life time, PEMFC fuel cell, recent development, commercialization possibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
45 Analysis and Treatment of Sewage Treatment Plant Wastewater of El-Karma, Oran

Authors: Larbi Hammadi, Abdellatif El Bari Tidjani

Abstract:

In order to reduce the flow of pollutants in the wastewater of the urban agglomerations of the city of Oran, a preliminary study was carried out at the El-Karma wastewater treatment plant. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the overall physicochemical pollution in the effluents of the El-Karma sewage treatment plant wastewater. It was found that the effluent of El-Karma wastewater treatment plant contains a significant amount of insoluble. Total suspended soli TSS concentrations ranged from 112 to 475 mg/l, with an average of 220.5 mg/l. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅) values remain within the reference range for domestic wastewater with an average value of COD < 125 and BOD₅ < 25. The COD/BOD₅ ratio of raw water entering the treatment plant is less than 2. This ratio would predict that the raw sewage from the El-Karma treatment plant is polluted by inorganic pollution strong enough.

Keywords: treatment, El-Karma wastewater, TSS concentrations, COD and BOD5, COD/BOD5 ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
44 Power Control of DFIG in WECS Using Backstipping and Sliding Mode Controller

Authors: Ahmed Essadki, Tamou Nasser, Ali Boukhriss, Abdellah Boualouch, Abdellatif Frigui

Abstract:

This paper presents a power control for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) using in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) connected to the grid. The proposed control strategy employs two nonlinear controllers, Backstipping (BSC) and sliding-mode controller (SMC) scheme to directly calculate the required rotor control voltage so as to eliminate the instantaneous errors of active and reactive powers. In this paper the advantages of BSC and SMC are presented, the performance and robustness of this two controller’s strategy are compared between them. First, we present a model of wind turbine and DFIG machine, then a synthesis of the controllers and their application in the DFIG power control. Simulation results on a 1.5MW grid-connected DFIG system are provided by MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Power Control, DFIG, backstipping, sliding-mode, WESC

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43 A Double Acceptance Sampling Plan for Truncated Life Test Having Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution

Authors: A. D. Abdellatif, A. N. Ahmed, M. E. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to design a double acceptance sampling plan under the time truncated life test when the product lifetime follows an exponentiated transmuted Weibull distribution. Here, the motive is to meet both the consumer’s risk and producer’s risk simultaneously at the specified quality levels, while the termination time is specified. A comparison between the results of the double and single acceptance sampling plans is conducted. We demonstrate the applicability of our results to real data sets.

Keywords: double sampling plan, single sampling plan, producer’s risk, consumer’s risk, exponentiated transmuted weibull distribution, time truncated experiment, single, double, Marshal-Olkin

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
42 Excel-VBA as Modelling Platform for Thermodynamic Optimisation of an R290/R600a Cascade Refrigeration System

Authors: M. M. El-Awad

Abstract:

The availability of computers and educational software nowadays helps engineering students acquire better understanding of engineering principles and their applications. With these facilities, students can perform sensitivity and optimisation analyses which were not possible in the past by using slide-rules and hand calculators. Standard textbooks in engineering thermodynamics also use software such as Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and Interactive Thermodynamics (IT) for solving calculation-intensive and design problems. Unfortunately, engineering students in most developing countries do not have access to such applications which are protected by intellectual-property rights. This paper shows how Microsoft ExcelTM and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications), which are normally distributed with personal computers and laptops, can be used as an alternative modelling platform for thermodynamic analyses and optimisation. The paper describes the VBA user-defined-functions developed for determining the refrigerants properties with Excel. For illustration, the combination is used to model and optimise the intermediate temperature for a propane/iso-butane cascade refrigeration system.

Keywords: Engineering Education, Thermodynamic Optimisation, Excel, VBA, cascade refrigeration system

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
41 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil, Amgad M. Bayoumy Aly

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Navier-stokes equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD Modelling, transonic store separation, quasi-steady flow, moving-body trajectories

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
40 A Case for Introducing Thermal-Design Optimisation Using Excel Spreadsheet

Authors: M. M. El-Awad

Abstract:

This paper deals with the introduction of thermal-design optimisation to engineering students by using Microsoft's Excel as a modelling platform. Thermal-design optimisation is an iterative process which involves the evaluation of many thermo-physical properties that vary with temperature and/or pressure. Therefore, suitable modelling software, such as Engineering Equation Solver (EES) or Interactive Thermodynamics (IT), is usually used for this purpose. However, such proprietary applications may not be available to many educational institutions in developing countries. This paper presents a simple thermal-design case that demonstrates how the principles of thermo-fluids and economics can be jointly applied so as to find an optimum solution to a thermal-design problem. The paper describes the solution steps and provides all the equations needed to solve the case with Microsoft Excel. The paper also highlights the advantage of using VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) for developing user-defined functions when repetitive or complex calculations are met. VBA makes Excel a powerful, yet affordable, the computational platform for introducing various engineering principles.

Keywords: Engineering Education, thermal design, Excel, VBA, user-defined functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
39 Estimation of Subgrade Resilient Modulus from Soil Index Properties

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Mohamed Awad

Abstract:

Determination of Resilient Modulus (MR) is quite important for characterizing materials in pavement design and evaluation. The main focus of this study is to develop a correlation that predict the resilient modulus of subgrade soils from simple and easy measured soil index properties. To achieve this objective, three subgrade soils representing typical Khartoum soils were selected and tested in the laboratory for measuring resilient modulus. Other basic laboratory tests were conducted on the soils to determine their physical properties. Several soil samples were prepared and compacted at different moisture contents and dry densities and then tested using resilient modulus testing machine. Based on experimental results, linear relationship of MR with the consistency factor ‘Fc’ which is a combination of dry density, void ratio and consistency index had been developed. The results revealed that very good linear relationship found between the MR and the consistency factor with a coefficient of linearity (R2) more than 0.9. The consistency factor could be used for the prediction of the MR of compacted subgrade soils with precise and reliable results.

Keywords: Properties, resilient modulus, Consistency factor, subgrade soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
38 By-Product Alcohol: Fusel Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: M. M. Noor, Omar Awad, R. Mamat, F. Yusop, I. M. Yusri

Abstract:

Fusel oil is a by-product obtained through the fermentation of some agricultural products. The fusel oil properties are closer to other alternative combustible types and the limited number of studies on the use of fusel oil as an alcohol derivative in SI engines constitutes to the base of this study. This paper experimentally examined the impacts of a by-product of alcohol, which is fusel oil by blending it with gasoline, on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions in a 4-cylinder SI engine. The test was achieved at different engine speeds and a 60 % throttle valve (load). As results, brake power, BTE, and BSFC of F10 are higher at all engine speeds. Maximum engine BTE was 33.9%, at the lowest BSFC with F10. Moreover, it is worth seeing that the F10 under rich air-fuel ratio has less variation of COVIMEP compared to the F20 and gasoline. F10 represents shorter combustion duration, thereby, the engine power increased. NOx emission for F10 at 4500 rpm was lower than gasoline. The highest value of HC emission is obtained with F10 compared to gasoline and F20 with an average increase of 11% over the engine speed range. CO and CO2 emissions increased when using fusel oil blends.

Keywords: combustion characteristics, alternative fuel, fusel oil, spark ignition engine, by-product alcohol, engine emissions

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
37 Optimization of Hybrid off Grid Energy Station

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Iyad M. Muslih, Azzah Alkhalailah, Abdallah Muslih

Abstract:

Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software was utilized to find the optimum design of a hybrid off-Grid system, by choosing the optimal solution depending on the cost analysis of energy based on different capacity shortage percentages. A complete study for the site conditions and load profile was done to optimize the design and implementation of a hybrid off-grid power station. In addition, the solution takes into consecration the ambient temperature effect on the efficiency of the power generation and the economical aspects of selection depending on real market price. From the analysis of the HOMER model results, the optimum hybrid power station was suggested, based on wind speed, and solar conditions. The optimization function objective is to minimize the Net Price Cost (NPC) and the Cost of Energy (COE) with zero and 10 percentage of capacity shortage.

Keywords: Optimization, Energy Modeling, HOMER, off-grid system

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36 An iTunes U App for Development of Metacognition Skills Delivered in the Enrichment Program Offered to Gifted Students at the Secondary Level

Authors: Maha Awad M. Almuttairi

Abstract:

This research aimed to measure the impact of the use of a mobile learning (iTunes U) app for the development of metacognition skills delivered in the enrichment program offered to gifted students at the secondary level in Jeddah. The author targeted a group of students on an experimental scale to evaluate the achievement. The research sample consisted of a group of 38 gifted female students. The scale of evaluation of the metacognition skills used to measure the performance of students in the enrichment program was as follows: Satisfaction scale for the assessment of the technique used and the final product form after completion of the program. Appropriate statistical treatment used includes Paired Samples T-Test Cronbach’s alpha formula and eta squared formula. It was concluded in the results the difference of α≤ 0.05, which means the performance of students in the skills of metacognition in favor of using iTunes U. In light of the conclusion of the experiment, a number of recommendations and suggestions were present; the most important benefit of mobile learning applications is to provide enrichment programs for gifted students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as well as conducting further research on mobile learning and gifted student teaching.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Gifted Students, enrichment program, metacognition skills

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35 Solid Dispersions of Cefixime Using β-Cyclodextrin: Characterization and in vitro Evaluation

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani, Amged Awad El-Gied

Abstract:

Cefixime, a BCS class II drug, is insoluble in water but freely soluble in acetone and in alcohol. The aqueous solubility of cefixime in water is poor and exhibits exceptionally slow and intrinsic dissolution rate. In the present study, cefixime and β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersions were prepared with a view to study the effect and influence of β-CD on the solubility and dissolution rate of this poorly aqueous soluble drug. Phase solubility profile revealed that the solubility of cefixime was increased in the presence of β-CD and was classified as AL-type. Effect of variable, such as drug:carrier ratio, was studied. Physical characterization of the solid dispersion was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These studies revealed that a distinct loss of drug crystallinity in the solid molecular dispersions is ostensibly accounting for enhancement of dissolution rate in distilled water. The drug release from the prepared solid dispersion exhibited a first order kinetics. Solid dispersions of cefixime showed a 6.77 times fold increase in dissolution rate over the pure drug.

Keywords: Dissolution, release kinetics, solid dispersions, β-cyclodextrin, cefixime, Kneading method

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
34 Effectiveness of Crystallization Coating Materials on Chloride Ions Ingress in Concrete

Authors: Mona Elsalamawy, Ashraf Ragab Mohamed, Abdellatif Elsayed Abosen

Abstract:

This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of different crystalline coating materials concerning of chloride ions penetration. The concrete ages at the coating installation and its moisture conditions were addressed; where, these two factors may play a dominant role for the effectiveness of the used materials. Rapid chloride ions penetration test (RCPT) was conducted at different ages and moisture conditions according to the relevant standard. In addition, the contaminated area and the penetration depth of the chloride ions were investigated immediately after the RCPT test using chemical identifier, 0.1 M silver nitrate AgNO3 solution. Results have shown that, the very low chloride ions penetrability, for the studied crystallization materials, were investigated only with the old age concrete (G1). The significant reduction in chloride ions’ penetrability was illustrated after 7 days of installing the crystalline coating layers. Using imageJ is more reliable to describe the contaminated area of chloride ions, where the distribution of aggregate and heterogeneous of cement mortar was considered in the images analysis.

Keywords: XRD, RCPT, chloride permeability, contaminated area, crystalline waterproofing materials

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33 The Role of Coaching in Fostering Entrepreneurial Intention among Graduate Students in Tunisia

Authors: Abdellatif Amouri, Sami Boudabbous

Abstract:

The current study provides insights on the importance of entrepreneurial coaching as a source of developing entrepreneurial intentions among entrepreneurs and a determinant factor of business creation process and growth. Coaching, which implies exchange of adequate information and a mutual understanding between entrepreneurs and their partners, requires a better mutual knowledge of the representations and the perceptions of ideas which are widely present in their dealings and transactions. Therefore, to analyze entrepreneurs’ perceptions of business creation, we addressed a survey questionnaire to a group of Tunisian entrepreneurs and experts in business creation to indicate their level of approval concerning the prominence of coaching. The factor analysis indicates that more than 60% of the respondents believe that each statement reflects an aspect of coaching, with no bias to its position in the entrepreneurial process. Therefore, the image drawn from our respondents’ perceptions is that an entrepreneur is rather "constructed" and "shaped" by multiple apprenticeships both before and during the entrepreneurial act, through an accompaniment process and within interactions with trainers, consultants or professionals in starting a business. Similarly, the results indicate that the poor support structures and lack of accompaniment procedures stand as an obstacle impeding the development of entrepreneurial intention among business creators.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Behavior, Venture Creation, perceptions, entrepreneurial intention, Entrepreneurial Coaching

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32 Seismic Active Zones and Mechanism of Earthquakes in Northern Egypt

Authors: Mohamed Dahy, Awad Hassoup, Sayed Abdallah

Abstract:

Northern Egypt is known to be seismically active from the past several thousand years, based on the historical records and documents of eyewitnesses on one- hand and instrumental records on the other hand. Instrumental, historical and pre- historical seismicity data indicate that large destructive earthquakes have occurred quite frequently in the investigated area. The interaction of the African, Arabian, Eurasian plates and Sinai sub-plate is the main factor behind the seismicity of northern part of Egypt. All earthquakes occur at shallow depth and are concentrated at four seismic zones, these zones including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, around the entrance of the Gulf of Suez and the fourth one is located at the south- west of great Cairo (Dahshour area). The seismicity map of the previous zones shows that the activity is coincide with the major tectonic trends of the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez- Cairo- Alexandria trend. On the other hand, the focal mechanisms of some earthquakes occurred inside the studied area and having small to moderate size show a variety of patterns. The most predominant type is normal faulting.

Keywords: seismicity, Northern Egypt, seismic active zone, focal mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
31 Ultrasound Enhanced Release of Active Targeting Liposomes Used for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Ghaleb A. Husseini, Najla M. Salkho, Vinod Paul, Pierre Kawak, Rute F. Vitor, Ana M. Martin, Nahid Awad, Mohammad Al Sayah

Abstract:

Liposomes are popular lipid bilayer nanoparticles that are highly efficient in encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutic drugs. Liposomes promote a low risk controlled release of the drug avoiding the side effects of the conventional chemotherapy. One of the great potentials of liposomes is the ability to attach a wide range of ligands to their surface producing ligand-mediated active targeting of cancer tumour with limited adverse off-target effects. Ultrasound can also aid in the controlled and specified release of the drug from the liposomes by breaking it apart and releasing the drug in the specific location where the ultrasound is applied. Our research focuses on the synthesis of PEGylated liposomes (contain poly-ethylene glycol) encapsulated with the model drug calcein and studying the effect of low frequency ultrasound applied at different power densities on calcein release. In addition, moieties are attached to the surface of the liposomes for specific targeting of the cancerous cells which over-express the receptors of these moieties, ultrasound is then applied and the release results are compared with the moiety free liposomes. The results showed that attaching these moieties to the surface of the PEGylated liposomes not only enhance their active targeting but also stimulate calcein release from these liposomes.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Liposomes, active targeting, moieties

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30 Reduction of Toxic Matter from Marginal Water Using Sludge Recycling from Combination of Stepped Cascade Weir with Limestone Trickling Filter

Authors: Dheyaa Wajid Abbood, Eitizaz Awad Jasim

Abstract:

The aim of this investigation is to confirm the activity of a sludge recycling process in trickling filter filled with limestone as an alternative biological process over conventional high-cost treatment process with regard to toxic matter reduction from marginal water. The combination system of stepped cascade weir with limestone trickling filter has been designed and constructed in the environmental hydraulic laboratory, Al-Mustansiriya University, College of Engineering. A set of experiments has been conducted during the period from August 2013 to July 2014. Seven days of continuous operation with different continuous flow rates (0.4m3/hr, 0.5 m3/hr, 0.6 m3/hr, 0.7m3/hr,0.8 m3/hr, 0.9 m3/hr, and 1m3/hr) after ten days of acclimatization experiments were carried out. Results indicate that the concentrations of toxic matter were decreasing with increasing of operation time, sludge recirculation ratio, and flow rate. The toxic matter measured includes (Mineral oils, Petroleum products, Phenols, Biocides, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and Surfactants) which are used in these experiments were ranged between (0.074 nm-0.156 nm). Results indicated that the overall reduction efficiency after 4, 28, 52, 76, 100, 124, and 148 hours of operation were (55%, 48%, 42%, 50%, 59%, 61%, and 64%) when the combination of stepped cascade weir with limestone trickling filter is used.

Keywords: removal efficiency, stepped cascade weir, toxic matter, marginal water, trickling filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
29 Reduction of Toxic Matter from Marginal Water Treatment Using Sludge Recycling from Combination of Stepped Cascade Weir with Limestone Trickling Filter

Authors: Dheyaa Wajid Abbood, Eitizaz Awad Jasim, Ali Mohammed Tawfeeq Baqer

Abstract:

The aim of this investigation is to confirm the activity of a sludge recycling process in trickling filter filled with limestone as an alternative biological process over conventional high-cost treatment process with regard to toxic matter reduction from marginal water. The combination system of stepped cascade weir with limestone trickling filter has been designed and constructed in the Environmental Hydraulic Laboratory, Al-Mustansiriya University, College of Engineering. A set of experiments has been conducted during the period from August 2013 to July 2014. Seven days of continuous operation with different continuous flow rates (0.4m3/hr, 0.5 m3/hr, 0.6 m3/hr, 0.7m3/hr,0.8 m3/hr, 0.9 m3/hr, and 1m3/hr) after ten days of acclimatization experiments were carried out. Results indicate that the concentrations of toxic matter were decreasing with increasing of operation time, sludge recirculation ratio, and flow rate. The toxic matter measured includes (Mineral oils, Petroleum products, Phenols, Biocides, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and Surfactants) which are used in these experiments were ranged between (0.074 nm-0.156 nm). Results indicated that the overall reduction efficiency after 4, 28, 52, 76, 100, 124, and 148 hours of operation were (55%, 48%, 42%, 50%, 59%, 61%, and 64%) when the combination of stepped cascade weir with limestone trickling filter is used.

Keywords: stepped cascade weir, toxic matter, marginal water, limestone trickling filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
28 Proniosomes as a Drug Carrier for Topical Delivery of Tolnaftate

Authors: Alaa Hamed Salama, Mona Mahmoud Abou Samra, Ghada Awad, Soheir Said Mansy

Abstract:

Proniosomes are well documented for topical drug delivery and preferred over other vesicular systems because they are biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, possess skin penetration ability and prolong the release of drugs by acting as depot in deeper layers of skin. Proniosome drug delivery was preferred due to improved stability of the system than niosomes. The present investigation aimed at formulation development and performance evaluation of proniosomal gel as a vesicular drug carrier system for antifungal drug tolnaftate. Proniosomes was developed using different nonionic surfactants such as span 60 and span 65 with cholesterol in different molar ratios by the Coacervation phase separation method in presence or absence of either lecithin or phospholipon 80 H. Proniosomal gel formulations of tolnaftate were characterized for vesicular shape & size, entrapment efficiency, rheological properties and release study. The effect of surfactants and additives on the entrapment efficiency, particle size and percent of drug released was studied. The selected proniosomal formulations for topical delivery of tolnaftate was subjected to a microbiological study in male rats infected with Trichophyton rubrum; the main cause of Tinea Pedis compared to the free drug and a market product and the results was recorded.

Keywords: Fungal Infection, proniosome, tolnaftate, trichophyton rubrum

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27 The Behavior of Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns in Soft Clay Soil of Egypt: A Finite Element Study

Authors: Mahmoud F. Awad-Allah, Mohammed Rabeih, Eman Abdel Baseer

Abstract:

Soft to very soft soil deposits are widely speared in some areas of Egypt such as East Port Said, Damietta, Kafr El-Sheik, Alexandria, etc. The construction projects in these areas have faced the challenge of the presence of extended deep layers of soft and very soft clays which reach to depths of 40 to 60 m from the ground level. Stone columns are commonly used to support structures overlying soft ground soils and surcharged by embankment type loading. Therefore, this paper introduces a wide comparison numerical study between the ordinary stone columns (OSC) versus the geosynthetic encased stone columns (ESC) installed in soft clay soil deposit using finite element method (FEM). Parametric study of an embankment on soft soils reinforced with stone columns is performed using commercial computer program based on the finite element technique (PLAXIS 2D). The investigation will present the influence of the following parameters: diameter of stone columns, stiffness of geosynthetic encasement, embedded depth of stone column from ground level, and the length encasement of the stone column on the consolidation time, vertical settlement, and lateral displacement of soft clay soil formations.

Keywords: Settlement, Geosynthetic, Finite Element Method, soft clay, lateral displacement

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26 Utilization of an Object Oriented Tool to Perform Model-Based Safety Analysis According to Extended Failure System Models

Authors: Royia Soliman, Salma ElAnsary, Akram Amin Abdellatif, Florian Holzapfel

Abstract:

Model-Based Safety Analysis (MBSA) is an approach in which the system and safety engineers share a common system model created using a model-based development process. The model can also be extended by the failure modes of the system components. There are two famous approaches for the addition of fault behaviors to system models. The first one is to enclose the failure into the system design directly. The second approach is to develop a fault model separately from the system model, thus combining both independent models for safety analysis. This paper introduces a hybrid approach of MBSA. The approach tries to use informal abstracted models to investigate failure behaviors. The approach will combine various concepts such as directed graph traversal, event lists and Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP). The approach is implemented using an Object Oriented programming language. The components are abstracted to its failure logic and relationships of connected components. The implemented approach is tested on various flight control systems, including electrical and multi-domain examples. The various tests are analyzed, and a comparison to different approaches is represented.

Keywords: System Modelling, Flight Control Systems, model based safety analysis, safety assessment analysis

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