Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1495

Search results for: Amit Kumar Dwivedi

1495 Efficiency Measurement of Indian Sugar Manufacturing Firms - a DEA Approach

Authors: Amit Kumar Dwivedi, Priyanko Ghosh


Data Envelopment analysis (DEA) has been used to calculate the technical and scale efficiency measures of the public and private sugar manufacturing firms of the Indian Sugar Industry (2006 to 2010). Within DEA framework, the input & Output oriented Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) & Constant Return to Scale (CRS) model is employed for the study of Decision making units (DMUs). A representative sample of 43 firms which account for major portion of the total market share is studied. The selection criterion for the inclusion of a firm in the analysis was the total sales of INR 5,000 million or more in the year 2010. After reviewing the literature it is found that no study has been conducted in the context of Indian sugar manufacturing firms in the Post-liberalization era which motivates us to initiate the study.

Keywords: technical efficiency, Indian sugar manufacturing units, DEA, input output oriented

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1494 Study the Sloshing Phenomenon in the Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V., Pradeep A. G., Shivakumar Bhavi


Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V, Pradeep AG, Shivakumar Bhavi Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid is involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels of 50% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for two different baffle configurations has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles; maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: CFD, sloshing, VOF, multiphase

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1493 Agronomic Manipulation in Cultivation Practices of Scented Rice: For Sustainable Crop Production

Authors: Damini Thawait, S. K. Dwivedi, Amit K. Patel, Samaptika Kar


The experiment was carried out at Raipur during season of 2012 to find out the optimum planting patterns for scented rice cultivation. The treatment (T2) planting of two to three seedlings hill-1 transplanted in the spacing of 25 cm from plant to plant and 25 cm from row to row recorded significantly good grain quality i.e. higher head rice recovery (41.41) along with higher gain length (8.05).

Keywords: rice, scented, quality, yield

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1492 Estimation of Maximum Earthquake for Gujarat Region, India

Authors: Ashutosh Saxena, Kumar Pallav, Ramji Dwivedi


The present study estimates the seismicity parameter 'b' and maximum possible magnitude of an earthquake (Mmax) for Gujarat region with three well-established methods viz. Kijiko parametric model (KP), Kijiko-Sellevol-Bayern (KSB) and Tapered Gutenberg-Richter (TGR), as a combined seismic source regime. The earthquake catalogue is prepared for a period of 1330 to 2013 in the region Latitudes 20o N to 250 N and Longitudinally extending from 680 to 750 E for earthquake moment magnitude (Mw) ≥4.0. The ’a’ and 'b' value estimated for the region as 4.68 and 0.58. Further, Mmax estimated as 8.54 (± 0.29), 8.69 (± 0.48), and 8.12 with KP, KSB, and TGR, respectively.

Keywords: Mmax, seismicity parameter, Gujarat, Tapered Gutenberg-Richter

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1491 Discerning of Antimicrobial Potential of Phenylpropanoic Acid Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Shivkanya Fuloria, Amit Singh


2-Phenyl propionic acid and oxadiazoles possess antimicrobial potential. 2-Phenyl propane hydrazide (1), on cyclization with aromatic acids offered 2-aryl-5-(1-phenylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (1A-E). The PPA derived oxadiazoles were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The compounds were screened for antimicrobial potential. The compound 1D bearing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to a certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the PPA derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antimicrobial, imines, oxadiazoles, PPA

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1490 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar


Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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1489 The Impact of Missense Mutation in Phosphatidylinositol Glycan Class A Associated to Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome 2: A Computational Study

Authors: Ashish Kumar Agrahari, Amit Kumar


Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal blood disorder that manifests with hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and peripheral blood cytopenias. The disease is caused by the deficiency of two glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI)-anchored proteins (CD55 and CD59) in the hemopoietic stem cells. The deficiency of GPI-anchored proteins has been associated with the somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIGA). However, the mutations that do not cause PNH is associated with the multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2 (MCAHS2). To best of our knowledge, no computational study has been performed to explore the atomistic level impact of PIGA mutations on the structure and dynamics of the protein. In the current work, we are mainly interested to get insights into the molecular mechanism of PIGA mutations. In the initial step, we screened the most pathogenic mutations from the pool of publicly available mutations. Further, to get a better understanding, pathogenic mutations were mapped to the modeled structure and subjected to 50ns molecular dynamics simulation. Our computational study suggests that four mutations are highly vulnerable to altering the structural conformation and stability of the PIGA protein, which illustrates its association with PNH and MCAHS2 phenotype.

Keywords: homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulation, missense mutations PNH, MCAHS2, PIGA

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1488 Study the Sloshing Phenomenon in the Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V, Pradeep AG, Shivakumar Bhavi


Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels 25%, 50%, and 75% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for three different liquid levels has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles. Maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: sloshing, CFD, VOF, baffles

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1487 Improving Radiation Efficiency Using Metamaterial in Pyramidal Horn Antenna

Authors: Amit Kumar Baghel, Sisir Kumar Nayak


The proposed metamaterial design help to increase the radiation efficiency at 2.9 GHz by reducing the side and back lobes by making the phase difference of the waves emerging from the phase center of the horn antenna same after passing through metamaterial array. The unit cell of the metamaterial is having concentric ring structure made of copper of 0.035 mm thickness on both sides of FR4 sheet. The inner ring diameter is kept as 3 mm, and the outer ring diameters are changed according to the path and tramission phase difference of the unit cell from the phase center of the antenna in both the horizontal and vertical direction, i.e., in x- and y-axis. In this case, the ring radius varies from 3.19 mm to 6.99 mm with the respective S21 phase difference of -62.25° to -124.64°. The total phase difference can be calculated by adding the path difference of the respective unit cell in the array to the phase difference of S21. Taking one of the unit cell as the reference, the total phase difference between the reference unit cell and other cells must be integer multiple of 360°. The variation of transmission coefficient S21 with the ring radius is greater than -6 dB. The array having 5 x 5 unit cell is kept inside the pyramidal horn antenna (L X B X H = 295.451 x 384.233 x 298.66 mm3) at a distance of 36.68 mm from the waveguide throat. There is an improvement in side lobe level in E-plane by 14.6 dB when the array is used. The front to back lobe ration is increased by 1 dB by using the array. The proposed antenna with metamaterial array can be used in beam shaping for wireless power transfer applications.

Keywords: metamaterial, side lobe level, front to back ratio, beam forming

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1486 Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management Practice on Cultivation Scented Rice Varieties- a Better Approach for Resource Conservation

Authors: Amit Kumar Patel, M. C. Bhambri, Damini Thawait, Srishti Pandey


The experiment was carried out at Raipur during rainy season of 2012. The experiment revealed that the performance of Dubraj was comparatively better than that of badshah bhog, Vishnu bhog and bisni. The number of grains panicle-1, number of filled grains panicle-1 were comparable in Dubraj and badshah bhog. Among the different nutrient, application of 80:50:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1(50% Inorganic+50% Organic) gave better performance in all the above characters. It is revealed that the variety Dubraj fertilized with 80:50:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1(50% Inorganic+50% Organic) gave the good yield attributing characters along with highest yield.

Keywords: scented rice, organic manures, chemical fertilizers, yield, varieties

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1485 Practical Model of Regenerative Braking Using DC Machine and Boost Converter

Authors: Shah Krupa Rajendra, Amit Kumar


Increasing use of traditional vehicles driven by internal combustion engine is responsible for the environmental pollution. Further, it leads to depletion of limited energy resources. Therefore, it is required to explore alternative energy sources for the transportation. The promising solution is to use electric vehicle. However, it suffers from limited driving range. Regenerative braking increases the range of the electric vehicle to a certain extent. In this paper, a novel methodology utilizing regenerative braking is described. The model comprising of DC machine, feedback based boost converter and micro-controller is proposed. The suggested method is very simple and reliable. The proposed model successfully shows the energy being saved into during regenerative braking process.

Keywords: boost converter, DC machine, electric vehicle, micro-controller, regenerative braking

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1484 Heat Loss Control in Stave Cooled Blast Furnace by Optimizing Gas Flow Pattern through Burden Distribution

Authors: Basant Kumar Singh, S. Subhachandhar, Vineet Ranjan Tripathi, Amit Kumar Singh, Uttam Singh, Santosh Kumar Lal


Productivity of Blast Furnace is largely impacted by fuel efficiency and controlling heat loss is one of the enabling parameters for achieving lower fuel rate. 'I' Blast Furnace is the latest and largest Blast Furnace of Tata Steel Jamshedpur with working volume of 3230 m³ and with rated capacity of 3.055 million tons per annum. Optimizing heat losses in Belly and Bosh zone remained major challenge for blast furnace operators after its commissioning. 'I' Blast has installed Cast Iron & Copper Staves cooling members where copper staves are installed in Belly, Bosh & Lower Stack whereas cast iron staves are installed in upper stack area. Stave cooled Blast Furnaces are prone to higher heat losses in Belly and Bosh region with an increase in coal injection rate as Bosh gas volume increases. Under these conditions, managing gas flow pattern through proper burden distribution, casting techniques & by maintaining desired raw material qualities are of utmost importance for sustaining high injection rates. This study details, the burden distribution control by Ore & Coke ratio adjustment at wall and center of Blast Furnace as the coal injection rates increased from 140 kg/thm to 210 kg/thm. Control of blowing parameters, casting philosophy, specification for raw materials & devising operational practice for controlling heat losses is also elaborated with the model that is used to visualize heat loss pattern in different zones of Blast Furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, staves, gas flow pattern, belly/bosh heat losses, ore/coke ratio, blowing parameters, casting, operation practice

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1483 Stochastic Frontier Application for Evaluating Cost Inefficiencies in Organic Saffron

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, Sudhakar Dwivedi, R. K. Arora


Saffron is one of the most precious spices grown on the earth and is cultivated in a very limited area in few countries of the world. It has also been grown as a niche crop in Kishtwar district of Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir State of India. This paper attempts to examine the presence of cost inefficiencies in saffron production and the associated socio-economic characteristics of saffron growers in the mentioned area. Although the numbers of inputs used in cultivation of saffron were limited, still cost inefficiencies were present in its production. The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and profitability index (PI) of investment in five years of saffron production were INR 1120803, 95.67 % and 3.52 respectively. The estimated coefficients of saffron stochastic cost function for saffron bulbs, human labour, animal labour, manure and saffron output were positive. The saffron growers having non-farm income were more cost inefficient as compared to farmers who did not have sources of income other than farming by 0.04 %. The maximum value of cost efficiency for saffron grower was 1.69 with mean value of 1.12. The majority of farmers have low cost inefficiencies, as the highest frequency of occurrence of the predicted cost efficiency was below 1.06.

Keywords: saffron, internal rate of return, cost efficiency, stochastic frontier model

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1482 Characterization of Vegetable Wastes and Its Potential Use for Hydrogen and Methane Production via Dark Anaerobic Fermentation

Authors: Ajay Dwivedi, M. Suresh Kumar, A. N. Vaidya


The problem of fruit and vegetable waste management is a grave one and with ever increasing need to feed the exponentially growing population, more and more solid waste in the form of fruit and vegetables waste are generated and its management has become one of the key issues in protection of environment. Energy generation from fruit and vegetables waste by dark anaerobic fermentation is a recent an interesting avenue effective management of solid waste as well as for generating free and cheap energy. In the present study 17 vegetables were characterized for their physical as well as chemical properties, these characteristics were used to determine the hydrogen and methane potentials of vegetable from various models, and also lab scale batch experiments were performed to determine their actual hydrogen and methane production capacity. Lab scale batch experiments proved that vegetable waste can be used as effective substrate for bio hydrogen and methane production, however the expected yield of bio hydrogen and methane was much lower than predicted by models, this was due to the fact that other vital experimental parameters such as pH, total solids content, food to microorganism ratio was not optimized.

Keywords: vegetable waste, physico-chemical characteristics, hydrogen, methane

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1481 Quantifying Temporal Variation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Ozone Forming Potential at Rural Atmosphere in Delhi

Authors: Amit Kumar, Bhupendra Pratap Singh, Manoj Singh, Monika Punia, Krishan Kumar, V. K. Jain


Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in order to find out temporal variations and their ozone forming potentials (OFP) at rural site in Delhi National Capital Region during summer 2013. Sampling was performed for continuous five days, to identify the differences in working days and weekend VOCs concentration levels. Sampling and analytical procedure for VOCs were done using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method. On each sampling day, VOCs samples were collected for 3-hours in the morning, afternoon and evening. There has been observed a noticeable contrast in the concentration of VOCs levels between working days and weekend. However, most of the VOCs showed diurnal fluctuations with higher concentrations in the morning and evening as compared to afternoon which might be due to change in meteorology. The results showed that mean toluene/benzene and m-/p-xylene/benzene ratios were higher in the afternoon while it was lower during morning and evening. The relative contribution of the VOCs to ozone formation, total propylene equivalent concentrations and OFP were calculated. Toluene was the most contributing organic contaminant to ozone formation as well as ambient VOCs concentrations. Results obtained in current study demonstrate that ozone formation at rural site in Delhi is probably limited by the emissions of VOCs.

Keywords: VOCs, rural, NIOSH, ozone forming potential, propylene equivalent concentration

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1480 Effects of Turbulence Penetration on Valve Leakage in Nuclear Reactor Coolant System

Authors: Gupta Rajesh, Paudel Sagar, Sharma Utkarsh, Singh Amit Kumar


Thermal stratification has drawn much attention because of the malfunctions at various nuclear plants in U.S.A that raised significant safety concerns. The concerns due to this phenomenon relate to thermal stresses in branch pipes connected to the reactor coolant system piping. This stress limits the lifetime of the piping system, and even leading to penetrating cracks. To assess origin of valve damage in the pipeline, it is essential to determine the effect of turbulence penetration on valve leakage; since stratified flow is generally generated by turbulent penetration or valve leakage. As a result, we concluded with the help of coupled fluent-structural analysis that the pipe with less turbulence has less chance of failure there by requiring less maintenance.

Keywords: nuclear reactor coolant system, thermal stratification, turbulent penetration, coupled fluent-structural analysis, Von-Misses stress

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1479 Optimization of Pressure in Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Ajay Kumar Choubey, Geeta Agnihotri, C. Sasikumar, Rashmi Dwivedi


Deep-drawing operations are performed widely in industrial applications. It is very important for efficiency to achieve parts with no or minimum defects. Deep drawn parts are used in high performance, high strength and high reliability applications where tension, stress, load and human safety are critical considerations. Wrinkling is a kind of defect caused by stresses in the flange part of the blank during metal forming operations. To avoid wrinkling appropriate blank-holder pressure/force or drawbead can be applied. Now-a-day computer simulation plays a vital role in the field of manufacturing process. So computer simulation of manufacturing has much advantage over previous conventional process i.e. mass production, good quality of product, fast working etc. In this study, a two dimensional elasto-plastic Finite Element (F.E.) model for Mild Steel material blank has been developed to study the behavior of the flange wrinkling and deep drawing parameters under different Blank-Holder Pressure (B.H.P.). For this, commercially available Finite Element software ANSYS 14 has been used in this study. Simulation results are critically studied and salient conclusions have been drawn.

Keywords: ANSYS, deep drawing, BHP, finite element simulation, wrinkling

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1478 Comparative Assessment of MRR, TWR, and Surface Integrity in Rotary and Stationary Tool EDM for Machining AISI D3 Tool Steel

Authors: Anand Prakash Dwivedi, Sounak Kumar Choudhury


Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a well-established and one of the most primitive unconventional manufacturing processes, that is used world-wide for the machining of geometrically complex or hard and electrically conductive materials which are extremely difficult to cut by any other conventional machining process. One of the major flaws, over all its advantages, is its very slow Material Removal Rate (MRR). In order to eradicate this slow machining rate, various researchers have proposed various methods like; providing rotational motion to the tool or work-piece or to both, mixing of conducting additives (such as SiC, Cr, Al, graphite etc) powders in the dielectric, providing vibrations to the tool or work-piece or to both etc. Present work is a comparative study of Rotational and Stationary Tool EDM, which deals with providing rotational motion to the copper tool for the machining of AISI D3 Tool Steel and the results have been compared with stationary tool EDM. It has been found that the tool rotation substantially increases the MRR up to 28%. The average surface finish increases around 9-10% by using the rotational tool EDM. The average tool wear increment is observed to be around 19% due to the tool rotation. Apart from this, the present work also focusses on the recast layer analysis, which are being re-deposited on the work-piece surface during the operation. The recast layer thickness is less in case of Rotational EDM and more for Stationary Tool EDM. Moreover, the cracking on the re-casted surface is also more for stationary tool EDM as compared with the rotational EDM.

Keywords: EDM, MRR, Ra, TWR

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1477 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey


A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

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1476 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant


Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.


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1475 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar


In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: OMR, image processing, hough circle trans-form, interpolation, detection, binary thresholding

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1474 Role of Onion Extract for Neuro-Protection in Experimental Stroke Model

Authors: Richa Shri, Varinder Singh, Kundan Singh Bora, Abhishek Bhanot, Rahul Kumar, Amit Kumar, Ravinder Kaur


The term ‘neuroprotection’ means preserving/salvaging function and structure of neurons. Neuroprotection is an adjunctive treatment option for neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidative stress is considered a major culprit in neurodegenerative disorders; hence, management strategies include use of antioxidants. Our search for a neuroprotective agent began with Allium cepa L. or onions, (family Amaryllidaceae) - a potent antioxidant. We have investigated the neuroprotective potential of onions in experimental models of ischemic stroke, diabetic neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and dementia. In pre and post-ischemic stroke model, the methanol extract of outer scales of onion bulbs (MEOS) prevented memory loss and motor in-coordination; reduced oxidative stress and cerebral infarct size. This also prevented and ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in mice. The MEOS was fractionated to yield a flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) that successfully reversed ischemia-reperfusion induced neuronal damage, thereby demonstrating that the flavonoids are responsible for the activity. The FRF effectively ameliorated chronic constriction induced neuropathic pain in rats. The FRF was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionated. It was seen that FRF is more effective as compared to the isolated components probably due to synergism among the constituents (i.e., quercetin and quercetin glucosides) in the FRF. The outer scales of onion bulbs have great potential for prevention as well as for treatment of neuronal disorders. Red onions, with higher amounts of flavonoids as compared to the white onions, produced more significant neuroprotection. Thus, the standardized FRF from the waste material of a commonly used vegetable, especially the red variety, may be developed as a valuable neuroprotective agent.

Keywords: Allium cepa, antioxidant activity, flavonoid rich fraction, neuroprotection

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1473 Mechanical Behaviours of Ti/GFRP/Ti Laminates with Different Surface Treatments of Titanium Sheets

Authors: Amit Kumar Haldar, Mark Simms, Ian McDevitt, Anthony Comer


Interface properties of fiber metal laminates (FML) affects the integrity and deformation failure modes. In this paper, the mechanical behaviours of Ti/GFRP/Ti laminates were experimentally investigated through low-velocity impact tests. Two different surface treatments of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy sheets were prepared to obtain the composite interface properties based on annealing and sandblast surface treatment processes. The deformation failure modes, impact load sustaining ability and energy absorption capacity of FMLs were analysed. The impact load and modulus were shown to be dependent on the surface treatments of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy sheets. It was demonstrated that the impact load performance was enhanced when titanium surfaces were annealed and sandblasted. It has also been shown that the values of the strength and energy absorption were slightly higher when the tests conducted at relatively higher loading rate, as a result of the rate-sensitive effects on the damage resistance of the FML.

Keywords: fiber metal laminates, metal composite interface, indentation, low velocity impact

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1472 Simultaneous Measurement of Pressure and Temperature Profile of Lubricating Oil-Film along Orthogonally Displaced Non-Circular Journal Bearing: An Experimental Study

Authors: Amit Singla, Amit Chauhan


The non-circular journal bearings provide better thermal stability and lesser oil-film temperature rise as compared to circular journal bearings. Experimentation on simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature of lubricated oil-film along the profile of the bearing will help the designer to design journal bearings. In this paper, pressure and temperature of oil-film along orthogonally displaced non-circular journal bearing have been measured on a designed journal bearing test rig. The orthogonal non-circular journal bearing has been fabricated by displacing two circular halves away from the centers in the orthogonal direction. The data acquisition for oil film pressure and temperature has been carried out at journal speed=3000 rpm and by increasing the static radial load from 500 N to 2000 N in steps of 500 N using three different grades of oil (ISOVG 32, 68, and 150) named as oil-1, oil-2, and oil-3 respectively. The results show that the oil-film pressure and temperature increases with increase in radial load and change of lubricating oil towards increasing viscosity. Further, two lobes in the pressure and temperature profiles have been obtained which accounts for better thermal stability as it reduces cavitation zone inside the bearing.

Keywords: cavitation, non-circular journal bearing, orthogonally displaced, thermal stability

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1471 Impact of Television Advertisement on Children Behaviour : A Qualitative Research in India

Authors: Sarbjit Singh, Amit Kumar Lal


In India there is no governing body to control advertisement apart from ASCI due to which most of the companies are targeting children in their advertisements that have a negative impact on their behaviour. The main purpose of this research paper is to find out the impact of the television advertisement on the behaviour of the children as observed and reported by parents. The exploratory research design is adopted by using in-depth interviews with 20 parents in various cities of Punjab on the basis semi-structured interviews a self-administered structured Questionnaire was developed for data collection. Exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation is used to analyse the data from 100 parents from the conjoint cities of Punjab. (Jalandhar, Amritsar and Ludhiana) The finding suggests that children demand those products which are more advertised. Parents believe that television advertisements are affecting the study of their children. Moreover, the children are becoming more violent, stubborn and rebellious. They try to start copying from the advertisements and indulge in bad habits. Children demand, nag and pester their parents to purchase the advertised product. This research paper would help advertisers to understand children behaviour towards advertisements and more over what should be done to control the negative impact of advertisement on children. Advertisers can also understand the parental perception towards advertisement.

Keywords: advertisement, consumer behaviour, children perception, teen marketing

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1470 The Role of Intermediaries in E-Government Adoption in India: Bridging the Digital Divide

Authors: Rajiv Kumar, Amit Sachan, Arindam Mukherjee


Despite the transparency and benefits of e-government, and its potential to serve citizens better, there is low diffusion and adoption of e-government services in India. Limited access to computer and internet, lack of computer and internet skills, low trust in technology, and risk associated in using e-government services are major hindrances in e-government adoption in India. Despite a large number of citizens belonging to the non-adopter category, the government has made some services mandatory to be accessed online where citizens have no other choice. Also despite the digital divide, a large number of citizens prefer online access to government services. In such cases intermediaries like common service centers, internet café and services agents’ roles are significant for accessing e-government services. Hence research is needed to explore this. The study aims to investigate the role of intermediaries in online access to public services by citizens. Qualitative research methodology using semi-structured interview was used. The results show that intermediaries play an important role in bridging the digital divide. The study also highlights on what circumstances citizens are taking help of these intermediaries. The study then highlights its limitations and discusses scope for future study.

Keywords: adoption, digital divide, e-government, India, intermediaries

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1469 Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

Authors: Hossein Lotfizadeh, André McDonald, Amit Kumar


Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, CO2 mitigation, natural gas consumption, solar water heating system

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1468 Urban Freight Station: An Innovative Approach to Urban Freight

Authors: Amit Kumar Jain, Surbhi Jain


The urban freight in a city constitutes 10 to 18 per cent of all city road traffic, and 40 per cent of air pollution and noise emissions, are directly related to commercial transport. The policy measures implemented by urban planners have sought to restrict rather than assist goods-vehicle operations. This approach has temporarily controlled the urban transport demand during peak hours of traffic but has not effectively solved transport congestion. The solution discussed in the paper envisages the development of a comprehensive network of Urban Freight Stations (UFS) connected through underground conveyor belts in the city in line with baggage segregation and distribution in any of the major airports. The transportation of freight shall be done in standard size containers/cars through rail borne carts. The freight can be despatched or received from any of the UFS. Once freight is booked for a destination from any of the UFS, it would be stuffed in the container and digitally tagged for the destination. The container would reach the destination UFS through a network of rail borne carts. The container would be de-stuffed at the destination UFS and sent for further delivery, or the consignee may be asked to collect the consignment from urban freight station. The obvious benefits would be decongestion of roads, reduction in air and noise pollution, saving in manpower used for freight transportation.

Keywords: congestion, urban freight, intelligent transport system, pollution

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1467 Ranking of Inventory Policies Using Distance Based Approach Method

Authors: Gupta Amit, Kumar Ramesh, P. C. Tewari


Globalization is putting enormous pressure on the business organizations specially manufacturing one to rethink the supply chain in innovative manners. Inventory consumes major portion of total sale revenue. Effective and efficient inventory management plays a vital role for the successful functioning of any organization. Selection of inventory policy is one of the important purchasing activities. This paper focuses on selection and ranking of alternative inventory policies. A deterministic quantitative model-based on Distance Based Approach (DBA) method has been developed for evaluation and ranking of inventory policies. We have employed this concept first time for this type of the selection problem. Four inventory policies Economic Order Quantity (EOQ), Just in Time (JIT), Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) and monthly policy are considered. Improper selection could affect a company’s competitiveness in terms of the productivity of its facilities and quality of its products. The ranking of inventory policies is a multi-criteria problem. There is a need to first identify the selection criteria and then processes the information with reference to relative importance of attributes for comparison. Criteria values for each inventory policy can be obtained either analytically or by using a simulation technique or they are linguistic subjective judgments defined by fuzzy sets, like, for example, the values of criteria. A methodology is developed and applied to rank the inventory policies.

Keywords: inventory policy, ranking, DBA, selection criteria

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1466 Management of Pressure Ulcer with a Locally Constructed Negative Pressure Device (NPD) in Traumatic Paraplegia Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Mukesh K. Dwivedi, Rajeshwar N. Srivastava, Amit K. Bhagat, Saloni Raj


Introduction: Management of Pressure Ulcer (PU) is an ongoing clinical challenge particularly in traumatic paraplegia patients in developing countries where socio economic conditions often dictate treatment modalities. When negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was introduced, there were a series of devices (V.A.C., KCI, San Antonio, TX) manufactured. These devices for NPWT are costly and hard to afford by patients in developing countries like India. Considering this limitation, this study was planned to design an RCT to compare NPWT by an indigenized locally constructed NPD and conventional gauze dressing for the treatment of PU. Material and Methods: This RCT (CTRI/2014/09/0050) was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at King George’s Medical University (KGMU), India. Thirty-four (34) subjects of traumatic paraplegia having PU of stage 3 or 4, were enrolled and randomized in two treatment groups (NPWT Group & Conventional dressing group). The outcome measures of this study were surface area and depth of PU, exudates, microorganisms and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) during 0 to 9 weeks follow-ups. Levels of MMP-8 were analyzed in the tissues of PU at week 0, 3, 6 and week 9 by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: Significantly reduced length of PU in NPWT group was observed at week 6 (p=0.04) which further reduced at week 9 (p=0.001) as compared to conventionally treated group. Similarly significant reduction of width and depth of PU was observed in NPWT at week 9 (p<0.05). The exudate became significantly (p=0.001) lower in NPWT group as compared with conventionally treated group from 6th to 9th week. Clearance and conversion of slough into red granulation tissue was significantly higher in NPWT group (p=0.001). At week 9, the wound culture was negative in all the subjects of NPWT group, while it was positive in 10 (41⋅6%) subjects of conventional group. Significantly lower level of MMP-8 was observed in subjects of NPWT group at week 6 (0.006**), and continually more reduction was observed at week 9 (<0.0001**) as compared to the conventional group. Conclusion: NPWT by locally constructed NPD is better wound care procedure for management of PU. Our device gave similar results as commercially available devices. Reduction of level of MMP-8 and increased rate of healing was achieved by negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as compared to conventional dressing.

Keywords: NPWT, NPD, MMP8, ELISA

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