Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3860

Search results for: sales representatives’ dairy products

3860 Integrating Data Envelopment Analysis and Variance Inflation Factor to Measure the Efficiency of Decision Making Units

Authors: Mostafa Kazemi, Zahra N. Farkhani

Abstract:

This paper proposes an integrated Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) model for measuring the technical efficiency of decision making units. The model is validated using a set of 69% sales representatives’ dairy products. The analysis is done in two stages, in the first stage, VIF technique is used to distinguish independent effective factors of resellers, and in the second stage we used DEA for measuring efficiency for both constant and variable return to scales status. Further DEA is used to examine the utilization of environmental factors on efficiency. Results of this paper indicated an average managerial efficiency of 83% in the whole sales representatives’ dairy products. In addition, technical and scale efficiency were counted 96% and 80% respectively. 38% of sales representative have the technical efficiency of 100% and 72% of the sales representative in terms of managerial efficiency are quite efficient.High levels of relative efficiency indicate a good condition for sales representative efficiency.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis (DEA), relative efficiency, sales representatives’ dairy products, variance inflation factor (VIF)

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3859 Isolation and Characterization of Ant-Salmonella Lactic Acid Bacteria from Dairy Products

Authors: Najie Hassanzade, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani

Abstract:

Dairy products have been regarded as the natural source of lactic acid bacteria with potential characteristics of probiotics; therefore, a lot of research and practical works have been carried out about the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from dairy products, especially traditional yogurt and related products. Interest in traditional dairy products continues in the area of isolation of new LAB that can complement or replace currently used starters and/or that can be candidates as beneficial microorganisms for prevention or treatment purposes. In this perspective, such products are potentially good candidates for isolating new strains of probiotics. On the other hand, some infectious diseases such as salmonellosis have expressed resistance against many antibiotics; therefore, many attempts have been performed to use an alternative approach to overcome antibiotic resistance. The current research focuses on the isolation of LAB from dairy products, especially traditional dairy products and screening of them for anti-Salmonella activities. Twenty-five samples, including 15 sheep milk samples, one camel milk sample and seven cow milk samples from different areas of Iran and 2 yogurt samples from Herat, Afghanistan are collected. 20 bacteria are isolated by culturing the samples on MRS agar specific medium; among them 4 Lactobacillus strains, including 3L. plantarum strains and one L.gasseri strain, are identified by analyzing the biochemical tests and PCR tests in which 27F and 1492R primers are used. Then, their effects against Salmonella typhimurium using the well-diffusion method are evaluated.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, dairy products Salmonella

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3858 Sales Patterns Clustering Analysis on Seasonal Product Sales Data

Authors: Soojin Kim, Jiwon Yang, Sungzoon Cho

Abstract:

As a seasonal product is only in demand for a short time, inventory management is critical to profits. Both markdowns and stockouts decrease the return on perishable products; therefore, researchers have been interested in the distribution of seasonal products with the aim of maximizing profits. In this study, we propose a data-driven seasonal product sales pattern analysis method for individual retail outlets based on observed sales data clustering; the proposed method helps in determining distribution strategies.

Keywords: clustering, distribution, sales pattern, seasonal product

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
3857 Applying Arima Data Mining Techniques to ERP to Generate Sales Demand Forecasting: A Case Study

Authors: Ghaleb Y. Abbasi, Israa Abu Rumman

Abstract:

This paper modeled sales history archived from 2012 to 2015 bulked in monthly bins for five products for a medical supply company in Jordan. The sales forecasts and extracted consistent patterns in the sales demand history from the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system were used to predict future forecasting and generate sales demand forecasting using time series analysis statistical technique called Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA). This was used to model and estimate realistic sales demand patterns and predict future forecasting to decide the best models for five products. Analysis revealed that the current replenishment system indicated inventory overstocking.

Keywords: ARIMA models, sales demand forecasting, time series, R code

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3856 Characteristics of Successful Sales Interaction in B2B Sales Meetings

Authors: Ari Alamäki, Timo Kaski

Abstract:

The value of co-creation has gained much attention in sales research, but less is known about how salespeople and customers interact in the authentic business to business (B2B) sales meetings. The study presented in this paper empirically contributes to existing research by presenting authentic B2B sales meetings that were video recorded and analyzed using observation and qualitative content analysis methods. This paper aims to study key elements of successful sales interactions between salespeople and customers/buyers. This study points out that salespeople are selling value rather than the products or services themselves, which are only enablers in realizing business benefits. Therefore, our findings suggest that promoting and easing open discourse is an essential part of a successful sales encounter. A better understanding of how salespeople and customers successfully interact would help salespeople to develop their interpersonal sales skills.

Keywords: personal selling, relationship, sales management, value co-creation

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3855 Virulence Genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis Isolated from Milk and Dairy Products

Authors: E. Rahimi, S. Shaigannia

Abstract:

Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis are important infectious agents causing food poisoning and food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. This study was carried out in order to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance properties of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolated from ruminant milk and dairy products in Iran. Overall 360 raw and pasteurized milk and traditional and commercial dairy products were purchased from random selected supermarkets and retail stories of Isfahan province, Iran. Samples were cultured immediately and those found positive for Salmonella were analyzed for the presence of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and several putative genes using PCR. Totally, 13 (3.61%), 8 (2.22%), 1 (0.27%) and 4 (1.11%) samples were found to be contaminated with Salmonella spp., S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis and other species of Salmonella, respectively. PCR results showed that invA, rfbJ, fliC and spv were the detected virulence genes in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis positive samples. To the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first prevalence report of virulence genes of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolated from ruminant milk and traditional and commercial dairy products in Iran.

Keywords: Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, virulence genes, ruminant milk, dairy products

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3854 Development of Milky Products Leavend by Kefir Grains with Reduced Lactose and Flavored with Tropical Fruit

Authors: A. L. Balieiro, D. S. Silveira, R. A. Santos, L. S. Freitas, O. L. S. De Alsina, A. S. Lima, C. M. F. Soares

Abstract:

The state of Sergipe has been emerging in milk production, mainly in the dairy basin located in the northeast of the state of the Brazil. However, this area concentrates the production of dairy, developing diverse products with higher aggregated value and scent and regional flavours. With this goal the present wok allows the development of dairy drinks with reduced lactose index, using kefir grains flavored with mangaba pulp. Initially, the removal of milk lactose was evaluated in adsorption columns completed with silica particles obtained by molecular impression technique, using sol ? gel method with the presence and absence of lactose biomolecule, molecular imprinted polymer (PIM) or pure matrix (MP), respectively. Then kefir grains were used for the development of dairy drinks flavored with regional fruits (mangaba). The products were analyzed sensorially, evaluated the probiotic potential and the removal of the lactose. Among the products obtained, the one that present best result in the sensorially was to the drink with removal PIM flavored of mangaba, for which around 60% of the testers indicated that would buy the new product.

Keywords: molecular imprinted polymer, milk, lactose, kefir

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3853 Halal Authentication for Some Product Collected from Jordanian Market Using Real-Time PCR

Authors: Omar S. Sharaf

Abstract:

The mitochondrial 12s rRNA (mt-12s rDNA) gene for pig-specific was developed to detect material from pork species in different products collected from Jordanian market. The amplification PCR products of 359 bp and 531 bp were successfully amplified from the cyt b gene of pig the amplification product using mt-12S rDNA gene were successfully produced a single band with a molecular size of 456 bp. In the present work, the PCR amplification of mtDNA of cytochrome b has been shown as a suitable tool for rapid detection of pig DNA. 100 samples from different dairy, gelatin and chocolate based products and 50 samples from baby food formula were collected and tested to a presence of any pig derivatives. It was found that 10% of chocolate based products, 12% of gelatin and 56% from dairy products and 5.2% from baby food formula showed single band from mt-12S rDNA gene.

Keywords: halal food, baby infant formula, chocolate based products, PCR, Jordan

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3852 Credit Risk Evaluation of Dairy Farming Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: R. H. Fattepur, Sameer R. Fattepur, D. K. Sreekantha

Abstract:

Dairy Farming is one of the key industries in India. India is the leading producer and also the consumer of milk, milk-based products in the world. In this paper, we have attempted to the replace the human expert system and to develop an artificial expert system prototype to increase the speed and accuracy of decision making dairy farming credit risk evaluation. Fuzzy logic is used for dealing with uncertainty, vague and acquired knowledge, fuzzy rule base method is used for representing this knowledge for building an effective expert system.

Keywords: expert system, fuzzy logic, knowledge base, dairy farming, credit risk

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3851 Interactive Systems in B2B Marketing: Perceptions of Sales Configurator Use

Authors: Tommi Mahlamaki, Mika Ojala

Abstract:

Digitalization is changing our lives in many ways. As consumers, we are accustomed using different online interactive sales systems. However, while many online selling sites offer systems that have evolved from simple selling functions, the change has not been as rapid in business-to-business (B2B) markets. This is because many B2B companies rely on personal sales and personal communication. The main objective of this research is to clarify perceptions towards digital interactive sales systems and, more specifically, sales configurators. It also aims to identify trends towards the use of sales configurators. To reach these objectives, an online questionnaire was created that targets Finnish B2B distributors who are, by definition, part of B2B markets. The questionnaire was sent to 340 distributors, and it was returned by 150 respondents. The results showed that 82% of respondents had heard about sales configurators, and 64% had used them. The results also showed that 48% of respondents felt that the use of sales configurators would increase in the future, while only 2% felt they would be used less. The future use of sales configurators was not seen as affecting the level of personal sales. In light of the results, we recommend that B2B companies create marketing strategies that integrate and complement traditional sales processes with digital interactive systems.

Keywords: digitalization, interactive systems, marketing, sales process

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3850 The Profit Trend of Cosmetics Products Using Bootstrap Edgeworth Approximation

Authors: Edlira Donefski, Lorenc Ekonomi, Tina Donefski

Abstract:

Edgeworth approximation is one of the most important statistical methods that has a considered contribution in the reduction of the sum of standard deviation of the independent variables’ coefficients in a Quantile Regression Model. This model estimates the conditional median or other quantiles. In this paper, we have applied approximating statistical methods in an economical problem. We have created and generated a quantile regression model to see how the profit gained is connected with the realized sales of the cosmetic products in a real data, taken from a local business. The Linear Regression of the generated profit and the realized sales was not free of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity, so this is the reason that we have used this model instead of Linear Regression. Our aim is to analyze in more details the relation between the variables taken into study: the profit and the finalized sales and how to minimize the standard errors of the independent variable involved in this study, the level of realized sales. The statistical methods that we have applied in our work are Edgeworth Approximation for Independent and Identical distributed (IID) cases, Bootstrap version of the Model and the Edgeworth approximation for Bootstrap Quantile Regression Model. The graphics and the results that we have presented here identify the best approximating model of our study.

Keywords: bootstrap, edgeworth approximation, IID, quantile

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3849 Marketing Practices of the Urban and Recycled Wood Industry in the United States

Authors: Robert Smith, Omar Espinoza, Anna Pitta

Abstract:

In the United States, trees felled in urban areas and wood generated through construction and demolition are primarily disposed of as low-value resources, such as biomass for energy, landscaping mulch, composting, or landfilled. An emerging industry makes use of these underutilized resources to produce high value-added products, with associated benefits for the environment, the local economy, and consumers. For the circular economy to be successful, markets must be created for sustainable, reusable natural materials. Research was carried out to increase the understanding of the marketing practices of urban and reclaimed wood industries. This paper presents the results of a nationwide survey of these companies. The results indicate that a majority of companies in this industry are small firms, operating for less than 10 years, which produce mostly to order and sell their products at comparatively higher prices than competing products made from virgin natural resources. Promotional messages included quality, aesthetics, and customization, conveyed through company webpages, word of mouth, and social media. Distribution channels used include direct sales, online sales, and retail sales. Partnerships are critical for effective raw material procurement. Respondents indicated optimistic growth expectations, despite barriers associated with urban and reclaimed wood materials and production.

Keywords: urban and reclaimed wood, circular economy, marketing, wood products

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3848 Trait of Sales Professionals

Authors: Yuichi Morita, Yoshiteru Nakamori

Abstract:

In car dealer business of Japan, a sale professional is a key factor of company’s success. We hypothesize that, if a corporation knows what is the sales professionals’ trait of its corporation’s business field, it will be easier for a corporation to secure and nurture sales persons effectively. The lean human resources management will ensure business success and good performance of corporations, especially small and medium ones. The goal of the paper is to determine the traits of sales professionals for small-and medium-size car dealers, using chi-square test and the variable rough set model. As a result, the results illustrate that experience of job change, learning ability and product knowledge are important, and an academic background, building a career with internal transfer, experience of the leader and self-development are not important to be a sale professional. Also, we illustrate sales professionals’ traits are persistence, humility, improvisation and passion at business.

Keywords: traits of sales professionals, variable precision rough sets theory, sales professional, sales professionals

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
3847 A Comparative Analysis of Conventional and Organic Dairy Supply Chain: Assessing Transport Costs and External Effects in Southern Sweden

Authors: Vivianne Aggestam

Abstract:

Purpose: Organic dairy products have steadily increased with consumer popularity in recent years in Sweden, permitting more transport activities. The main aim of this study was to compare the transport costs and the environmental emissions made by the organic and conventional dairy production in Sweden. The objective was to evaluate differences and environmental impacts of transport between the two different production systems, allowing a more transparent understanding of the real impact of transport within the supply chain. Methods: A partial attributional Life Cycle Assessment has been conducted based on a comprehensive survey of Swedish farmers, dairies and consumers regarding their transport needs and costs. Interviews addressed the farmers and dairies. Consumers were targeted through an online survey. Results: Higher transport inputs from conventional dairy transportation are mainly via feed and soil management on farm level. The regional organic milk brand illustrate less initial transport burdens on farm level, however, after leaving the farm, it had equal or higher transportation requirements. This was mainly due to the location of the dairy farm and shorter product expiry dates, which requires more frequent retail deliveries. Organic consumers tend to use public transport more than private vehicles. Consumers using private vehicles for shopping trips primarily bought conventional products for which price was the main deciding factor. Conclusions: Organic dairy products that emphasise its regional attributes do not ensure less transportation and may therefore not be a more “climate smart” option for the consumer. This suggests that the idea of localism needs to be analysed from a more systemic perspective. Fuel and regional feed efficiency can be further implemented, mainly via fuel type and the types of vehicles used for transport.

Keywords: supply chains, distribution, transportation, organic food productions, conventional food production, agricultural fossil fuel use

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3846 Providing a Suitable Model for Launching New Home Appliances Products to the Market

Authors: Ebrahim Sabermaash Eshghi, Donna Sandsmark

Abstract:

In changing modern economic conditions of the world, one the most important issues facing managers of firms, is increasing the sales and profitability through sales of newly developed products. This is while purpose of decreasing unnecessary costs is one of the most essential programs of smart managers for more implementation with new conditions in current business. In modern life, condition of misgiving is dominant in all of the industries. Accordingly, in this research, influence of different aspects of presenting products to the market is investigated. This study is done through a Quantitative-Qualitative (Interviews and Questionnaire) approach. In sum, 103 of informed managers and experts of Pars-Khazar Company have been examined through census. Validity of measurement tools was approved through judgments of experts. Reliability of tools was gained through Cronbach's alpha coefficient in size of 0.930 and in sum, validity and reliability of tools were approved generally. Results of regression test revealed that the influence of all aspects of product introduction supported the performance of product, positively and significantly. In addition that influence of two new factors raised from the interview, namely Human Resource Management and Management of product’s pre-test on performance of products was approved.

Keywords: introducing products, performance, home appliances, price, advertisement, production

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3845 Revenue Management of Perishable Products Considering Freshness and Price Sensitive Customers

Authors: Onur Kaya, Halit Bayer

Abstract:

Global grocery and supermarket sales are among the largest markets in the world and perishable products such as fresh produce, dairy and meat constitute the biggest section of these markets. Due to their deterioration over time, the demand for these products depends highly on their freshness. They become totally obsolete after a certain amount of time causing a high amount of wastage and decreases in grocery profits. In addition, customers are asking for higher product variety in perishable product categories, leading to less predictable demand per product and to more out-dating. Effective management of these perishable products is an important issue since it is observed that billions of dollars’ worth of food is expired and wasted every month. We consider coordinated inventory and pricing decisions for perishable products with a time and price dependent random demand function. We use stochastic dynamic programming to model this system for both periodically-reviewed and continuously-reviewed inventory systems and prove certain structural characteristics of the optimal solution. We prove that the optimal ordering decision scenario has a monotone structure and the optimal price value decreases by time. However, the optimal price changes in a non-monotonic structure with respect to inventory size. We also analyze the effect of 1 different parameters on the optimal solution through numerical experiments. In addition, we analyze simple-to-implement heuristics, investigate their effectiveness and extract managerial insights. This study gives valuable insights about the management of perishable products in order to decrease wastage and increase profits.

Keywords: age-dependent demand, dynamic programming, perishable inventory, pricing

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3844 Study of the Impact of Quality Management System on Chinese Baby Dairy Product Industries

Authors: Qingxin Chen, Liben Jiang, Andrew Smith, Karim Hadjri

Abstract:

Since 2007, the Chinese food industry has undergone serious food contamination in the baby dairy industry, especially milk powder contamination. One of the milk powder products was found to contain melamine and a significant number (294,000) of babies were affected by kidney stones. Due to growing concerns among consumers about food safety and protection, and high pressure from central government, companies must take radical action to ensure food quality protection through the use of an appropriate quality management system. Previously, though researchers have investigated the health and safety aspects of food industries and products, quality issues concerning food products in China have been largely over-looked. Issues associated with baby dairy products and their quality issues have not been discussed in depth. This paper investigates the impact of quality management systems on the Chinese baby dairy product industry. A literature review was carried out to analyse the use of quality management systems within the Chinese milk power market. Moreover, quality concepts, relevant standards, laws, regulations and special issues (such as Melamine, Flavacin M1 contamination) have been analysed in detail. A qualitative research approach is employed, whereby preliminary analysis was conducted by interview, and data analysis based on interview responses from four selected Chinese baby dairy product companies was carried out. Through the analysis of literature review and data findings, it has been revealed that for quality management system that has been designed by many practitioners, many theories, models, conceptualisation, and systems are present. These standards and procedures should be followed in order to provide quality products to consumers, but the implementation is lacking in the Chinese baby dairy industry. Quality management systems have been applied by the selected companies but the implementation still needs improvement. For instance, the companies have to take measures to improve their processes and procedures with relevant standards. The government need to make more interventions and take a greater supervisory role in the production process. In general, this research presents implications for the regulatory bodies, Chinese Government and dairy food companies. There are food safety laws prevalent in China but they have not been widely practiced by companies. Regulatory bodies must take a greater role in ensuring compliance with laws and regulations. The Chinese government must also play a special role in urging companies to implement relevant quality control processes. The baby dairy companies not only have to accept the interventions from the regulatory bodies and government, they also need to ensure that production, storage, distribution and other processes will follow the relevant rules and standards.

Keywords: baby dairy product, food quality, milk powder contamination, quality management system

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3843 Predicting Customer Purchasing Behaviour in Retail Marketing: A Research for a Supermarket Chain

Authors: Sabri Serkan Güllüoğlu

Abstract:

Analysis can be defined as the process of gathering, recording and researching data related to products and services, in order to learn something. But for marketers, analyses are not only used for learning but also an essential and critical part of the business, because this allows companies to offer products or services which are focused and well targeted. Market analysis also identify market trends, demographics, customer’s buying habits and important information on the competition. Data mining is used instead of traditional research, because it extracts predictive information about customer and sales from large databases. In contrast to traditional research, data mining relies on information that is already available. Simply the goal is to improve the efficiency of supermarkets. In this study, the purpose is to find dependency on products. For instance, which items are bought together, using association rules in data mining. Moreover, this information will be used for improving the profitability of customers such as increasing shopping time and sales of fewer sold items.

Keywords: data mining, association rule mining, market basket analysis, purchasing

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3842 Rheology and Structural Arrest of Dense Dairy Suspensions: A Soft Matter Approach

Authors: Marjan Javanmard

Abstract:

The rheological properties of dairy products critically depend on the underlying organisation of proteins at multiple length scales. When heated and acidified, milk proteins form particle gel that is viscoelastic, solvent rich, ‘soft’ material. In this work recent developments on the rheology of soft particles suspensions were used to interpret and potentially define the properties of dairy gel structures. It is discovered that at volume fractions below random close packing (RCP), the Maron-Pierce-Quemada (MPQ) model accurately predicts the viscosity of the dairy gel suspensions without fitting parameters; the MPQ model has been shown previously to provide reasonable predictions of the viscosity of hard sphere suspensions from the volume fraction, solvent viscosity and RCP. This surprising finding demonstrates that up to RCP, the dairy gel system behaves as a hard sphere suspension and that the structural aggregates behave as discrete particulates akin to what is observed for microgel suspensions. At effective phase volumes well above RCP, the system is a soft solid. In this region, it is discovered that the storage modulus of the sheared AMG scales with the storage modulus of the set gel. The storage modulus in this regime is reasonably well described as a function of effective phase volume by the Evans and Lips model. Findings of this work has potential to aid in rational design and control of dairy food structure-properties.

Keywords: dairy suspensions, rheology-structure, Maron-Pierce-Quemada Model, Evans and Lips Model

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3841 Discovering Event Outliers for Drug as Commercial Products

Authors: Arunas Burinskas, Aurelija Burinskiene

Abstract:

On average, ten percent of drugs - commercial products are not available in pharmacies due to shortage. The shortage event disbalance sales and requires a recovery period, which is too long. Therefore, one of the critical issues that pharmacies do not record potential sales transactions during shortage and recovery periods. The authors suggest estimating outliers during shortage and recovery periods. To shorten the recovery period, the authors suggest using average sales per sales day prediction, which helps to protect the data from being downwards or upwards. Authors use the outlier’s visualization method across different drugs and apply the Grubbs test for significance evaluation. The researched sample is 100 drugs in a one-month time frame. The authors detected that high demand variability products had outliers. Among analyzed drugs, which are commercial products i) High demand variability drugs have a one-week shortage period, and the probability of facing a shortage is equal to 69.23%. ii) Mid demand variability drugs have three days shortage period, and the likelihood to fall into deficit is equal to 34.62%. To avoid shortage events and minimize the recovery period, real data must be set up. Even though there are some outlier detection methods for drug data cleaning, they have not been used for the minimization of recovery period once a shortage has occurred. The authors use Grubbs’ test real-life data cleaning method for outliers’ adjustment. In the paper, the outliers’ adjustment method is applied with a confidence level of 99%. In practice, the Grubbs’ test was used to detect outliers for cancer drugs and reported positive results. The application of the Grubbs’ test is used to detect outliers which exceed boundaries of normal distribution. The result is a probability that indicates the core data of actual sales. The application of the outliers’ test method helps to represent the difference of the mean of the sample and the most extreme data considering the standard deviation. The test detects one outlier at a time with different probabilities from a data set with an assumed normal distribution. Based on approximation data, the authors constructed a framework for scaling potential sales and estimating outliers with Grubbs’ test method. The suggested framework is applicable during the shortage event and recovery periods. The proposed framework has practical value and could be used for the minimization of the recovery period required after the shortage of event occurrence.

Keywords: drugs, Grubbs' test, outlier, shortage event

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3840 The Impact of Restricting Product Availability on the Purchasing of Lower Sugar Biscuits in UK Convenience Stores

Authors: Hannah S. Waldron

Abstract:

Background: The government has proposed sugar reduction targets in an effort to tackle childhood obesity, focussing on those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Supermarkets are a key location for reducing the amount of sugar purchased, but success so far in this environment has been limited. Building on previous research, this study will assess the impact of restricting the availability of higher sugar biscuits as a strategy to encourage lower sugar biscuit purchasing, and whether the effects vary by customer SES. Method: 14 supermarket convenience stores were divided between control (n=7) and intervention (n=7) groups. In the intervention stores, biscuits with sugar above the government’s target (26.2g/100g) were removed from sale and replaced with lower sugar ( < 26.2g sugar/100g) alternatives. Sales and customer demographic information were collected using loyalty card data and point-of-sale transaction data for 8-weeks pre and post the intervention for lower sugar biscuits, total biscuits, alternative higher sugar products, and all products. Results were analysed using three-way and two-way mixed ANOVAs. Results: The intervention resulted in a significant increase in lower sugar biscuit purchasing (p < 0.001) and a significant decline in overall biscuit sales (p < 0.001) between the time periods compared to control stores. Sales of higher sugar products and all products increased significantly between the two time periods in both the intervention and control stores (p < 0.05). SES showed no significant effect on any of the reported outcomes (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Restricting the availability of higher sugar products may be a successful strategy for encouraging lower sugar purchasing across all SES groups. However, larger-scale interventions are required in additional categories to assess the long term implications for both consumers and retailers.

Keywords: biscuits, nudging, sugar, supermarket

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3839 Analyzing of Good Dairy Practices in Dairy Farm Management in Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta: The Effect of Good Management in Milk Production

Authors: Dandi Riswanto, Mahendra Wahyu Eka Pradana, Hutomo Abdurrohman

Abstract:

The dairy farm has strategic roles in meeting the demand of foods. Sleman Regency is a central dairy production in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Sleman district has a population of 3954 heads dairy cattle with an environmental temperature of 22 to 35 degrees Celsius and humidity 74 to 87% which makes a good location for a dairy cattle farm. The dairy cattle that are kept by the majority of the Friesian Holstein Crossbreed are predominantly reared by conventional management. Sleman Regency accounts for 7.3% of national milk production. Factors influencing include genetic, environmental, and management. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFP) application on milk production in Sleman Regency. The data collection was conducted in January 2017 until May 2017 using survey and interviews methods at 5 locations of dairy farms selected randomly. Data were analyzed with the chi-square test. The result of this research showed that GDFP point was management 1,47 points (less good). The result showed that Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFP) has a positive effect on milk production.

Keywords: dairy cattle, GDFP, milk production, Sleman regency

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3838 Decision-Making Strategies on Smart Dairy Farms: A Review

Authors: L. Krpalkova, N. O' Mahony, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, G. Corkery, E. Broderick, J. Walsh

Abstract:

Farm management and operations will drastically change due to access to real-time data, real-time forecasting, and tracking of physical items in combination with Internet of Things developments to further automate farm operations. Dairy farms have embraced technological innovations and procured vast amounts of permanent data streams during the past decade; however, the integration of this information to improve the whole farm-based management and decision-making does not exist. It is now imperative to develop a system that can collect, integrate, manage, and analyse on-farm and off-farm data in real-time for practical and relevant environmental and economic actions. The developed systems, based on machine learning and artificial intelligence, need to be connected for useful output, a better understanding of the whole farming issue, and environmental impact. Evolutionary computing can be very effective in finding the optimal combination of sets of some objects and, finally, in strategy determination. The system of the future should be able to manage the dairy farm as well as an experienced dairy farm manager with a team of the best agricultural advisors. All these changes should bring resilience and sustainability to dairy farming as well as improving and maintaining good animal welfare and the quality of dairy products. This review aims to provide an insight into the state-of-the-art of big data applications and evolutionary computing in relation to smart dairy farming and identify the most important research and development challenges to be addressed in the future. Smart dairy farming influences every area of management, and its uptake has become a continuing trend.

Keywords: big data, evolutionary computing, cloud, precision technologies

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3837 Silage for Dairy Production: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Thair Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa

Abstract:

Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock only share 11.8 percent to national GDP during 2015-16. Pakistan is a 3rd largest milk producing country having 41.2, 35.6, 29.4, 68.4 and 1.0 million head cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and camel, respectively. Modern urbanization and shortage of feed resources for livestock species in a country is an alarming threat. The introduction of new technology and advanced techniques solve this issue. This includes drought feeding, increase production, aid to crop management, balance nutrition and easily storaged of wet feed products. It is therefore clear that silage has important role in animal feed and feeding. Financial model of this study clear the effectiveness of silage. Therefore, it is revealed from this study that silage is a cost-effective option for a profitable dairy farming in Pakistan.

Keywords: feed, silage, dairy, production, Pakistan

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3836 Material Saving Strategies, Technologies and Effects on Return on Sales

Authors: Jasna Prester, Najla Podrug, Davor Filipović

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Manufacturing companies invest a significant amount of sales into material resources for production. In our sample, 58% of sales is used for manufacturing inputs, while only 24% of sales is used for salaries. This means that if a company is looking to reduce costs, the greater potential is in reduction of material costs than downsizing. This research shows that manufacturing companies in Croatia did realize material savings in last three years. It is also shown by which technologies they achieved materials cost savings. Through literature research, we found research gap as to which technologies reduce material consumption. As methodology of research four regression analyses are used to prove our findings.

Keywords: Croatia, materials savings strategies, technologies, return on sales

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3835 Application of Microparticulated Whey Proteins in Reduced-Fat Yogurt through Hot-Extrusion: Influence on Physicochemical and Sensory Properties

Authors: M. K. Hossain, J. Keidel, O. Hensel, M. Diakite

Abstract:

Fat reduced dairy products are holding a potential market due to health reason. Due to less creamy, and pleasantness, reduced and/or low-fat dairy products are getting less consumer acceptance whereas the fat molecule provides smooth, creamy and a pleasant mouthfeel in dairy products especially yogurt & ice cream. This study was aimed to investigate whether the application of microparticulated whey proteins (MWPs) processed by extrusion cooking, the reduced fat yogurt can achieve similar or higher creaminess compared to whole milk (3.8% fat) and skimmed milk (0.5% fat) yogurt. Full cream and skimmed milk were used to prepare natural stirred yogurt, as well as the dry matter content, also adjusted up to 16% with skimmed milk powder. Whey protein concentrates (WPC80) were used to produce MWPs in particle size of d50 > 5 µm, d50 3<5 µm and d50 < 3 µm through the hot-extrusion process with a screw speed of 400, 600 and 1000 rpm respectively. Furthermore, the commercially available microparticulated whey protein called Simplesse® was also applied in order to compare with extruded MWPs. The rheological and sensory properties of yogurt were assessed, and data were analyzed statistically. The applications of extruded MWPs with 600 and 1000 rpm were achieved significantly (p < 0.05) higher creaminess and preference compared to the whole and skimmed milk yogurt whereas, 400 rpm got lower preference. On the other hand, Simplesse® obtained the lowest creaminess and preference compared to other yogurts, although the contribution of dry matter in yogurt was same as extruded MWPs. The creaminess and viscosities were strongly (r = 0.62) correlated, furthermore, the viscosity from sensory evaluation and the dynamic viscosity of yogurt was also significantly (r = 0.72) correlated which clarifies that the performance of sensory panelists as well as the quality of the products.

Keywords: microparticulation, hot-extrusion, reduced-fat yogurt, whey protein concentrate

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3834 Effect of Calving Season on the Economic and Production Efficiency of Dairy Production Breeds

Authors: Eman. K. Ramadan, Abdelgawad. S. El-Tahawy

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of calving season on the production and economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. Our study was performed at dairy production farms in the Alexandria, Behera, and Kafr El-Sheikh provinces of Egypt from summer 2010 to winter 2013. The randomly selected dairy farms had herds consisting of Baladi, Holstein-Friesian, or cross-bred (Baladi × Holstein-Friesian) cows. The data were collected from production records and responses to a structured questionnaire. The average total return differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the different cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average total return was highest for the Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in the winter (29106.42 EGP/cow/year), and it was lowest for Baladi cows that calved in the summer (12489.79 EGP/cow/year). Differences in total returns between the cows that calved in the winter or summer or between the foreign and native breeds, as well as variations in calf prices, might have contributed to the differences in milk yield. The average net profit per cow differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average net profit values for the Baladi cows that calved in the winter or summer were 2413 and 2994.96 EGP/cow/year, respectively, and those for the Holstein-Friesian cows were 10744.17 and 7860.56 EGP/cow/year, respectively, whereas those for the cross-bred cows were 10174.86 and 7571.33 EGP/cow/year, respectively. The variations in net profit might have resulted from variation in the availability or price of feed materials, milk prices, or sales volumes. Our results show that the breed and calving season of dairy cows significantly affected the economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. The cows that calved in the winter produced more milk than those that calved in the summer, which may have been the result of seasonal influences, such as temperature, humidity, management practices, and the type of feed or green fodder available.

Keywords: calving season, economic, production, efficiency, dairy

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
3833 Sales-Based Dynamic Investment and Leverage Decisions: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: Rihab Belguith, Fathi Abid

Abstract:

The paper develops a system-based approach to investigate the dynamic adjustment of debt structure and investment policies of the Dow-Jones index. This approach enables the assessment of relations among sales, debt, and investment opportunities by considering the simultaneous effect of the market environmental change and future growth opportunities. We integrate the firm-specific sales variance to capture the industries' conditions in the model. Empirical results were obtained through a panel data set of firms with different sectors. The analysis support that environmental change does not affect equally the different industry since operating leverage differs among industries and so the sensitivity to sales variance. Including adjusted-specific variance, we find that there is no monotonic relation between leverage, sales, and investment. The firm may choose a low debt level in response to high sales variance but high leverage to attenuate the negative relation between sales variance and the current level of investment. We further find that while the overall effect of debt maturity on leverage is unaffected by the level of growth opportunities, the shorter the maturity of debt is, the smaller the direct effect of sales variance on investment.

Keywords: dynamic panel, investment, leverage decision, sales uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3832 Development of a Symbiotic Milk Chocolate Using Inulin and Bifidobacterium Lactis

Authors: Guity Karim, Valiollah Ayareh

Abstract:

Probiotic dairy products are those that contain biologically active components that may affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond their adequate nutritional effects. As far as chocolate milk is a popular dairy product in the country especially among children and youth, production of a symbiotic (probiotic + peribiotic) new product using chocolate milk, Bifidobacterium lactis (DSM, Netherland) and inulin (Bene, Belgium) would help to promote the nutritional and functional properties of this product. Bifidobacterium Lactis is used as a probiotic in a variety of foods, particularly dairy products like yogurt and as a probiotic bacterium has benefit effects on the human health. Inulin as a peribiotic agent is considered as functional food ingredient. Experimental studies have shown its use as bifidogenic agent. Chocolate milk with different percent of fat (1 and 2 percent), 6 % of sugar and 0.9 % cacao was made, sterilized (UHT) and supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis and inulin (0.5 %) after cooling . A sample was made without inulin as a control. Bifidobacterium lactis population was enumerated at days 0, 4, 8 and 12 together with measurement of pH, acidity and viscosity of the samples. Also sensory property of the product was evaluated by a 15 panel testers. The number of live bacterial cells was maintained at the functional level of 106-108 cfu/ml after keeping for 12 days in refrigerated temperature (4°C). Coliforms were found to be absent in the products during the storage. Chocolate milk containing 1% fat and inulin has the best effect on the survival and number of B. lactis at day 8 and after that. Moreover, the addition of inulin did not affect the sensorial quality of the product. In this work, chocolate has been evaluated as a potential protective carrier for oral delivery of B. lactis and inulin.

Keywords: chocolate milk, synbiotic, bifidobacterium lactis, inulin

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
3831 Joint Optimal Pricing and Lot-Sizing Decisions for an Advance Sales System under Stochastic Conditions

Authors: Maryam Ghoreishi, Christian Larsen

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the effect of stochastic inputs on problem of joint optimal pricing and lot-sizing decisions where the inventory cycle is divided into advance and spot sales periods. During the advance sales period, customer can make reservations while customer with reservations can cancel their order. However, during the spot sales period customers receive the order as soon as the order is placed, but they cannot make any reservation or cancellation during that period. We assume that the inter arrival times during the advance sales and spot sales period are exponentially distributed where the arrival rate is decreasing function of price. Moreover, we assume that the number of cancelled reservations is binomially distributed. In addition, we assume that deterioration process follows an exponential distribution. We investigate two cases. First, we consider two-state case where we find the optimal price during the spot sales period and the optimal price during the advance sales period. Next, we develop a generalized case where we extend two-state case also to allow dynamic prices during the spot sales period. We apply the Markov decision theory in order to find the optimal solutions. In addition, for the generalized case, we apply the policy iteration algorithm in order to find the optimal prices, the optimal lot-size and maximum advance sales amount.

Keywords: inventory control, pricing, Markov decision theory, advance sales system

Procedia PDF Downloads 205