Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8185

Search results for: surface pressure

8185 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan


This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
8184 Effect of Different Contact Rollers on the Surface Texture during the Belt Grinding Process

Authors: Amine Hamdi, Sidi Mohammed Merghache, Brahim Fernini


During abrasive machining of hard steels by belt grinding, the finished surface texture is influenced by the pressure between the abrasive belt and the workpiece; this pressure is the force applied by the contact roller on the workpiece. Therefore, the contact roller has an important role and has a direct impact on process efficiency. The objective of this article is to study and compare the influence of different contact rollers on the belt ground surface texture. The quality of the surface texture is characterized by eight roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rp, Rv, Rsk, Rku, Rsm, and Rdq) and five parameters of the bearing area curve (Rpk, Rk, Rvk, Mr1, and Mr2). The results of the experimental tests indicate a better surface texture obtained by the PA 6 polyamide roller (hardness 60 Shore D) compared to that obtained with other rollers of the same hardness or of different hardness. Simultaneously, optimum medium pressure between the belt and the workpiece allows chip removal without fracturing the abrasive grains. This generates a good surface texture.

Keywords: belt grinding, contact roller, pressure, abrasive belt, surface texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
8183 Surface Pressure Distributions for a Forebody Using Pressure Sensitive Paint

Authors: Yi-Xuan Huang, Kung-Ming Chung, Ping-Han Chung


Pressure sensitive paint (PSP), which relies on the oxygen quenching of a luminescent molecule, is an optical technique used in wind-tunnel models. A full-field pressure pattern with low aerodynamic interference can be obtained, and it is becoming an alternative to pressure measurements using pressure taps. In this study, a polymer-ceramic PSP was used, using toluene as a solvent. The porous particle and polymer were silica gel (SiO₂) and RTV-118 (3g:7g), respectively. The compound was sprayed onto the model surface using a spray gun. The absorption and emission spectra for Ru(dpp) as a luminophore were respectively 441-467 nm and 597 nm. A Revox SLG-55 light source with a short-pass filter (550 nm) and a 14-bit CCD camera with a long-pass (600 nm) filter were used to illuminate PSP and to capture images. This study determines surface pressure patterns for a forebody of an AGARD B model in a compressible flow. Since there is no experimental data for surface pressure distributions available, numerical simulation is conducted using ANSYS Fluent. The lift and drag coefficients are calculated and in comparison with the data in the open literature. The experiments were conducted using a transonic wind tunnel at the Aerospace Science and Research Center, National Cheng Kung University. The freestream Mach numbers were 0.83, and the angle of attack ranged from -4 to 8 degree. Deviation between PSP and numerical simulation is within 5%. However, the effect of the setup of the light source should be taken into account to address the relative error.

Keywords: pressure sensitive paint, forebody, surface pressure, compressible flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
8182 Mathematical Modelling of Different Types of Body Support Surface for Pressure Ulcer Prevention

Authors: Mahbub C. Mishu, Venktesh N. Dubey, Tamas Hickish, Jonathan Cole


Pressure ulcer is a common problem for today's healthcare industry. It occurs due to external load applied to the skin. Also when the subject is immobile for a longer period of time and there is continuous load applied to a particular area of human body,blood flow gets reduced and as a result pressure ulcer develops. Body support surface has a significant role in preventing ulceration so it is important to know the characteristics of support surface under loading conditions. In this paper we have presented mathematical models of different types of viscoelastic materials and also we have shown the validation of our simulation results with experiments.

Keywords: pressure ulcer, viscoelastic material, mathematical model, experimental validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
8181 Numerical Simulation of the Kurtosis Effect on the EHL Problem

Authors: S. Gao, S. Srirattayawong


In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed for studying the effect of surface roughness profile on the EHL problem. The cylinders contact geometry, meshing and calculation of the conservation of mass and momentum equations are carried out by using the commercial software packages ICEMCFD and ANSYS Fluent. The user defined functions (UDFs) for density, viscosity and elastic deformation of the cylinders as the functions of pressure and temperature have been defined for the CFD model. Three different surface roughness profiles are created and incorporated into the CFD model. It is found that the developed CFD model can predict the characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer in the EHL problem, including the leading parameters such as the pressure distribution, minimal film thickness, viscosity, and density changes. The obtained results show that the pressure profile at the center of the contact area directly relates to the roughness amplitude. The rough surface with kurtosis value over 3 influences the fluctuated shape of pressure distribution higher than other cases.

Keywords: CFD, EHL, kurtosis, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
8180 Traction Behavior of Linear Piezo-Viscous Lubricants in Rough Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Contacts

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar


The traction behavior of lubricants with the linear pressure-viscosity response in EHL line contacts is investigated numerically for smooth as well as rough surfaces. The analysis involves the simultaneous solution of Reynolds, elasticity and energy equations along with the computation of lubricant properties and surface temperatures. The temperature modified Doolittle-Tait equations are used to calculate viscosity and density as functions of fluid pressure and temperature, while Carreau model is used to describe the lubricant rheology. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the nearly stationary surface in near-pure sliding EHL conjunction. The linear P-V oil is found to yield much lower traction coefficients and slightly thicker EHL films as compared to the synthetic oil for a given set of dimensionless speed and load parameters. Besides, the increase in traction coefficient attributed to surface roughness is much lower for the former case. The present analysis emphasizes the importance of employing realistic pressure-viscosity response for accurate prediction of EHL traction.

Keywords: EHL, linear pressure-viscosity, surface roughness, traction, water/glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
8179 Numerical Investigation of Pressure and Velocity Field Contours of Dynamics of Drop Formation

Authors: Pardeep Bishnoi, Mayank Srivastava, Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha


This article represents the numerical investigation of the pressure and velocity field variation of the dynamics of pendant drop formation through a capillary tube. Numerical simulations are executed using volume of fluid (VOF) method in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this problem, Non Newtonian fluid is considered as dispersed fluid whereas air is considered as a continuous fluid. Pressure contours at various time steps expose that pressure varies nearly hydrostatically at each step of the dynamics of drop formation. A result also shows the pressure variation of the liquid droplet during free fall in the computational domain. The evacuation of the fluid from the necking region is also shown by the contour of the velocity field. The role of surface tension in the Pressure contour of the dynamics of drop formation is also studied.

Keywords: pressure contour, surface tension, volume of fluid, velocity field

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
8178 Surface Quality Improvement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting for Spacecraft Structure

Authors: Tarek M. Ahmed, Ahmed S. El Mesalamy, Amro M. Youssef, Tawfik T. El Midany


Abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining is considered as one of the most powerful cutting processes. It can be used for cutting heat sensitive, hard and reflective materials. Aluminum 2024 is a high-strength alloy which is widely used in aerospace and aviation industries. This paper aims to improve aluminum alloy and to investigate the effect of AWJ control parameters on surface geometry quality. Design of experiments (DoE) is used for establishing an experimental matrix. Statistical modeling is used to present a relation between the cutting parameters (pressure, speed, and distance between the nozzle and cut surface) and responses (taper angle and surface roughness). The results revealed a tangible improvement in productivity by using AWJ processing. The taper kerf angle can be improved by decreasing standoff distance and speed and increasing water pressure. While decreasing (cutting speed, pressure and distance between the nozzle and cut surface) improve the surface roughness in the operating window of cutting parameters.

Keywords: abrasive waterjet machining, machining of aluminum alloy, non-traditional cutting, statistical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
8177 Study on Optimization Design of Pressure Hull for Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Qasim Idrees, Gao Liangtian, Liu Bo, Miao Yiran


In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the pressure hull structure, optimization of underwater vehicle based on response surface methodology, a method for optimizing the design of pressure hull structure was studied. To determine the pressure shell of five dimensions as a design variable, the application of thin shell theory and the Chinese Classification Society (CCS) specification was carried on the preliminary design. In order to optimize variables of the feasible region, different methods were studied and implemented such as Opt LHD method (to determine the design test sample points in the feasible domain space), parametric ABAQUS solution for each sample point response, and the two-order polynomial response for the surface model of the limit load of structures. Based on the ultimate load of the structure and the quality of the shell, the two-generation genetic algorithm was used to solve the response surface, and the Pareto optimal solution set was obtained. The final optimization result was 41.68% higher than that of the initial design, and the shell quality was reduced by about 27.26%. The parametric method can ensure the accuracy of the test and improve the efficiency of optimization.

Keywords: parameterization, response surface, structure optimization, pressure hull

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
8176 Design and Optimization of Flow Field for Cavitation Reduction of Valve Sleeves

Authors: Kamal Upadhyay, Zhou Hua, Yu Rui


This paper aims to improve the streamline linked with the flow field and cavitation on the valve sleeve. We observed that local pressure fluctuation produces a low-pressure zone, central to the formation of vapor volume fraction within the valve chamber led to air-bubbles (or cavities). Thus, it allows simultaneously to a severe negative impact on the inner surface and lifespan of the valve sleeves. Cavitation reduction is a vitally important issue to pressure control valves. The optimization of the flow field is proposed in this paper to reduce the cavitation of valve sleeves. In this method, the inner wall of the valve sleeve is changed from a cylindrical surface to the conical surface, leading to the decline of the fluid flow velocity and the rise of the outlet pressure. Besides, the streamline is distributed inside the sleeve uniformly. Thus, the bubble generation is lessened. The fluid models are built and analysis of flow field distribution, pressure, vapor volume and velocity was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and numerical technique. The results indicate that this structure can suppress the cavitation of valve sleeves effectively.

Keywords: streamline, cavitation, optimization, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
8175 Nonlinear Free Surface Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Abdelraheem M. Aly, Minh Tuan Nguyen, Sang-Wook Lee


The incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) is used to simulate impact free surface flows. In the ISPH, pressure is evaluated by solving pressure Poisson equation using a semi-implicit algorithm based on the projection method. The current ISPH method is applied to simulate dam break flow over an inclined plane with different inclination angles. The effects of inclination angle in the velocity of wave front and pressure distribution is discussed. The impact of circular cylinder over water in tank has also been simulated using ISPH method. The computed pressures on the solid boundaries is studied and compared with the experimental results.

Keywords: incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics, free surface flow, inclined plane, water entry impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
8174 Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles

Authors: Hee-Chang Lim


The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.

Keywords: rectangular bodies, wind direction, aspect ratio, surface pressure distribution, wind-tunnel measurement, k-ε model, DES model, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
8173 Wave Pressure Metering with the Specific Instrument and Measure Description Determined by the Shape and Surface of the Instrument including the Number of Sensors and Angle between Them

Authors: Branimir Jurun, Elza Jurun


Focus of this paper is description and functioning manner of the instrument for wave pressure metering. Moreover, an essential component of this paper is the proposal of a metering unit for the direct wave pressure measurement determined by the shape and surface of the instrument including the number of sensors and angle between them. Namely, far applied instruments by means of height, length, direction, wave time period and other components determine wave pressure on a particular area. This instrument, allows the direct measurement i.e. measurement without additional calculation, of the wave pressure expressed in a standardized unit of measure. That way the instrument has a standardized form, surface, number of sensors and the angle between them. In addition, it is made with the status that follows the wave and always is on the water surface. Database quality which is listed by the instrument is made possible by using the Arduino chip. This chip is programmed for receiving by two data from each of the sensors each second. From these data by a pre-defined manner a unique representative value is estimated. By this procedure all relevant wave pressure measurement results are directly and immediately registered. Final goal of establishing such a rich database is a comprehensive statistical analysis that ranges from multi-criteria analysis across different modeling and parameters testing to hypothesis accepting relating to the widest variety of man-made activities such as filling of beaches, security cages for aquaculture, bridges construction.

Keywords: instrument, metering, water, waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
8172 Three-Dimensional Spillage Effects on the Pressure Distribution of a Double Ramp

Authors: Pengcheng Quan, Shan Zhong


Double ramp geometry is widely used in supersonic and hypersonic environments as it presents unique flow patterns for shock wave-boundary layer interaction studies as well as for two-dimensional inlets and deflected control surfaces for re-entry vehicles. Hence, the surface pressure distribution is critical for optimum design. Though when the model is wide enough on spanwise direction the flow can be regarded as a two-dimensional flow, in actual applications a finite width would normally cause some three-dimensional spillage effects. No research has been found addressed this problem, hence the primary interest of this study is to set up a liable surface pressure distribution on a double ramp with three-dimensional effects. Both numerical and experimental (pressure sensitive paints) are applied to obtain the pressure distribution; the results agree well except that the numerical computation doesn’t capture the Gortler vortices. The pressure variations on the spanwise planes are used to analyse the development of the Gortler vortices and the effects of three-dimensional spillage on the vortices. Results indicate that the three-dimensionl spillage effects not only enhance the developing of the Gortler vortice, but also increase the periodic distance between vortice pairs.

Keywords: spillage effects, pressure sensitive paints, hypersonic, double ramp

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
8171 Polishing Machine Based on High-Pressure Water Jet

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh


The design of high pressure water jet based polishing equipment and its fabrication conducted in this study is reported herein, together with some preliminary test results for assessing its applicability for HMA surface polishing. This study also provides preliminary findings concerning the test variables, such as the rotational speed, the water jet pressure, the abrasive agent used, and the impact angel that were experimentally investigated in this study. The preliminary findings based on four trial tests (two on large slab specimens and two on small size gyratory compacted specimens), however, indicate that both friction and texture values tend to increase with the polishing durations for two combinations of pressure and rotation speed of the rotary deck. It seems that the more polishing action the specimen is subjected to; the aggregate edges are created such that the surface texture values are increased with the accompanied increase in friction values. It may be of interest (but which is outside the scope of this study) to investigate if the similar trend exist for HMA prepared with aggregate source that is sand and gravel.

Keywords: high-pressure, water jet, friction, texture, polishing, statistical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
8170 On the Role of Cutting Conditions on Surface Roughness in High-Speed Thread Milling of Brass C3600

Authors: Amir Mahyar Khorasani, Ian Gibson, Moshe Goldberg, Mohammad Masoud Movahedi, Guy Littlefair


One of the important factors in manufacturing processes especially machining operations is surface quality. Improving this parameter results in improving fatigue strength, corrosion resistance, creep life and surface friction. The reliability and clearance of removable joints such as thread and nuts are highly related to the surface roughness. In this work, the effect of different cutting parameters such as cutting fluid pressure, feed rate and cutting speed on the surface quality of the crest of thread in the high-speed milling of Brass C3600 have been determined. Two popular neural networks containing MLP and RBF coupling with Taguchi L32 have been used to model surface roughness which was shown to be highly adept for such tasks. The contribution of this work is modelling surface roughness on the crest of the thread by using precise profilometer with nanoscale resolution. Experimental tests have been carried out for validation and approved suitable accuracy of the proposed model. Also analysing the interaction of parameters two by two showed that the most effective cutting parameter on the surface value is feed rate followed by cutting speed and cutting fluid pressure.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, cutting conditions, high-speed machining, surface roughness, thread milling

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
8169 The Pressure Distribution on the Rectangular and Trapezoidal Storage Tanks' Perimeters Due to Liquid Sloshing Impact

Authors: Hassan Saghi, Gholam Reza Askarzadeh Garmroud, Seyyed Ali Reza Emamian


Sloshing phenomenon is a complicated free surface flow problem that increases the dynamic pressure on the sidewalls and the bottom of the storage tanks. When the storage tanks are partially filled, it is essential to be able to evaluate the fluid dynamic loads on the tank’s perimeter. In this paper, a numerical code was developed to determine the pressure distribution on the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact. Assuming the fluid to be inviscid, the Laplace equation and the nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled BEM-FEM. The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data. Finally, this code is used for partially filled rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks and the pressure distribution on the tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact is estimated. The results show that the maximum pressure on the perimeter of the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks was decreased along the sidewalls from the top to the bottom. Furthermore, the period of the pressure distribution is different for different points on the tank’s perimeter and it is bigger in the trapezoidal tanks compared to the rectangular ones.

Keywords: pressure distribution, liquid sloshing impact, sway motion, trapezoidal storage tank, coupled BEM-FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
8168 Flow Separation Control on an Aerofoil Using Grooves

Authors: Neel K. Shah


Wind tunnel tests have been performed at The University of Manchester to investigate the impact of surface grooves of a trapezoidal planform on flow separation on a symmetrical aerofoil. A spanwise array of the grooves has been applied around the maximum thickness location of the upper surface of an NACA-0015 aerofoil. The aerofoil has been tested in a two-dimensional set-up in a low-speed wind tunnel at an angle of attack (AoA) of 3° and a chord-based Reynolds number (Re) of ~2.7 x 105. A laminar separation bubble developed on the aerofoil at low AoA. It has been found that the grooves shorten the streamwise extent of the separation bubble by shedding a pair of counter-rotating vortices. However, the increase in leading-edge suction due to the shorter bubble is not significant since the creation of the grooves results in a decrease of surface curvature and an increase in blockage (increase in surface pressure). Additionally, the increased flow mixing by the grooves thickens the boundary layer near the trailing edge of the aerofoil also contributes to this limitation. As a result of these competing effects, the improvement in the pressure-lift and pressure-drag coefficients are small, i.e., by ~1.30% and ~0.30%, respectively, at 3° AoA. Crosswire anemometry shows that the grooves increase turbulence intensity and Reynolds stresses in the wake, thus indicating an increase in viscous drag.

Keywords: aerofoil flow control, flow separation, grooves, vortices

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
8167 Experimental Study on Slicing of Sapphire with Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw

Authors: Mengjun Zhang, Yuli Sun, Dunwen Zuo, Chunxiang Xie, Chunming Zhang


Experimental study on slicing of sapphire with fixed abrasive diamond wire saw was conducted in this paper. The process parameters were optimized through orthogonal experiment of three factors and four levels. The effects of wire speed, feed speed and tension pressure on the surface roughness were analyzed. Surface roughness in cutting direction and feed direction were both detected. The results show that feed speed plays the most significant role on the surface roughness of sliced sapphire followed by wire speed and tension pressure. The optimized process parameters are as follows: wire speed 1.9 m/s, feed speed 0.187 mm/min and tension pressure 0.18 MPa. In the end, the results were verified by analysis of variance.

Keywords: fixed abrasive, diamond wire saw, slicing, sapphire, orthogonal experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
8166 Variation of Airfoil Pressure Profile Due to Confined Air Streams: Application in Gas-Oil Separators

Authors: Amir Hossein Haji, Nabeel Al-Rawahi, Gholamreza Vakili-Nezhaad


An innovative design has been examined for a gas-oil separator based on pressure reduction over an airfoil surface. The primary motivations are to shorten the release trajectory of the bubbles by minimizing the thickness of the oil layer as well as improving uniform pressure reduction zones. Restricted airflow over an airfoil is investigated for its effect on the pressure drop enhancement and the maximum attainable attack angle prior to the stall condition. Aerodynamic separation is delayed based on numerical simulation of Wortmann FX 63137 Airfoil in a confined domain using FLUENT 6.3.26. The proposed set up results in higher pressure drop compared with the free stream case. With the aim of optimum power consumption we have pursued further restriction to an air jet case over the airfoil. Then, a curved strip model is suggested for the air jet which can be applied as an analysis/design tool for the best performance conditions. Pressure reduction is shown to be inversely proportional to the curvature of the upper airfoil profile. This reduction occurs within the tracking zones where the air jet is effectively attached to the airfoil surface. The zero slope condition is suggested to estimate the onset of these zones after which the minimum curvature should be searched. The corresponding zero slope curvature is applied for estimation of the maximum pressure drop which shows satisfactory agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: airfoil, air jet, curved fluid flow, gas-oil separator

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
8165 Influence of Pressure from Compression Textile Bands: Their Using in the Treatment of Venous Human Leg Ulcers

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui


The aim of study was to evaluate pressure distribution characteristics of the elastic textile bandages using two instrumental techniques: a prototype Instrument and a load Transference. The prototype instrument which simulates shape of real leg has pressure sensors which measure bandage pressure. Using this instrument, the results show that elastic textile bandages presents different pressure distribution characteristics and none produces a uniform distribution around lower limb. The load transference test procedure is used to determine whether a relationship exists between elastic textile bandage structure and pressure distribution characteristics. The test procedure assesses degree of load, directly transferred through a textile when loads series are applied to bandaging surface. A range of weave fabrics was produced using needle weaving machine and a sewing technique. A textile bandage was developed with optimal characteristics far superior pressure distribution than other bandages. From results, we find that theoretical pressure is not consistent exactly with practical pressure. It is important in this study to make a practical application for specialized nurses in order to verify the results and draw useful conclusions for predicting the use of this type of elastic band.

Keywords: textile, cotton, pressure, venous ulcers, elastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
8164 Surface Roughness Effects in Pure Sliding EHL Line Contacts with Carreau-Type Shear-Thinning Lubricants

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar


The influence of transverse surface roughness on EHL characteristics has been investigated numerically using an extensive set of full EHL line contact simulations for shear-thinning lubricants under pure sliding condition. The shear-thinning behavior of lubricant is modeled using Carreau viscosity equation along with Doolittle-Tait equation for lubricant compressibility. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the stationary surface. It is found that surface roughness causes sharp pressure peaks along with reduction in central and minimum film thickness. With increasing amplitude of surface roughness, the minimum film thickness decreases much more rapidly as compared to the central film thickness.

Keywords: EHL, Carreau, shear-thinning, surface roughness, amplitude, wavelength

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
8163 Flame Spread along Fuel Cylinders in High Pressures

Authors: Yanli Zhao, Jian Chen, Shouxiang Lu


Flame spread over solid fuels in high pressure situations such as nuclear containment shells and hyperbaric oxygen chamber has potential to result in catastrophic disaster, thus requiring best knowledge. This paper reveals experimentally the flame spread behaviors over fuel cylinders in high pressures. The fuel used in this study is polyethylene and polymethyl methacrylate cylinders with 4mm diameter. Ambient gas is fixed as air and total pressures are varied from naturally normal pressure (100kPa) to elevated pressure (400kPa). Flame appearance, burning rate and flame spread were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Results show that high pressure significantly affects the flame appearance, which is as the pressure increases, flame color changes from luminous yellow to orange and the orange part extends down towards the base of flame. Besides, the average flame width and height, and the burning rate are proved to increase with increasing pressure. What is more, flame spread rates become higher as pressure increases due to the enhancement of heat transfer from flame to solid surface in elevated pressure by performing a simplified heat balance analysis.

Keywords: cylinder fuel, flame spread, heat transfer, high pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
8162 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah


Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, surface hardness, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
8161 Prediction of Trailing-Edge Noise under Adverse-Pressure Gradient Effect

Authors: Li Chen


For an aerofoil or hydrofoil in high Reynolds number flows, broadband noise is generated efficiently as the result of the turbulence convecting over the trailing edge. This noise can be related to the surface pressure fluctuations, which can be predicted by either CFD or empirical models. However, in reality, the aerofoil or hydrofoil often operates at an angle of attack. Under this situation, the flow is subjected to an Adverse-Pressure-Gradient (APG), and as a result, a flow separation may occur. This study is to assess trailing-edge noise models for such flows. In the present work, the trailing-edge noise from a 2D airfoil at 6 degree of angle of attach is investigated. Under this condition, the flow is experiencing a strong APG, and the flow separation occurs. The flow over the airfoil with a chord of 300 mm, equivalent to a Reynold Number 4x10⁵, is simulated using RANS with the SST k-ɛ turbulent model. The predicted surface pressure fluctuations are compared with the published experimental data and empirical models, and show a good agreement with the experimental data. The effect of the APG on the trailing edge noise is discussed, and the associated trailing edge noise is calculated.

Keywords: aero-acoustics, adverse-pressure gradient, computational fluid dynamics, trailing-edge noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
8160 Mechanical Design of External Pressure Vessel to an AUV

Authors: Artur Siqueira Nóbrega de Freitas


The Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), as well the Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV), are unmanned technologies used in oceanographic investigations, offshore oil extraction, military applications, among others. Differently from AUVs, ROVs uses a physical connection with the surface for energy supply e data traffic. The AUVs use batteries and embedded data acquisition systems. These technologies have progressed, supported by studies in the areas of robotics, embedded systems, naval engineering, etc. This work presents a methodology for external pressure vessel design, responsible for contain and keep the internal components of the vehicle, such as on-board electronics and sensors, isolated from contact with water, creating a pressure differential between the inner and external regions.

Keywords: vessel, external pressure, AUV, buckling

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
8159 Monitoring Blood Pressure Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Qasem Qananwah, Ahmad Dagamseh, Hiam AlQuran, Khalid Shaker Ibrahim


Blood pressure helps the physicians greatly to have a deep insight into the cardiovascular system. The determination of individual blood pressure is a standard clinical procedure considered for cardiovascular system problems. The conventional techniques to measure blood pressure (e.g. cuff method) allows a limited number of readings for a certain period (e.g. every 5-10 minutes). Additionally, these systems cause turbulence to blood flow; impeding continuous blood pressure monitoring, especially in emergency cases or critically ill persons. In this paper, the most important statistical features in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals were extracted to estimate the blood pressure noninvasively. PPG signals from more than 40 subjects were measured and analyzed and 12 features were extracted. The features were fed to principal component analysis (PCA) to find the most important independent features that have the highest correlation with blood pressure. The results show that the stiffness index means and standard deviation for the beat-to-beat heart rate were the most important features. A model representing both features for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) was obtained using a statistical regression technique. Surface fitting is used to best fit the series of data and the results show that the error value in estimating the SBP is 4.95% and in estimating the DBP is 3.99%.

Keywords: blood pressure, noninvasive optical system, principal component analysis, PCA, continuous monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
8158 Numerical Study of Off-Design Performance of a Highly Loaded Low Pressure Turbine Cascade

Authors: Shidvash Vakilipour, Mehdi Habibnia, Rouzbeh Riazi, Masoud Mohammadi, Mohammad H. Sabour


The flow field passing through a highly loaded low pressure (LP) turbine cascade is numerically investigated at design and off-design conditions. The Field Operation And Manipulation (OpenFOAM) platform is used as the computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. Firstly, the influences of grid resolution on the results of k-ε, k-ω, and LES turbulence models are investigated and compared with those of experimental measurements. A numerical pressure under-shoot is appeared near the end of blade pressure surface which is sensitive to grid resolution and flow turbulence modeling. The LES model is able to resolve separation on a coarse and fine grid resolutions. Secondly, the off-design flow condition is modeled by negative and positive inflow incidence angles. The numerical experiments show that a separation bubble generated on blade pressure side is predicted by LES. The total pressure drop is also been calculated at incidence angle between -20◦ and +8◦. The minimum total pressure drop is obtained by k-ω and LES at the design point.

Keywords: low pressure turbine, off-design performance, openFOAM, turbulence modeling, flow separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
8157 Flow-Control Effectiveness of Convergent Surface Indentations on an Aerofoil at Low Reynolds Numbers

Authors: Neel K. Shah


Passive flow control on aerofoils has largely been achieved through the use of protrusions such as vane-type vortex generators. Consequently, innovative flow-control concepts should be explored in an effort to improve current component performance. Therefore, experimental research has been performed at The University of Manchester to evaluate the flow-control effectiveness of a vortex generator made in the form of a surface indentation. The surface indentation has a trapezoidal planform. A spanwise array of indentations has been applied in a convergent orientation around the maximum-thickness location of the upper surface of a NACA-0015 aerofoil. The aerofoil has been tested in a two-dimensional set-up in a low-speed wind tunnel at an angle of attack (AoA) of 3° and a chord-based Reynolds number (Re) of ~2.7 x 105. The baseline model has been found to suffer from a laminar separation bubble at low AoA. The application of the indentations at 3° AoA has considerably shortened the separation bubble. The indentations achieve this by shedding up-flow pairs of streamwise vortices. Despite the considerable reduction in bubble length, the increase in leading-edge suction due to the shorter bubble is limited by the removal of surface curvature and blockage (increase in surface pressure) caused locally by the convergent indentations. Furthermore, the up-flow region of the vortices, which locally weakens the pressure recovery around the trailing edge of the aerofoil by thickening the boundary layer, also contributes to this limitation. Due to the conflicting effects of the indentations, the changes in the pressure-lift and pressure-drag coefficients, i.e., cl,p and cd,p, are small. Nevertheless, the indentations have improved cl,p and cd,p beyond the uncertainty range, i.e., by ~1.30% and ~0.30%, respectively, at 3° AoA. The wake measurements show that turbulence intensity and Reynolds stresses have considerably increased in the indented case, thus implying that the indentations increase the viscous drag on the model. In summary, the convergent indentations are able to reduce the size of the laminar separation bubble, but conversely, they are not highly effective in reducing cd,p at the tested Reynolds number.

Keywords: aerofoil flow control, laminar separation bubbles, low Reynolds-number flows, surface indentations

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8156 The Impact of Direct and Indirect Pressure Measuring Systems on the Pressure Mapping for the Medical Compression Garments

Authors: Arash M. Shahidi, Tilak Dias, Gayani K. Nandasiri


While graduated compression is the foundation of treatment and management of many medical complications such as leg ulcer, varicose veins, and lymphedema, monitoring the interface pressure has been conducted using different sensors that operate based on diverse approaches. The variations existed from the pressure readings collected using different interface pressure measurement systems would cause difficulties in taking a decision regarding the compression therapy. It is crucial to acknowledge the differences existing between direct and indirect pressure measurement systems while considering the commercially available systems such as AMI, Picopress and OPM which are under direct measurements systems, and HATRA (BSI), HOSY (RAL-GZ) and FlexiForce which comes under the indirect measurement system. Furthermore, Piezo-resistive sensors (Flexiforce) can measure the changes in resistance corresponding to the applied force on the sensing area. Direct pressure measuring systems are capable of measuring interface pressure on the three-dimensional states, while the indirect pressure measuring systems stretch the fabric in the two-dimensional direction and extrapolate pressure from surface tension measured on the device and neglect the vital factor which is the radius of curvature. In this study, a leg mannequin of known dimensions is selected with a knitted class 3 compression stocking. It has been decided to evaluate the data collected from different available systems (AMI, PicoPress, FlexiForce, and HATRA) and compare the results. The results showed a discrepancy between Hatra, AMI, Picopress, and Flexiforce against the pressure standard used to generate class 3 compression stocking. As predicted a higher pressure value with direct interface measuring systems were monitored against HATRA due to the effect of the radius of curvature.

Keywords: AMI, FlexiForce, graduated compression, HATRA, interface pressure, PicoPress

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