Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: slicing

18 Experimental Study on Slicing of Sapphire with Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw

Authors: Mengjun Zhang, Yuli Sun, Dunwen Zuo, Chunxiang Xie, Chunming Zhang

Abstract:

Experimental study on slicing of sapphire with fixed abrasive diamond wire saw was conducted in this paper. The process parameters were optimized through orthogonal experiment of three factors and four levels. The effects of wire speed, feed speed and tension pressure on the surface roughness were analyzed. Surface roughness in cutting direction and feed direction were both detected. The results show that feed speed plays the most significant role on the surface roughness of sliced sapphire followed by wire speed and tension pressure. The optimized process parameters are as follows: wire speed 1.9 m/s, feed speed 0.187 mm/min and tension pressure 0.18 MPa. In the end, the results were verified by analysis of variance.

Keywords: fixed abrasive, diamond wire saw, slicing, sapphire, orthogonal experiment

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17 Code Refactoring Using Slice-Based Cohesion Metrics and AOP

Authors: Jagannath Singh, Durga Prasad Mohapatra

Abstract:

Software refactoring is very essential for maintaining the software quality. It is an usual practice that we first design the software and then go for coding. But after coding is completed, if the requirement changes slightly or our expected output is not achieved, then we change the codes. For each small code change, we cannot change the design. In course of time, due to these small changes made to the code, the software design decays. Software refactoring is used to restructure the code in order to improve the design and quality of the software. In this paper, we propose an approach for performing code refactoring. We use slice-based cohesion metrics to identify the target methods which requires refactoring. After identifying the target methods, we use program slicing to divide the target method into two parts. Finally, we have used the concepts of Aspects to adjust the code structure so that the external behaviour of the original module does not change.

Keywords: software refactoring, program slicing, AOP, cohesion metrics, code restructure, AspectJ

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16 Merging Sequence Diagrams Based Slicing

Authors: Bouras Zine Eddine, Talai Abdelouaheb

Abstract:

The need to merge software artifacts seems inherent to modern software development. Distribution of development over several teams and breaking tasks into smaller, more manageable pieces are an effective means to deal with the kind of complexity. In each case, the separately developed artifacts need to be assembled as efficiently as possible into a consistent whole in which the parts still function as described. Also, earlier changes are introduced into the life cycle and easier is their management by designers. Interaction-based specifications such as UML sequence diagrams have been found effective in this regard. As a result, sequence diagrams can be used not only for capturing system behaviors but also for merging changes in order to create a new version. The objective of this paper is to suggest a new approach to deal with the problem of software merging at the level of sequence diagrams by using the concept of dependence analysis that captures, formally, all mapping and differences between elements of sequence diagrams and serves as a key concept to create a new version of sequence diagram.

Keywords: system behaviors, sequence diagram merging, dependence analysis, sequence diagram slicing

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15 Software Evolution Based Activity Diagrams

Authors: Zine-Eddine Bouras, Abdelouaheb Talai

Abstract:

During the last two decades, the software evolution community has intensively tackled the software merging issue whose main objective is to merge in a consistent way different versions of software in order to obtain a new version. Well-established approaches, mainly based on the dependence analysis techniques, have been used to bring suitable solutions. These approaches concern the source code or software architectures. However, these solutions are more expensive due to the complexity and size. In this paper, we overcome this problem by operating at a high level of abstraction. The objective of this paper is to investigate the software merging at the level of UML activity diagrams, which is a new interesting issue. Its purpose is to merge activity diagrams instead of source code. The proposed approach, based on dependence analysis techniques, is illustrated through an appropriate case study.

Keywords: activity diagram, activity diagram slicing, dependency analysis, software merging

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14 Additive Manufacturing of Overhangs: From Temporary Supports to Self-Support

Authors: Paulo Mendonca, Nzar Faiq Naqeshbandi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to propose an interactive design environment that outlines the underlying computational framework to reach self-supporting overhangs. The research demonstrates the digital printability of overhangs taking into consideration factors related to the geometry design, the material used, the applied support, and the printing set-up of slicing and the extruder inclination. Parametric design tools can contribute to the design phase, form-finding, and stability optimization of self-supporting structures while printing in order to hold the components in place until they are sufficiently advanced to support themselves. The challenge is to ensure the stability of the printed parts in the critical inclinations during the whole fabrication process. Facilitating the identification of parameterization will allow to predict and optimize the process. Later, in the light of the previous findings, some guidelines of simulations and physical tests are given to be conducted for estimating the structural and functional performance.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, overhangs, self-support overhangs, printability, parametric tools

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13 Optimization of Multiplier Extraction Digital Filter On FPGA

Authors: Shiksha Jain, Ramesh Mishra

Abstract:

One of the most widely used complex signals processing operation is filtering. The most important FIR digital filter are widely used in DSP for filtering to alter the spectrum according to some given specifications. Power consumption and Area complexity in the algorithm of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter is mainly caused by multipliers. So we present a multiplier less technique (DA technique). In this technique, precomputed value of inner product is stored in LUT. Which are further added and shifted with number of iterations equal to the precision of input sample. But the exponential growth of LUT with the order of FIR filter, in this basic structure, makes it prohibitive for many applications. The significant area and power reduction over traditional Distributed Arithmetic (DA) structure is presented in this paper, by the use of slicing of LUT to the desired length. An architecture of 16 tap FIR filter is presented, with different length of slice of LUT. The result of FIR Filter implementation on Xilinx ISE synthesis tool (XST) vertex-4 FPGA Tool by using proposed method shows the increase of the maximum frequency, the decrease of the resources as usage saving in area with more number of slices and the reduction dynamic power.

Keywords: multiplier less technique, linear phase symmetric FIR filter, FPGA tool, look up table

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12 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, genetic algorithm, image encryption, image entropy

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11 Change Detection of Vegetative Areas Using Land Use Land Cover Derived from NDVI of Desert Encroached Areas

Authors: T. Garba, T. O. Quddus, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. A. Modibbo

Abstract:

Desertification is define as the changing of productive land into a desert as the result of ruination of land by man-induced soil erosion, which forces famers in the affected areas to move migrate or encourage into reserved areas in search of a fertile land for their farming activities. This study therefore used remote sensing imageries to determine the level of changes in the vegetative areas. To achieve that Normalized Difference of the Vegetative Index (NDVI), classified imageries and image slicing derived from landsat TM 1986, land sat ETM 1999 and Nigeria sat 1 2007 were used to determine changes in vegetations. From the Classified imageries it was discovered that there a more natural vegetation in classified images of 1986 than that of 1999 and 2007. This finding is also future in the three NDVI imageries, it was discovered that there is increased in high positive pixel value from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 in 1999 and to 0.32 in 2007. The figures in the three histogram also indicted that there is increased in vegetative areas from 29.15 Km2 in 1986, to 60.58 Km2 in 1999 and then to 109 Km2 in 2007. The study recommends among other things that there is need to restore natural vegetation through discouraging of farming activities in and around the natural vegetation in the study area.

Keywords: vegetative index, classified imageries, change detection, landsat, vegetation

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10 Process for Separating and Recovering Materials from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Tarik Ouslimane, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Mouna Hecini, Ouahiba Bouchelaghem, Nadjib Drouiche

Abstract:

Slurry waste is a byproduct generated from the slicing process of multi-crystalline silicon ingots. This waste can be used as a secondary resource to recover high purity silicon which has a great economic value. From the management perspective, the ever increasing generation of kerf slurry waste loss leads to significant challenges for the photovoltaic industry due to the current low use of slurry waste for silicon recovery. Slurry waste, in most cases, contains silicon, silicon carbide, metal fragments and mineral-oil-based or glycol-based slurry vehicle. As a result, of the global scarcity of high purity silicon supply, the high purity silicon content in slurry has increasingly attracted interest for research. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for high purity silicon recovery from kerf slurry waste. Hydrometallurgy is continuously a matter of study and research. However, in this review paper, several new techniques about the process of high purity silicon recovery from slurry waste are introduced. The purpose of the information presented is to improve the development of a clean and effective recovery process of high purity silicon from slurry waste.

Keywords: Kerf-loss, slurry waste, silicon carbide, silicon recovery, photovoltaic, high purity silicon, polyethylen glycol

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9 Characterization of Porosity and Flow in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with 3D Focused Ion Beam Serial Slicing

Authors: Daniel Phifer, Anna Prokhodtseva

Abstract:

DualBeam (FIB-SEM) has long been the technology of choice to sub-sample and characterize materials at site-specific locations which are difficult or impossible to extract by conventional embedding/polishing methods. Whereas Ga based FIB provides excellent resolution and enables precise material removal, the current is usually limited and only allows the extraction of small material biopsies typically ranging from 5-70um wide. Xe Plasma FIB, by contrast, has around 38x more current and can remove more material at the same time to extract significant sized chunks (100-1000um) of materials for further analysis. This increased volume has enabled time-prohibitive investigations like large grain 3D serial sectioning and EBSD and micro-machining for micro-mechanical testing. Investigation of the pore spaces with 3D modeling can determine the relative characteristics of the materials to help design or select properties for best function. Pore spaces can be described with a tortuosity number which is calculated by modules in the 3D analysis software. Xe Plasma FIB technology provides a workflow with sufficient volume to characterize porosity when both large-volume 3D materials characterization and nanometer resolution is required to understand the system.

Keywords: dual-beam, FIB-SEM, porosity, SOFC, solid oxide fuel cell

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8 Activities of Processors in Domestication/Conservation and Processing of Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) in Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Authors: Iwuchukwu J. C., Mbah C.

Abstract:

There seems to be dearth on information on how oil bean is being exploited, processed and conserved locally. This gap stifles initiatives on the evaluation of the suitability of the methods used and the invention of new and better methods. The study; therefore, assesses activities of processors in domestication/conservation and processing of oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) Enugu State, South East Nigeria. Three agricultural zones, three blocks, nine circles and seventy-two respondents that were purposively selected made up the sample for the study. Data were presented in percentage, chart and mean score. The result shows that processors of oil bean in the area were middle-aged, married with relatively large household size and long years of experience in processing. They sourced oil bean they processed from people’s farmland and sourced information on processing of oil bean from friends and relatives. Activities involved in processing of oil bean were boiling, dehulling, washing, sieving, slicing, wrapping. However, the sequence of these activities varies among these processors. Little or nothing was done by the processors towards the conservation of the crop while poor storage and processing facilities and lack of knowledge on modern preservation technique were major constraints to processing of oil bean in the area. The study concluded that efforts should be made by governments and processors through cooperative group in provision of processing and storage facility for oil bean while research institute should conserve and generate improved specie of the crop to arouse interest of the farmers and processors on the crop which will invariably increase productivity.

Keywords: conservation, domestication, oil bean, processing

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7 Study on Shelf Life and Textural Properties of Minimal Processed Mixed Fruits

Authors: Kaavya Rathnakumar

Abstract:

Minimally processed fruits have the attributes of convenience and fresh like quality. In minimally processed products, the cells of the tissue are alive, and the essential nutrients and flavours are retained. Some of the procedures include washing, trimming, sorting, cutting, slicing and shredding. Fruits such as pineapple and guava were taken for the study of textural properties for a period of five days. After the performance of various unit operations 50g cubes of pineapple and guava has been weighed. For determining the textural properties, samples were taken in which set of 12 samples were treated by using 1% citric acid solution and dried for 5 minutes the remaining set of 12 samples were untreated. In set of treated samples 6 were vacuum packed and stored in the refrigerator, and the other sample was normally stored. For untreated samples was done in a similar way. In texture profile analysis the force required for 1cm penetration of 2mm cylindrical needle inside the fruits were recorded for all packages. It was observed that guava the fresh sample had a force of penetration of 3250mm and as the days increased the force decreased to 357.4 mm for vacuum packed refrigerated storage. In the case of pineapple, the force of penetration of the fresh sample was 2325mm which was decreased to 26.3mm on the fourth day and very low at the fifth day for vacuum packed refrigerated storage. But in case of untreated samples, the fruits were spoiled may be because of no pre-treatment and packaging. Comparatively, it was found that vacuum packed refrigerated samples had higher shelf life than normal packed samples in ambient conditions.

Keywords: 1% citric acid solution, normal packed, refrigerated storage, vacuum packed

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6 Effect of Variety and Fibre Type on Functional and organoleptic Properties of Plantain Flour Intended for Food "Fufu"

Authors: C. C. Okafor

Abstract:

The effect of different varieties of plantain (Horn, false horn and French) and fibre types (soy bean residue, cassava sievette and rice bran) on functional and organoleptic properties of plantain-based flour was assessed. Horn, false horn french were processed by washing, peeling with knife, slicing into 3mm thickness and steam blanched at 80℃ for 5minutes, oven dried at 65℃ for 48 hours and milled into flours with attrition mill, sieved with 60 mesh sieve, separately. Fibre sources were processed, milled and fractionated into 60, 40 & 20 mesh sizes. Both flours were blended as 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40. Results obtained indicated that water absorption capacity is highest (2.68) in French plantain variety irrespective of the fibre type used. And in all variety tested the swelling capacity is highest (2.93) when the plantain flour is blended with soy residue (SR) and lowest (1.25) when blended with rice brain (RB). The results show that there is significant variety and fibre type interaction effect at (P < : 0.05). Again the results showed that texture mold ability and overall acceptability were best (7.00) when soy residue was used where as addition of rice bran into plantain flour resulted in fufu with poor texture. This trend was observed in all the verities of plantain tested and in all of the particle size of flour. Using cassava serviette also yield fufu similar to that produced with soy residue in all the parameter tested (mold ability, texture and overall acceptability. Generally, plantain flours from french and false horn yielded better quality fufu in terms of texture mold ability, overall acceptability, irrespective of the fibre type used.

Keywords: functional, organoleptic, particle size, sieve mesh, variety

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5 Assistive Kitchenware Design for Hemiparetics

Authors: Daniel F. Madrinan-Chiquito

Abstract:

Hemiparesis affects about eight out of ten stroke survivors, causing weakness or the inability to move one side of the body. One-sided weakness can affect arms, hands, legs, or facial muscles. People with one-sided weakness may have trouble performing everyday activities such as eating, cooking, dressing, and using the bathroom. Rehabilitation treatments, exercises at home, and assistive devices can help with mobility and recovery. Historically, such treatments and devices were developed within the fields of medicine and biomedical engineering. However, innovators outside of the traditional medical device community, such as Industrial Designers, have recently brought their knowledge and expertise to assistive technologies. Primary and secondary research was done in three parts. The primary research collected data by talking with several occupational therapists currently attending to stroke patients, and surveys were given to patients with hemiparesis and hemiplegia. The secondary research collected data through observation and testing of products currently marketed for single-handed people. Modern kitchenware available in the market for people with an acquired brain injury has deficiencies in both aesthetic and functional values. Object design for people with hemiparesis or hemiplegia has not been meaningfully explored. Most cookware is designed for use with two hands and possesses little room for adaptation to the needs of one-handed individuals. This project focuses on the design and development of two kitchenware devices. These devices assist hemiparetics with different cooking-related tasks such as holding, grasping, cutting, slicing, chopping, grating, and other essential activities. These intentionally designed objects will improve the quality of life of hemiparetics by enabling greater independence and providing an enhanced ability for precision tasks in a cooking environment.

Keywords: assistive technologies, hemiparetics, industrial design, kitchenware

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4 Coherent Optical Tomography Imaging of Epidermal Hyperplasia in Vivo in a Mouse Model of Oxazolone Induced Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Eric Lacoste

Abstract:

Laboratory animals are currently widely used as a model of human pathologies in dermatology such as atopic dermatitis (AD). These models provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this complex and multifactorial disease, the discovery of potential new therapeutic targets and the testing of the efficacy of new therapeutics. However, confirmation of the correct development of AD is mainly based on histology from skin biopsies requiring invasive surgery or euthanasia of the animals, plus slicing and staining protocols. However, there are currently accessible imaging technologies such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which allows non-invasive visualization of the main histological structures of the skin (like stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) and assessment of the dynamics of the pathology or efficacy of new treatments. Briefly, female immunocompetent hairless mice (SKH1 strain) were sensitized and challenged topically on back and ears for about 4 weeks. Back skin and ears thickness were measured using calliper at 3 occasions per week in complement to a macroscopic evaluation of atopic dermatitis lesions on back: erythema, scaling and excoriations scoring. In addition, OCT was performed on the back and ears of animals. OCT allows a virtual in-depth section (tomography) of the imaged organ to be made using a laser, a camera and image processing software allowing fast, non-contact and non-denaturing acquisitions of the explored tissues. To perform the imaging sessions, the animals were anesthetized with isoflurane, placed on a support under the OCT for a total examination time of 5 to 10 minutes. The results show a good correlation of the OCT technique with classical HES histology for skin lesions structures such as hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and dermis thickness. This OCT imaging technique can, therefore, be used in live animals at different times for longitudinal evaluation by repeated measurements of lesions in the same animals, in addition to the classical histological evaluation. Furthermore, this original imaging technique speeds up research protocols, reduces the number of animals and refines the use of the laboratory animal.

Keywords: atopic dermatitis, mouse model, oxzolone model, histology, imaging

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3 A Visualization Classification Method for Identifying the Decayed Citrus Fruit Infected by Fungi Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

Authors: Jiangbo Li, Wenqian Huang

Abstract:

Early detection of fungal infection in citrus fruit is one of the major problems in the postharvest commercialization process. The automatic and nondestructive detection of infected fruits is still a challenge for the citrus industry. At present, the visual inspection of rotten citrus fruits is commonly performed by workers through the ultraviolet induction fluorescence technology or manual sorting in citrus packinghouses to remove fruit subject with fungal infection. However, the former entails a number of problems because exposing people to this kind of lighting is potentially hazardous to human health, and the latter is very inefficient. Orange is used as a research object. This study would focus on this problem and proposed an effective method based on Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm with a spectroscopic resolution of 2.8 nm. In this work, three normalization approaches are applied prior to analysis to reduce the effect of sample curvature on spectral profiles, and it is found that mean normalization was the most effective pretreatment for decreasing spectral variability due to curvature. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to a dataset composing of average spectra from decayed and normal tissue to reduce the dimensionality of data and observe the ability of Vis-NIR hyper-spectra to discriminate data from two classes. In this case, it was observed that normal and decayed spectra were separable along the resultant first principal component (PC1) axis. Subsequently, five wavelengths (band) centered at 577, 702, 751, 808, and 923 nm were selected as the characteristic wavelengths by analyzing the loadings of PC1. A multispectral combination image was generated based on five selected characteristic wavelength images. Based on the obtained multispectral combination image, the intensity slicing pseudocolor image processing method is used to generate a 2-D visual classification image that would enhance the contrast between normal and decayed tissue. Finally, an image segmentation algorithm for detection of decayed fruit was developed based on the pseudocolor image coupled with a simple thresholding method. For the investigated 238 independent set samples including infected fruits infected by Penicillium digitatum and normal fruits, the total success rate is 100% and 97.5%, respectively, and, the proposed algorithm also used to identify the orange infected by penicillium italicum with a 100% identification accuracy, indicating that the proposed multispectral algorithm here is an effective method and it is potential to be applied in citrus industry.

Keywords: citrus fruit, early rotten, fungal infection, hyperspectral imaging

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2 Development of Adaptive Proportional-Integral-Derivative Feeding Mechanism for Robotic Additive Manufacturing System

Authors: Andy Alubaidy

Abstract:

In this work, a robotic additive manufacturing system (RAMS) that is capable of three-dimensional (3D) printing in six degrees of freedom (DOF) with very high accuracy and virtually on any surface has been designed and built. One of the major shortcomings in existing 3D printer technology is the limitation to three DOF, which results in prolonged fabrication time. Depending on the techniques used, it usually takes at least two hours to print small objects and several hours for larger objects. Another drawback is the size of the printed objects, which is constrained by the physical dimensions of most low-cost 3D printers, which are typically small. In such cases, large objects are produced by dividing them into smaller components that fit the printer’s workable area. They are then glued, bonded or otherwise attached to create the required object. Another shortcoming is material constraints and the need to fabricate a single part using different materials. With the flexibility of a six-DOF robot, the RAMS has been designed to overcome these problems. A feeding mechanism using an adaptive Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is utilized along with a national instrument compactRIO (NI cRIO), an ABB robot, and off-the-shelf sensors. The RAMS have the ability to 3D print virtually anywhere in six degrees of freedom with very high accuracy. It is equipped with an ABB IRB 120 robot to achieve this level of accuracy. In order to convert computer-aided design (CAD) files to digital format that is acceptable to the robot, Hypertherm Robotic Software Inc.’s state-of-the-art slicing software called “ADDMAN” is used. ADDMAN is capable of converting any CAD file into RAPID code (the programing language for ABB robots). The robot uses the generated code to perform the 3D printing. To control the entire process, National Instrument (NI) compactRIO (cRio 9074), is connected and communicated with the robot and a feeding mechanism that is designed and fabricated. The feeding mechanism consists of two major parts, cold-end and hot-end. The cold-end consists of what is conventionally known as an extruder. Typically, a stepper-motor is used to control the push on the material, however, for optimum control, a DC motor is used instead. The hot-end consists of a melt-zone, nozzle, and heat-brake. The melt zone ensures a thorough melting effect and consistent output from the nozzle. Nozzles are made of brass for thermo-conductivity while the melt-zone is comprised of a heating block and a ceramic heating cartridge to transfer heat to the block. The heat-brake ensures that there is no heat creep-up effect as this would swell the material and prevent consistent extrusion. A control system embedded in the cRio is developed using NI Labview which utilizes adaptive PID to govern the heating cartridge in conjunction with a thermistor. The thermistor sends temperature feedback to the cRio, which will issue heat increase or decrease based on the system output. Since different materials have different melting points, our system will allow us to adjust the temperature and vary the material.

Keywords: robotic, additive manufacturing, PID controller, cRIO, 3D printing

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1 Seismo-Volcanic Hazards in Great Ararat Region, Eastern Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Salih Bayraktutan, Emre Tokmak

Abstract:

Great Ararat Volcano is the highest peak in South Caucasus Volcanic Plateau. Uplifted by Quaternary basaltic pyroclastic and lava flows. Numerous volcanic cones formed along with the tensional fractures under N-S compressional geodynamic framework. Basaltic flows have fresh surface morphology give ages of 650-680 K years. Hyperstene andesites constitute a major mass of Greater Ararat gives ages of 450-490 K years. During the early eruption period, predominately pyroclastics, cinder, lapilly-ash volcanic bombs were extruded. Third-period eruptions dominantly basaltic lava flows. Andesitic domes aligned along with the NW-SE striking fractures. Hyalo basalt and hornblende basaltic lavas are the latest lava eruptions. Hyalo-basaltic eruptions occurred via parasitic cones distributed far from the center. Parasitic cones are most common at the foot of Mount covered by recent NW flowing basaltic lava. Some of the cones are distributed on a circular pattern. One of the most hazardous disasters recorded in Eastern Turkey was July 1840 Cehennem Canyon Flood. Volcanic activities seismically triggered resulted in melting of glacier cap, mixed with ash and pyroclastics, flowed down along the Valley. Mud rich Slush urged catastrophically northwards, crossed Ars River and damned Surmeli Basin, forming reservoir behind. Ararat volcanoes are located on NW-SE striking Agri Fault Zone. Right lateral extensional faults, along which a series of andesitic domes formed. Great Ararat, in general strato-type volcano. This huge structure, developed in two main parts with different topographic and morphological features. The large lower base covers a widespread area composed of predominantly pyroclastics, ignimbrites, aglomerates, thick pumice, perlite deposits. Approximately 1/3 of the Crest by height formed of this basement. And 2/3 of the upper part with a conic- shape composed of basaltic lava flows. The active tectonic structure consists of three different patterns. The first network is radially distributed fractures formed during the last stage of lava eruptions. The second group of active faults striking in NW direction, and continue in N30W strike, formes Igdir Fault Zone. The third set of faults, dipping in the northwest with 75-80 degrees, strikes NE- SW across the whole Mount, slicing Great Ararat into four segments. In the upper stage of Cehennem Canyon, this set cutting volcanic layers caused numerous Waterfalls, Rock Avalanches, Mud Flows along the canyon, threatens the Village of Yanidogan, at the apex of flood deposits. Great Ararat Region has high seismo-tectonic risk and by occurrence frequency and magnitude, which caused in history caused heavy disasters, at villages surrounding the Ararat Basement.

Keywords: Eastern Turkey, geohazard, great ararat volcano, seismo-tectonic features

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