Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 241

Search results for: high-speed machining

241 An Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Machining of Pure Titanium Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Jatinder Kumar

Abstract:

Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. There is a considerable lack of research on its application to the cost-effective machining of tough materials such as titanium. In this investigation, the application of USM process for machining of titanium (ASTM Grade-I) has been explored. Experiments have been conducted to assess the effect of different parameters of USM process on machining rate and tool wear rate as response characteristics. The process parameters that were included in this study are: abrasive grit size, tool material and power rating of the ultrasonic machine. It has been concluded that titanium is fairly machinable with USM process. Significant improvement in the machining rate can be realized by manipulating the process parameters and obtaining the optimum combination of these parameters.

Keywords: abrasive grit size, tool material, titanium, ultrasonic machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
240 An Investigation of Machinability of Inconel 718 in EDM Using Different Cryogenic Treated Tools

Authors: Pradeep Joshi, Prashant Dhiman, Shiv Dayal Dhakad

Abstract:

Inconel 718 is a family if Nickel-Chromium based Superalloy; it has very high oxidation and corrosion resistance. Inconel 718 is widely being used in aerospace, engine, turbine etc. due to its high mechanical strength and creep resistance. Being widely used, its machining should be easy but in real its machining is very difficult, especially by using traditional machining methods. It becomes easy to machine only by using non Traditional machining such as EDM. During EDM machining there is wear of both tool and workpiece, the tool wear is undesired because it changes tool shape, geometry. To reduce the tool wear rate (TWR) cryogenic treatment is performed on tool before the machining operation. The machining performances of the process are to be evaluated in terms of MRR, TWR which are functions of Discharge current, Pulse on-time, Pulse Off-time.

Keywords: EDM, cyrogenic, TWR, MRR

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
239 Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating

Authors: T. Zlámal, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, P. Krajkovič

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For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.

Keywords: machining, plasma sprayed coating, surface integrity, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
238 Eliminating Cutter-Path Deviation For Five-Axis Nc Machining

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tsong Der Lin

Abstract:

This study proposes a deviation control method to add interpolation points to numerical control (NC) codes of five-axis machining in order to achieve the required machining accuracy. Specific research issues include: (1) converting machining data between the CL (cutter location) domain and the NC domain, (2) calculating the deviation between the deviated path and the linear path, (3) finding interpolation points, and (4) determining tool orientations for the interpolation points. System implementation with practical examples will also be included to highlight the applicability of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, cutter path, five-axis machining, numerical control

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
237 The Evaluation of Surface Integrity during Machining of Inconel 718 with Various Laser Assistance Strategies

Authors: Szymon Wojciechowski, Damian Przestacki, Tadeusz Chwalczuk

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the evaluation of surface integrity formed during turning of Inconel 718 with the application of various laser assistance strategies. The primary objective of the work was to determine the relations between the applied machining strategy and the obtained surface integrity, in order to select the effective cutting conditions allowing the obtainment of high surface quality. The carried out experiment included the machining of Inconel 718 in the conventional turning conditions, as well as during the continuous laser assisted machining and sequential laser assistance. The surface integrity was evaluated by the measurements of machined surface topographies, microstructures and the microhardness. Results revealed that surface integrity of Inconel 718 is strongly affected by the selected machining strategy. The significant improvement of the surface roughness formed during machining of Inconel 718, can be reached by the application of simultaneous laser heating and cutting (LAM).

Keywords: Inconel 718, laser assisted machining, surface integrity, turning

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
236 Machining Stability of a Milling Machine with Different Preloaded Spindle

Authors: Jui-Pin Hung, Qiao-Wen Chang, Kung-Da Wu, Yong-Run Chen

Abstract:

This study was aimed to investigate the machining stability of a spindle tool with different preloaded amount. To this end, the vibration tests were conducted on the spindle unit with different preload to assess the dynamic characteristics and machining stability of the spindle unit. Current results demonstrate that the tool tip frequency response characteristics and the machining stabilities in X and Y direction are affected to change for spindle with different preload. As can be found from the results, a high preloaded spindle tool shows higher limited cutting depth at mid position, while a spindle with low preload shows a higher limited depth. This implies that the machining stability of spindle tool system is affected to vary by the machine frame structure. Besides, such an effect is quite different and varied with the preload of the spindle.

Keywords: bearing preload, dynamic compliance, machining stability, spindle

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
235 Effect of Process Variables of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Surface Roughness for AA-6063 by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Deepak

Abstract:

WEDM is an amazingly potential electro-wire process for machining of hard metal compounds and metal grid composites without making contact. Wire electrical machining is a developing noncustomary machining process for machining hard to machine materials that are electrically conductive. It is an exceptionally exact, precise, and one of the most famous machining forms in nontraditional machining. WEDM has turned into the fundamental piece of many assembling process ventures, which require precision, variety, and accuracy. In the present examination, AA-6063 is utilized as a workpiece, and execution investigation is done to discover the critical control factors. Impact of different parameters like a pulse on time, pulse off time, servo voltage, peak current, water pressure, wire tension, wire feed upon surface hardness has been researched while machining on AA-6063. RSM has been utilized to advance the yield variable. A variety of execution measures with input factors was demonstrated by utilizing the response surface methodology.

Keywords: AA-6063, response surface methodology, WEDM, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
234 Axiomatic Design of Laser Beam Machining Process

Authors: Nikhil Deshpande, Rahul Mahajan

Abstract:

Laser Beam Machining (LBM) is a non-traditional machining process that has inherent problems like dross, striation, and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) which reduce the quality of machining. In the present day scenario, these problems are controlled only by iteratively adjusting a large number of process parameters. This paper applies Axiomatic Design principles to design LBM process so as to eliminate the problem of dross and striation and minimize the effect of HAZ. Process parameters and their ranges are proposed to set-up the LBM process, execute the cut and finish the workpiece so as to obtain the best quality cut.

Keywords: laser beam machining, dross, striation, heat affected zone, axiomatic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
233 Cryogenic Machining of Sawdust Incorporated Polypropylene Composites

Authors: K. N. Umesh

Abstract:

Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) were synthesized artificially by combining polypropylene, wood and resin. It is difficult to obtain a good surface finish by conventional machining on WPC because of material degradation due to excessive heat generated during the process. In order to preserve the material property and deliver a better surface finish and accuracy, a proper solution is devised for the machining of wood composites at low temperature. This research focuses on studying the effects of parameters of cryogenic machining on sawdust incorporated polypropylene composite material, in view of evolving the most suitable composition and an appropriate combination of process parameters. The machining characteristics of the six different compositions of WPC were evaluated by analyzing the trend. An attempt is made to determine proper combinations material composition and process control parameters, through process capability studies. A WPC of 80%-wood (saw dust particles), 20%-polypropylene and 0%-resin was found to be the best alternative for obtaining the best surface finish under cryogenic machining conditions.

Keywords: Cryogenic Machining, Process Capability, Surface Finish, Wood Polymer Composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
232 Experimental Investigation on Over-Cut in Ultrasonic Machining of WC-Co Composite

Authors: Ravinder Kataria, Jatinder Kumar, B. S. Pabla

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Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard, and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. Present article has been targeted at investigating the impact of different experimental conditions (power rating, cobalt content, tool material, thickness of work piece, tool geometry, and abrasive grit size) on over cut in ultrasonic drilling of WC-Co composite material. Taguchi’s L-36 orthogonal array has been employed for conducting the experiments. Significant factors have been identified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The experimental results revealed that abrasive grit size and tool material are most significant factors for over cut.

Keywords: ANOVA, abrasive grit size, Taguchi, WC-Co, ultrasonic machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
231 Automated CNC Part Programming and Process Planning for Turned Components

Authors: Radhey Sham Rajoria

Abstract:

Pressure to increase the competitiveness in the manufacturing sector and for the survival in the market has led to the development of machining centres, which enhance productivity, improve quality, shorten the lead time, and reduce the manufacturing cost. With the innovation of machining centres in the manufacturing sector the production lines have been replaced by these machining centers, having the ability to machine various processes and multiple tooling with automatic tool changer (ATC) for the same part. Also the process plans can be easily generated for complex components. Some means are required to utilize the machining center at its best. The present work is concentrated on the automated part program generation, and in turn automated process plan generation for the turned components on Denford “MIRAC” 8 stations ATC lathe machining centre. A package in C++ on DOS platform is developed which generates the complete CNC part program, process plan and process sequence for the turned components. The input to this system is in the form of a blueprint in graphical format with machining parameters and variables, and the output is the CNC part program which is stored in a .mir file, ready for execution on the machining centre.

Keywords: CNC, MIRAC, ATC, process planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
230 Auto-Tuning of CNC Parameters According to the Machining Mode Selection

Authors: Jenq-Shyong Chen, Ben-Fong Yu

Abstract:

CNC(computer numerical control) machining centers have been widely used for machining different metal components for various industries. For a specific CNC machine, its everyday job is assigned to cut different products with quite different attributes such as material type, workpiece weight, geometry, tooling, and cutting conditions. Theoretically, the dynamic characteristics of the CNC machine should be properly tuned match each machining job in order to get the optimal machining performance. However, most of the CNC machines are set with only a standard set of CNC parameters. In this study, we have developed an auto-tuning system which can automatically change the CNC parameters and in hence change the machine dynamic characteristics according to the selection of machining modes which are set by the mixed combination of three machine performance indexes: the HO (high surface quality) index, HP (high precision) index and HS (high speed) index. The acceleration, jerk, corner error tolerance, oscillation and dynamic bandwidth of machine’s feed axes have been changed according to the selection of the machine performance indexes. The proposed auto-tuning system of the CNC parameters has been implemented on a PC-based CNC controller and a three-axis machining center. The measured experimental result have shown the promising of our proposed auto-tuning system.

Keywords: auto-tuning, CNC parameters, machining mode, high speed, high accuracy, high surface quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
229 Efficient Prediction of Surface Roughness Using Box Behnken Design

Authors: Ajay Kumar Sarathe, Abhinay Kumar

Abstract:

Production of quality products required for specific engineering applications is an important issue. The roughness of the surface plays an important role in the quality of the product by using appropriate machining parameters to eliminate wastage due to over machining. To increase the quality of the surface, the optimum machining parameter setting is crucial during the machining operation. The effect of key machining parameters- spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on surface roughness has been evaluated. Experimental work was carried out using High Speed Steel tool and AlSI 1018 as workpiece material. In this study, the predictive model has been developed using Box-Behnken Design. An experimental investigation has been carried out for this work using BBD for three factors and observed that the predictive model of Ra value is closed to predictive value with a marginal error of 2.8648 %. Developed model establishes a correlation between selected key machining parameters that influence the surface roughness in a AISI 1018. F

Keywords: ANOVA, BBD, optimisation, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
228 Capability Prediction of Machining Processes Based on Uncertainty Analysis

Authors: Hamed Afrasiab, Saeed Khodaygan

Abstract:

Prediction of machining process capability in the design stage plays a key role to reach the precision design and manufacturing of mechanical products. Inaccuracies in machining process lead to errors in position and orientation of machined features on the part, and strongly affect the process capability in the final quality of the product. In this paper, an efficient systematic approach is given to investigate the machining errors to predict the manufacturing errors of the parts and capability prediction of corresponding machining processes. A mathematical formulation of fixture locators modeling is presented to establish the relationship between the part errors and the related sources. Based on this method, the final machining errors of the part can be accurately estimated by relating them to the combined dimensional and geometric tolerances of the workpiece – fixture system. This method is developed for uncertainty analysis based on the Worst Case and statistical approaches. The application of the presented method is illustrated through presenting an example and the computational results are compared with the Monte Carlo simulation results.

Keywords: process capability, machining error, dimensional and geometrical tolerances, uncertainty analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
227 Ultra-High Precision Diamond Turning of Infrared Lenses

Authors: Khaled Abou-El-Hossein

Abstract:

The presentation will address the features of two IR convex lenses that have been manufactured using an ultra-high precision machining centre based on single-point diamond turning. The lenses are made from silicon and germanium with a radius of curvature of 500 mm. Because of the brittle nature of silicon and germanium, machining parameters were selected in such a way that ductile regime was achieved. The cutting speed was 800 rpm while the feed rate and depth cut were 20 mm/min and 20 um, respectively. Although both materials comprise a mono-crystalline microstructure and are quite similar in terms of optical properties, machining of silicon was accompanied with more difficulties in terms of form accuracy compared to germanium machining. The P-V error of the silicon profile was 0.222 um while it was only 0.055 um for the germanium lens. This could be attributed to the accelerated wear that takes place on the tool edge when turning mono-crystalline silicon. Currently, we are using other ranges of the machining parameters in order to determine their optimal range that could yield satisfactory performance in terms of form accuracy when fabricating silicon lenses.

Keywords: diamond turning, optical surfaces, precision machining, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
226 Effect of the Tooling Conditions on the Machining Stability of a Milling Machine

Authors: Jui-Pui Hung, Yong-Run Chen, Wei-Cheng Shih, Shen-He Tsui, Kung-Da Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect on the tooling conditions on the machining stabilities of a milling machine tool. The machining stability was evaluated in different feeding direction in the X-Y plane, which was referred as the orientation-dependent machining stability. According to the machining mechanics, the machining stability was determined by the frequency response function of the cutter. Thus, we first conducted the vibration tests on the spindle tool of the milling machine to assess the tool tip frequency response functions along the principal direction of the machine tool. Then, basing on the orientation dependent stability analysis model proposed in this study, we evaluated the variation of the dynamic characteristics of the spindle tool and the corresponding machining stabilities at a specific feeding direction. Current results demonstrate that the stability boundaries and limited axial cutting depth of a specific cutter were affected to vary when it was fixed in the tool holder with different overhang length. The flute of the cutter also affects the stability boundary. When a two flute cutter was used, the critical cutting depth can be increased by 47 % as compared with the four flute cutter. The results presented in study provide valuable references for the selection of the tooling conditions for achieving high milling performance.

Keywords: tooling condition, machining stability, milling machine, chatter

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
225 Performance of Non-toxic, Corrosion Resistant, and Lubricious Metalworking Fluids under Machining

Authors: Ajay Pratap Singh Lodhi, Deepak Kumar

Abstract:

Vegetable oil-based environmentally friendly metalworking fluids (MWFs) are formulated. The tribological performance, cytotoxicity, and corrosion resistance of the formulated fluids (FFs) are evaluated and benchmarked with commercial mineral oil-based MWFs (CF). Results show that FFs exhibited better machining characteristics (roughness, cutting forces, and surface morphology) during machining than CF. MTT assay and Live dead cell assay confirm the cytocompatibility nature of the FFs relative to the toxic CF. Electrochemical analysis shows that FFs and CF exhibited comparable corrosion current density.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitors, cytotoxicity, machining, MTT assay, Taguchi method, vegetable oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
224 Study of Tool Shape during Electrical Discharge Machining of AISI 52100 Steel

Authors: Arminder Singh Walia, Vineet Srivastava, Vivek Jain

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In Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) operations, the workpiece confers to the shape of the tool. Further, the cost of the tool contributes the maximum effect on total operation cost. Therefore, the shape and profile of the tool become highly significant. Thus, in this work, an attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters on the shape of the tool. Copper has been used as the tool material for the machining of AISI 52100 die steel. The shape of the tool has been evaluated by determining the difference in out of roundness of tool before and after machining. Statistical model has been developed and significant process parameters have been identified which affect the shape of the tool. Optimum process parameters have been identified which minimizes the shape distortion.

Keywords: discharge current, flushing pressure, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, out of roundness, electrical discharge machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
223 Optimizing of the Micro EDM Parameters in Drilling of Titanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy for Higher Machining Accuracy-Fuzzy Modelling

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Mum Wai Yip, M. Sayuti, Lim Siew Fen

Abstract:

Ti6Al4V alloy is highly used in the automotive and aerospace industry due to its good machining characteristics. Micro EDM drilling is commonly used to drill micro hole on extremely hard material with very high depth to diameter ratio. In this study, the parameters of micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) in drilling of Ti6Al4V alloy is optimized for higher machining accuracy with less hole-dilation and hole taper ratio. The micro-EDM machining parameters includes, peak current and pulse on time. Fuzzy analysis was developed to evaluate the machining accuracy. The analysis shows that hole-dilation and hole-taper ratio are increased with the increasing of peak current and pulse on time. However, the surface quality deteriorates as the peak current and pulse on time increase. The combination that gives the optimum result for hole dilation is medium peak current and short pulse on time. Meanwhile, the optimum result for hole taper ratio is low peak current and short pulse on time.

Keywords: Micro EDM, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, fuzzy logic based analysis, optimization, machining accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
222 Effect of Vegetable Oil Based Nanofluids on Machining Performance: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Krishna Mohana Rao Gurram, R. Padmini, P. Vamsi Krishna

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As a part of extensive research for ecologically safe and operator friendly cutting fluids, this paper presents the experimental investigations on the performance of eco-friendly vegetable oil based nanofluids in turning operation. In order to assess the quality of nano cutting fluids used during machining, cutting temperatures, cutting forces and surface roughness under constant cutting conditions are measured. The influence of two types of nanofluids prepared from nano boric acid and CNT particles mixed separately with coconut oil, on machining performance during turning operation is examined. Comparative analysis of the results obtained is done under dry and lubricant environments. Results obtained using cutting fluids prepared from vegetable oil based nanofluids are encouraging and more pronouncing by the application of CCCNT at machining zone. The extent of improvement in reduction of cutting temperatures, main cutting force, tool wear and surface roughness is tracked to be 13%, 37.5%, 44% and 40% respectively by the application of CCCNT compared to dry machining.

Keywords: nanoparticles, vegetable oil, machining, MQL, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
221 Performance Evaluation and Economic Analysis of Minimum Quantity Lubrication with Pressurized/Non-Pressurized Air and Nanofluid Mixture

Authors: M. Amrita, R. R. Srikant, A. V. Sita Rama Raju

Abstract:

Water miscible cutting fluids are conventionally used to lubricate and cool the machining zone. But issues related to health hazards, maintenance and disposal costs have limited their usage, leading to application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL). To increase the effectiveness of MQL, nanocutting fluids are proposed. In the present work, water miscible nanographite cutting fluids of varying concentration are applied at cutting zone by two systems A and B. System A utilizes high pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 1ml/min. System B uses low pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 5ml/min. Their performance in machining is evaluated by measuring cutting temperatures, tool wear, cutting forces and surface roughness and compared with dry machining and flood machining. Application of nano cutting fluid using both systems showed better performance than dry machining. Cutting temperatures and cutting forces obtained by both techniques are more than flood machining. But tool wear and surface roughness showed improvement compared to flood machining. Economic analysis has been carried out in all the cases to decide the applicability of the techniques.

Keywords: economic analysis, machining, minimum quantity lubrication, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
220 Optimization of Process Parameters for Rotary Electro Discharge Machining Using EN31 Tool Steel: Present and Future Scope

Authors: Goutam Dubey, Varun Dutta

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In the present study, rotary-electro discharge machining of EN31 tool steel has been carried out using a pure copper electrode. Various response variables such as Material Removal Rate (MRR), Tool Wear Rate (TWR), and Machining Rate (MR) have been studied against the selected process variables. The selected process variables were peak current (I), voltage (V), duty cycle, and electrode rotation (N). EN31 Tool Steel is hardened, high carbon steel which increases its hardness and reduces its machinability. Reduced machinability means it not economical to use conventional methods to machine EN31 Tool Steel. So, non-conventional methods play an important role in machining of such materials.

Keywords: electric discharge machining, EDM, tool steel, tool wear rate, optimization techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
219 A Machining Method of Cross-Shape Nano Channel and Experiments for Silicon Substrate

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Zih-Wun Jhang

Abstract:

The paper innovatively proposes using the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) and AFM machine to establish a machining method of cross-shape nanochannel on single-crystal silicon substrate. As for machining a cross-shape nanochannel by AFM machine, the paper develop a method of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove at a fixed down force by using SDFE theory and combining the planned cutting path of cross-shape nanochannel up to 5th machining layer it finally achieves a cross-shape nanochannel at a cutting depth of around 20nm. Since there may be standing burr at the machined cross-shape nanochannel edge, the paper uses a smaller down force to cut the edge of the cross-shape nanochannel in order to lower the height of standing burr and converge the height of standing burr at the edge to below 0.54nm as set by the paper. Finally, the paper conducts experiments of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove on single-crystal silicon by AFM probe, and compares the simulation and experimental results. It is proved that this proposed machining method of cross-shape nanochannel is feasible.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy (AFM), cross-shape nanochannel, silicon substrate, specific down force energy (SDFE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
218 Study on Residual Stress Measurement of Inconel-718 under Different Lubricating Conditions

Authors: M. Sandeep Kumar, Vasu Velagapudi, A. Venugopal

Abstract:

When machining is carried out on a workpiece, residual stresses are induced in the workpiece due to nonuniform thermal and mechanical loads. These stresses play a vital role in the surface integrity of the final product or the output. Inconel 718 is commonly used in critical structural components of aircraft engines due to its properties at high temperatures. Therefore it is important to keep down the stresses induced due to machining. This can be achieved through proper lubricating conditions. In this work, experiments were carried out to check the influence of the developed nanofluid as cutting fluids on residual stresses developed during the course of machining. The results of MQL/Nanofluids were compared with MQL/Vegetable oil and dry machining lubricating condition. Results indicate the reduction in residual stress with the use of MQL/Nanofluid.

Keywords: nanofluids, MQL, residual stress, Inconel-718

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
217 Effects of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Vibration of the Milling Tool

Authors: Yung C. Lin, Kung D. Wu, Wei C. Shih, Jui P. Hung

Abstract:

High speed and high precision machining have become the most important technology in manufacturing industry. The surface roughness of high precision components is regarded as the important characteristics of the product quality. However, machining chatter could damage the machined surface and restricts the process efficiency. Therefore, selection of the appropriate cutting conditions is of importance to prevent the occurrence of chatter. In addition, vibration of the spindle tool also affects the surface quality, which implies the surface precision can be controlled by monitoring the vibration of the spindle tool. Based on this concept, this study was aimed to investigate the influence of the machining conditions on the surface roughness and the vibration of the spindle tool. To this end, a series of machining tests were conducted on aluminum alloy. In tests, the vibration of the spindle tool was measured by using the acceleration sensors. The surface roughness of the machined parts was examined using white light interferometer. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish the mathematical models for predicting surface finish and tool vibration, respectively. The correlation between the surface roughness and spindle tool vibration was also analyzed by ANOVA analysis. According to the machining tests, machined surface with or without chattering was marked on the lobes diagram as the verification of the machining conditions. Using multivariable regression analysis, the mathematical models for predicting the surface roughness and tool vibrations were developed based on the machining parameters, cutting depth (a), feed rate (f) and spindle speed (s). The predicted roughness is shown to agree well with the measured roughness, an average percentage of errors of 10%. The average percentage of errors of the tool vibrations between the measurements and the predictions of mathematical model is about 7.39%. In addition, the tool vibration under various machining conditions has been found to have a positive influence on the surface roughness (r=0.78). As a conclusion from current results, the mathematical models were successfully developed for the predictions of the surface roughness and vibration level of the spindle tool under different cutting condition, which can help to select appropriate cutting parameters and to monitor the machining conditions to achieve high surface quality in milling operation.

Keywords: machining parameters, machining stability, regression analysis, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
216 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Operating Parameters during the Micro-Electro-Discharge Machining of Ni Based Alloy

Authors: Asma Perveen, M. P. Jahan

Abstract:

Ni alloys have managed to cover wide range of applications such as automotive industries, oil gas industries, and aerospace industries. However, these alloys impose challenges while using conventional machining technologies. On the other hand, Micro-Electro-Discharge machining (micro-EDM) is a non-conventional machining method that uses controlled sparks energy to remove material irrespective of the materials hardness. There has been always a huge interest from the industries for developing optimum methodology and parameters in order to enhance the productivity of micro-EDM in terms of reducing machining time and tool wear for different alloys. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the effects of the micro-EDM process parameters, in order to find their optimal values. The input process parameters include voltage, capacitance, and electrode rotational speed, whereas the output parameters considered are machining time, entrance diameter of hole, overcut, tool wear, and crater size. The surface morphology and element characterization are also investigated with the use of SEM and EDX analysis. The experimental result indicates the reduction of machining time with the increment of discharge energy. Discharge energy also contributes to the enlargement of entrance diameter as well as overcut. In addition, tool wears show reduction with the increase of discharge energy. Moreover, crater size is found to be increased in size along with the increment of discharge energy.

Keywords: micro holes, micro EDM, Ni Alloy, discharge energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
215 An Integrated Approach for Optimal Selection of Machining Parameters in Laser Micro-Machining Process

Authors: A. Gopala Krishna, M. Lakshmi Chaitanya, V. Kalyana Manohar

Abstract:

In the existent analysis, laser micro machining (LMM) of Silicon carbide (SiCp) reinforced Aluminum 7075 Metal Matrix Composite (Al7075/SiCp MMC) was studied. While machining, Because of the intense heat generated, A layer gets formed on the work piece surface which is called recast layer and this layer is detrimental to the surface quality of the component. The recast layer needs to be as small as possible for precise applications. Therefore, The height of recast layer and the depth of groove which are conflicting in nature were considered as the significant manufacturing criteria, Which determines the pursuit of a machining process obtained in LMM of Al7075/10%SiCp composite. The present work formulates the depth of groove and height of recast layer in relation to the machining parameters using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and correspondingly, The formulated mathematical models were put to use for optimization. Since the effect of machining parameters on the depth of groove and height of recast layer was contradictory, The problem was explicated as a multi objective optimization problem. Moreover, An evolutionary Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) was employed to optimize the model established by RSM. Subsequently this algorithm was also adapted to achieve the Pareto optimal set of solutions that provide a detailed illustration for making the optimal solutions. Eventually experiments were conducted to affirm the results obtained from RSM and NSGA-II.

Keywords: Laser Micro Machining (LMM), depth of groove, Height of recast layer, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
214 Effect of Machining Induced Microstructure Changes on the Edge Formability of Titanium Alloys at Room Temperature

Authors: James S. Kwame, E. Yakushina, P. Blackwell

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The challenges in forming titanium alloys at room temperature are well researched and are linked both to the limitations imposed by the basic crystal structure and their ability to form texture during plastic deformation. One major issue of concern for the sheet forming of titanium alloys is their high sensitivity to surface inhomogeneity. Various machining processes are utilised in preparing sheet hole edges for edge flanging applications. However, the response of edge forming tendencies of titanium to different edge surface finishes is not well investigated. The hole expansion test is used in this project to elucidate the impact of abrasive water jet (AWJ) and electro-discharge machining (EDM) cutting techniques on the edge formability of CP-Ti (Grade 2) and Ti-3Al-2.5V alloys at room temperature. The results show that the quality of the edge surface finish has a major effect on the edge formability of the materials. The work also found that the variations in the edge forming performance are mainly the result of the influence of machining induced edge surface defects.

Keywords: titanium alloys, hole expansion test, edge formability, non-conventional machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
213 Comparative Assessment of MRR, TWR, and Surface Integrity in Rotary and Stationary Tool EDM for Machining AISI D3 Tool Steel

Authors: Anand Prakash Dwivedi, Sounak Kumar Choudhury

Abstract:

Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a well-established and one of the most primitive unconventional manufacturing processes, that is used world-wide for the machining of geometrically complex or hard and electrically conductive materials which are extremely difficult to cut by any other conventional machining process. One of the major flaws, over all its advantages, is its very slow Material Removal Rate (MRR). In order to eradicate this slow machining rate, various researchers have proposed various methods like; providing rotational motion to the tool or work-piece or to both, mixing of conducting additives (such as SiC, Cr, Al, graphite etc) powders in the dielectric, providing vibrations to the tool or work-piece or to both etc. Present work is a comparative study of Rotational and Stationary Tool EDM, which deals with providing rotational motion to the copper tool for the machining of AISI D3 Tool Steel and the results have been compared with stationary tool EDM. It has been found that the tool rotation substantially increases the MRR up to 28%. The average surface finish increases around 9-10% by using the rotational tool EDM. The average tool wear increment is observed to be around 19% due to the tool rotation. Apart from this, the present work also focusses on the recast layer analysis, which are being re-deposited on the work-piece surface during the operation. The recast layer thickness is less in case of Rotational EDM and more for Stationary Tool EDM. Moreover, the cracking on the re-casted surface is also more for stationary tool EDM as compared with the rotational EDM.

Keywords: EDM, MRR, Ra, TWR

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212 An Innovative Green Cooling Approach Using Peltier Chip in Milling Operation for Surface Roughness Improvement

Authors: Md. Anayet U. Patwari, Mohammad Ahsan Habib, Md. Tanzib Ehsan, Md Golam Ahnaf, Md. S. I. Chowdhury

Abstract:

Surface roughness is one of the key quality parameters of the finished product. During any machining operation, high temperatures are generated at the tool-chip interface impairing surface quality and dimensional accuracy of products. Cutting fluids are generally applied during machining to reduce temperature at the tool-chip interface. However, usages of cutting fluids give rise to problems such as waste disposal, pollution, high cost, and human health hazard. Researchers, now-a-days, are opting towards dry machining and other cooling techniques to minimize use of coolants during machining while keeping surface roughness of products within desirable limits. In this paper, a concept of using peltier cooling effects during aluminium milling operation has been presented and adopted with an aim to improve surface roughness of the machined surface. Experimental evidence shows that peltier cooling effect provides better surface roughness of the machined surface compared to dry machining.

Keywords: aluminium, milling operation, peltier cooling effect, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 247