Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 288

Search results for: abrasive waterjet machining

288 Surface Quality Improvement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting for Spacecraft Structure

Authors: Tarek M. Ahmed, Ahmed S. El Mesalamy, Amro M. Youssef, Tawfik T. El Midany

Abstract:

Abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining is considered as one of the most powerful cutting processes. It can be used for cutting heat sensitive, hard and reflective materials. Aluminum 2024 is a high-strength alloy which is widely used in aerospace and aviation industries. This paper aims to improve aluminum alloy and to investigate the effect of AWJ control parameters on surface geometry quality. Design of experiments (DoE) is used for establishing an experimental matrix. Statistical modeling is used to present a relation between the cutting parameters (pressure, speed, and distance between the nozzle and cut surface) and responses (taper angle and surface roughness). The results revealed a tangible improvement in productivity by using AWJ processing. The taper kerf angle can be improved by decreasing standoff distance and speed and increasing water pressure. While decreasing (cutting speed, pressure and distance between the nozzle and cut surface) improve the surface roughness in the operating window of cutting parameters.

Keywords: abrasive waterjet machining, machining of aluminum alloy, non-traditional cutting, statistical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
287 Predicting Depth of Penetration in Abrasive Waterjet Cutting of Polycrystalline Ceramics

Authors: S. Srinivas, N. Ramesh Babu

Abstract:

This paper presents a model to predict the depth of penetration in polycrystalline ceramic material cut by abrasive waterjet. The proposed model considered the interaction of cylindrical jet with target material in upper region and neglected the role of threshold velocity in lower region. The results predicted with the proposed model are validated with the experimental results obtained with Silicon Carbide (SiC) blocks.

Keywords: abrasive waterjet cutting, analytical modeling, ceramics, micro-cutting and inter-grannular cracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
286 Experimental Investigation on Over-Cut in Ultrasonic Machining of WC-Co Composite

Authors: Ravinder Kataria, Jatinder Kumar, B. S. Pabla

Abstract:

Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard, and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. Present article has been targeted at investigating the impact of different experimental conditions (power rating, cobalt content, tool material, thickness of work piece, tool geometry, and abrasive grit size) on over cut in ultrasonic drilling of WC-Co composite material. Taguchi’s L-36 orthogonal array has been employed for conducting the experiments. Significant factors have been identified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The experimental results revealed that abrasive grit size and tool material are most significant factors for over cut.

Keywords: ANOVA, abrasive grit size, Taguchi, WC-Co, ultrasonic machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
285 An Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Machining of Pure Titanium Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Jatinder Kumar

Abstract:

Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. There is a considerable lack of research on its application to the cost-effective machining of tough materials such as titanium. In this investigation, the application of USM process for machining of titanium (ASTM Grade-I) has been explored. Experiments have been conducted to assess the effect of different parameters of USM process on machining rate and tool wear rate as response characteristics. The process parameters that were included in this study are: abrasive grit size, tool material and power rating of the ultrasonic machine. It has been concluded that titanium is fairly machinable with USM process. Significant improvement in the machining rate can be realized by manipulating the process parameters and obtaining the optimum combination of these parameters.

Keywords: abrasive grit size, tool material, titanium, ultrasonic machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
284 Numerical Analysis on the Effect of Abrasive Parameters on Wall Shear Stress and Jet Exit Kinetic Energy

Authors: D. Deepak, N. Yagnesh Sharma

Abstract:

Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) machining is a relatively new nontraditional machine tool used in machining of fiber reinforced composite. The quality of machined surface depends on jet exit kinetic energy which depends on various operating and material parameters. In the present work the effect abrasive parameters such as its size, concentration and type on jet kinetic energy is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, the effect of these parameters on wall shear stress developed inside the nozzle is also investigated. It is found that for the same operating parameters, increase in the abrasive volume fraction (concentration) results in significant decrease in the wall shear stress as well as the jet exit kinetic energy. Increase in the abrasive particle size results in marginal decrease in the jet exit kinetic energy. Numerical simulation also indicates that garnet abrasives produce better jet exit kinetic energy than aluminium oxide and silicon carbide.

Keywords: abrasive water jet machining, jet kinetic energy, operating pressure, wall shear stress, Garnet abrasive

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
283 Role of Process Parameters on Pocket Milling with Abrasive Water Jet Machining Technique

Authors: T. V. K. Gupta, J. Ramkumar, Puneet Tandon, N. S. Vyas

Abstract:

Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM) is an unconventional machining process well known for machining hard to cut materials. The primary research focus on the process was for through cutting and a very limited literature is available on pocket milling using AWJM. The present work is an attempt to use this process for milling applications considering a set of various process parameters. Four different input parameters, which were considered by researchers for part separation, are selected for the above application i.e. abrasive size, flow rate, standoff distance, and traverse speed. Pockets of definite size are machined to investigate surface roughness, material removal rate, and pocket depth. Based on the data available through experiments on SS304 material, it is observed that higher traverse speeds gives a better finish because of reduction in the particle energy density and lower depth is also observed. Increase in the standoff distance and abrasive flow rate reduces the rate of material removal as the jet loses its focus and occurrence of collisions within the particles. ANOVA for individual output parameter has been studied to know the significant process parameters.

Keywords: abrasive flow rate, surface finish, abrasive size, standoff distance, traverse speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
282 Parameters Identification and Sensitivity Study for Abrasive WaterJet Milling Model

Authors: Didier Auroux, Vladimir Groza

Abstract:

This work is part of STEEP Marie-Curie ITN project, and it focuses on the identification of unknown parameters of the proposed generic Abrasive WaterJet Milling (AWJM) PDE model, that appears as an ill-posed inverse problem. The necessity of studying this problem comes from the industrial milling applications where the possibility to predict and model the final surface with high accuracy is one of the primary tasks in the absence of any knowledge of the model parameters that should be used. In this framework, we propose the identification of model parameters by minimizing a cost function, measuring the difference between experimental and numerical solutions. The adjoint approach based on corresponding Lagrangian gives the opportunity to find out the unknowns of the AWJM model and their optimal values that could be used to reproduce the required trench profile. Due to the complexity of the nonlinear problem and a large number of model parameters, we use an automatic differentiation software tool (TAPENADE) for the adjoint computations. By adding noise to the artificial data, we show that in fact the parameter identification problem is highly unstable and strictly depends on input measurements. Regularization terms could be effectively used to deal with the presence of data noise and to improve the identification correctness. Based on this approach we present results in 2D and 3D of the identification of the model parameters and of the surface prediction both with self-generated data and measurements obtained from the real production. Considering different types of model and measurement errors allows us to obtain acceptable results for manufacturing and to expect the proper identification of unknowns. This approach also gives us the ability to distribute the research on more complex cases and consider different types of model and measurement errors as well as 3D time-dependent model with variations of the jet feed speed.

Keywords: Abrasive Waterjet Milling, inverse problem, model parameters identification, regularization

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
281 Study on The Model of Microscopic Contact Parameters for Grinding M300 Using Elastic Abrasive Tool

Authors: Wu Xiaojun, Liu Ruiping, Yu Xingzhan, Wu Qian

Abstract:

In precision grinding, utilizing the elastic matrix ball has higher processing efficiency and better superficial quality than traditional grinding. The diversity of characteristics which elastic abrasive tool contact with bend surface results in irregular wear abrasion,and abrasive tool machining status get complicated. There is no theoretical interpretation that parameters affect the grinding accuracy.Aiming at corrosion resistance, wear resistance and other characteristics of M 300 material, it is often used as a material on aerospace precision components. The paper carried out grinding and polishing experiments by using material of M 300,to theoretically show the relationship between stress magnitude and grinding efficiency,and predict the optimal combination of grinding parameter for effective grinding, just for the high abrasion resistance features of M 300, analyzing the micro-contact of elastic ball abrasive tool (Whetstone), using mathematical methods deduce the functional relationship between residual peak removal rate and the main parameters which impact the grinding accuracy on the plane case.Thus laying the foundation for the study of elastic abrasive prediction and compensation.

Keywords: flexible abrasive tool, polishing parameters, Hertz theory, removal rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
280 The Inverse Problem in Energy Beam Processes Using Discrete Adjoint Optimization

Authors: Aitor Bilbao, Dragos Axinte, John Billingham

Abstract:

The inverse problem in Energy Beam (EB) Processes consists of defining the control parameters, in particular the 2D beam path (position and orientation of the beam as a function of time), to arrive at a prescribed solution (freeform surface). This inverse problem is well understood for conventional machining, because the cutting tool geometry is well defined and the material removal is a time independent process. In contrast, EB machining is achieved through the local interaction of a beam of particular characteristics (e.g. energy distribution), which leads to a surface-dependent removal rate. Furthermore, EB machining is a time-dependent process in which not only the beam varies with the dwell time, but any acceleration/deceleration of the machine/beam delivery system, when performing raster paths will influence the actual geometry of the surface to be generated. Two different EB processes, Abrasive Water Machining (AWJM) and Pulsed Laser Ablation (PLA), are studied. Even though they are considered as independent different technologies, both can be described as time-dependent processes. AWJM can be considered as a continuous process and the etched material depends on the feed speed of the jet at each instant during the process. On the other hand, PLA processes are usually defined as discrete systems and the total removed material is calculated by the summation of the different pulses shot during the process. The overlapping of these shots depends on the feed speed and the frequency between two consecutive shots. However, if the feed speed is sufficiently slow compared with the frequency, then consecutive shots are close enough and the behaviour can be similar to a continuous process. Using this approximation a generic continuous model can be described for both processes. The inverse problem is usually solved for this kind of process by simply controlling dwell time in proportion to the required depth of milling at each single pixel on the surface using a linear model of the process. However, this approach does not always lead to the good solution since linear models are only valid when shallow surfaces are etched. The solution of the inverse problem is improved by using a discrete adjoint optimization algorithm. Moreover, the calculation of the Jacobian matrix consumes less computation time than finite difference approaches. The influence of the dynamics of the machine on the actual movement of the jet is also important and should be taken into account. When the parameters of the controller are not known or cannot be changed, a simple approximation is used for the choice of the slope of a step profile. Several experimental tests are performed for both technologies to show the usefulness of this approach.

Keywords: abrasive waterjet machining, energy beam processes, inverse problem, pulsed laser ablation

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
279 Effect of Different Contact Rollers on the Surface Texture during the Belt Grinding Process

Authors: Amine Hamdi, Sidi Mohammed Merghache, Brahim Fernini

Abstract:

During abrasive machining of hard steels by belt grinding, the finished surface texture is influenced by the pressure between the abrasive belt and the workpiece; this pressure is the force applied by the contact roller on the workpiece. Therefore, the contact roller has an important role and has a direct impact on process efficiency. The objective of this article is to study and compare the influence of different contact rollers on the belt ground surface texture. The quality of the surface texture is characterized by eight roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rp, Rv, Rsk, Rku, Rsm, and Rdq) and five parameters of the bearing area curve (Rpk, Rk, Rvk, Mr1, and Mr2). The results of the experimental tests indicate a better surface texture obtained by the PA 6 polyamide roller (hardness 60 Shore D) compared to that obtained with other rollers of the same hardness or of different hardness. Simultaneously, optimum medium pressure between the belt and the workpiece allows chip removal without fracturing the abrasive grains. This generates a good surface texture.

Keywords: belt grinding, contact roller, pressure, abrasive belt, surface texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
278 Determining Which Material Properties Resist the Tool Wear When Machining Pre-Sintered Zirconia

Authors: David Robert Irvine

Abstract:

In the dental restoration sector, there has been a shift to using zirconia. With the ever increasing need to decrease lead times to deliver restorations faster the zirconia is machined in its pre-sintered state instead of grinding the very hard sintered state. As with all machining, there is tool wear and while investigating the tooling used to machine pre-sintered zirconia it became apparent that the wear rate is based more on material build up and abrasion than it is on plastic deformation like conventional metal machining. It also came to light that the tool material can currently not be selected based on wear resistance, as there is no data. Different works have analysed the effect of the individual wear mechanism separately using similar if not the same material. In this work, the testing method used to analyse the wear was a modified from ISO 8688:1989 to use the pre-sintered zirconia and the cutting conditions used in dental to machine it. This understanding was developed through a series of tests based in machining operations, to give the best representation of the multiple wear factors that can occur in machining of pre-sintered zirconia such as 3 body abrasion, material build up, surface welding, plastic deformation, tool vibration and thermal cracking. From the testing, it found that carbide grades with low trans-granular rupture toughness would fail due to abrasion while those with high trans-granular rupture toughness failed due to edge chipping from build up or thermal properties. The results gained can assist the development of these tools and the restorative dental process. This work was completed with the aim of assisting in the selection of tool material for future tools along with a deeper understanding of the properties that assist in abrasive wear resistance and material build up.

Keywords: abrasive wear, cemented carbide, pre-sintered zirconia, tool wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
277 Analysis of Waterjet Propulsion System for an Amphibious Vehicle

Authors: Nafsi K. Ashraf, C. V. Vipin, V. Anantha Subramanian

Abstract:

This paper reports the design of a waterjet propulsion system for an amphibious vehicle based on circulation distribution over the camber line for the sections of the impeller and stator. In contrast with the conventional waterjet design, the inlet duct is straight for water entry parallel and in line with the nozzle exit. The extended nozzle after the stator bowl makes the flow more axial further improving thrust delivery. Waterjet works on the principle of volume flow rate through the system and unlike the propeller, it is an internal flow system. The major difference between the propeller and the waterjet occurs at the flow passing the actuator. Though a ducted propeller could constitute the equivalent of waterjet propulsion, in a realistic situation, the nozzle area for the Waterjet would be proportionately larger to the inlet area and propeller disc area. Moreover, the flow rate through impeller disk is controlled by nozzle area. For these reasons the waterjet design is based on pump systems rather than propellers and therefore it is important to bring out the characteristics of the flow from this point of view. The analysis is carried out using computational fluid dynamics. Design of waterjet propulsion is carried out adapting the axial flow pump design and performance analysis was done with three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. With the varying environmental conditions as well as with the necessity of high discharge and low head along with the space confinement for the given amphibious vehicle, an axial pump design is suitable. The major problem of inlet velocity distribution is the large variation of velocity in the circumferential direction which gives rise to heavy blade loading that varies with time. The cavitation criteria have also been taken into account as per the hydrodynamic pump design. Generally, waterjet propulsion system can be parted into the inlet, the pump, the nozzle and the steering device. The pump further comprises an impeller and a stator. Analytical and numerical approaches such as RANSE solver has been undertaken to understand the performance of designed waterjet propulsion system. Unlike in case of propellers the analysis was based on head flow curve with efficiency and power curves. The modeling of the impeller is performed using rigid body motion approach. The realizable k-ϵ model has been used for turbulence modeling. The appropriate boundary conditions are applied for the domain, domain size and grid dependence studies are carried out.

Keywords: amphibious vehicle, CFD, impeller design, waterjet propulsion

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
276 Effect of Machining Induced Microstructure Changes on the Edge Formability of Titanium Alloys at Room Temperature

Authors: James S. Kwame, E. Yakushina, P. Blackwell

Abstract:

The challenges in forming titanium alloys at room temperature are well researched and are linked both to the limitations imposed by the basic crystal structure and their ability to form texture during plastic deformation. One major issue of concern for the sheet forming of titanium alloys is their high sensitivity to surface inhomogeneity. Various machining processes are utilised in preparing sheet hole edges for edge flanging applications. However, the response of edge forming tendencies of titanium to different edge surface finishes is not well investigated. The hole expansion test is used in this project to elucidate the impact of abrasive water jet (AWJ) and electro-discharge machining (EDM) cutting techniques on the edge formability of CP-Ti (Grade 2) and Ti-3Al-2.5V alloys at room temperature. The results show that the quality of the edge surface finish has a major effect on the edge formability of the materials. The work also found that the variations in the edge forming performance are mainly the result of the influence of machining induced edge surface defects.

Keywords: titanium alloys, hole expansion test, edge formability, non-conventional machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
275 Research on Ice Fixed-Abrasive Polishing Mechanism and Technology for High-Definition Display Panel Glass

Authors: Y. L. Sun, L. Shao, Y. Zhao, H. X. Zhou, W. Z. Lu, J. Li, D. W. Zuo

Abstract:

This study introduces an ice fixed-abrasive polishing (IFAP) technology. Using silica solution IFAP pad and Al2O3 IFAP pad, orthogonal tests were performed on polishing high-definition display panel glass, respectively. The results show that the polishing efficiency and effect polished with silica solution IFAP pad are better than those polished with Al2O3 IFAP pad. The optimized silica solution IFAP parameters are: polishing pressure 0.1MPa, polishing time 40min, table velocity 80r/min, and the ratio of accelerator and slurry 1:10. Finally, the IFAP mechanism was studied and it suggests by complicated analysis that IFAP is comprehensive effect of mechanical removal and microchemical reaction, combined with fixed abrasive polishing and free abrasive polishing.

Keywords: ice fixed-abrasive polishing, high-definition display panel glass, material removal rate, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
274 An Investigation of Machinability of Inconel 718 in EDM Using Different Cryogenic Treated Tools

Authors: Pradeep Joshi, Prashant Dhiman, Shiv Dayal Dhakad

Abstract:

Inconel 718 is a family if Nickel-Chromium based Superalloy; it has very high oxidation and corrosion resistance. Inconel 718 is widely being used in aerospace, engine, turbine etc. due to its high mechanical strength and creep resistance. Being widely used, its machining should be easy but in real its machining is very difficult, especially by using traditional machining methods. It becomes easy to machine only by using non Traditional machining such as EDM. During EDM machining there is wear of both tool and workpiece, the tool wear is undesired because it changes tool shape, geometry. To reduce the tool wear rate (TWR) cryogenic treatment is performed on tool before the machining operation. The machining performances of the process are to be evaluated in terms of MRR, TWR which are functions of Discharge current, Pulse on-time, Pulse Off-time.

Keywords: EDM, cyrogenic, TWR, MRR

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
273 Effect of Chemical Additive on Fixed Abrasive Polishing of LBO Crystal with Non-Water Based Slurry

Authors: Jun Li, Wenze Wang, Zhanggui Hu, Yongwei Zhu, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing was adopted to manufacture LBO crystal for nano precision surface quality because of its deliquescent. Ethyl alcohol was selected as the non-water based slurry solvent and ethanediamine, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide were add in the slurry as a chemical additive, respectively. Effect of different additives with non-water based slurry on material removal rate, surface topography, microscopic appearances and surface roughness were investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of LBO crystal. The results show the best surface quality of LBO crystal with surface roughness Sa 8.2 nm and small damages was obtained by non-water based slurry with lactic acid. Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing can achieve nano precision surface quality of LBO crystal with high material removal.

Keywords: non-water based slurry, LBO crystal, fixed abrasive polishing, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
272 Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating

Authors: T. Zlámal, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, P. Krajkovič

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For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.

Keywords: machining, plasma sprayed coating, surface integrity, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
271 Eliminating Cutter-Path Deviation For Five-Axis Nc Machining

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tsong Der Lin

Abstract:

This study proposes a deviation control method to add interpolation points to numerical control (NC) codes of five-axis machining in order to achieve the required machining accuracy. Specific research issues include: (1) converting machining data between the CL (cutter location) domain and the NC domain, (2) calculating the deviation between the deviated path and the linear path, (3) finding interpolation points, and (4) determining tool orientations for the interpolation points. System implementation with practical examples will also be included to highlight the applicability of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, cutter path, five-axis machining, numerical control

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
270 The Evaluation of Surface Integrity during Machining of Inconel 718 with Various Laser Assistance Strategies

Authors: Szymon Wojciechowski, Damian Przestacki, Tadeusz Chwalczuk

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The paper is focused on the evaluation of surface integrity formed during turning of Inconel 718 with the application of various laser assistance strategies. The primary objective of the work was to determine the relations between the applied machining strategy and the obtained surface integrity, in order to select the effective cutting conditions allowing the obtainment of high surface quality. The carried out experiment included the machining of Inconel 718 in the conventional turning conditions, as well as during the continuous laser assisted machining and sequential laser assistance. The surface integrity was evaluated by the measurements of machined surface topographies, microstructures and the microhardness. Results revealed that surface integrity of Inconel 718 is strongly affected by the selected machining strategy. The significant improvement of the surface roughness formed during machining of Inconel 718, can be reached by the application of simultaneous laser heating and cutting (LAM).

Keywords: Inconel 718, laser assisted machining, surface integrity, turning

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
269 Effect of Roughness and Microstructure on Tribological Behaviour of 35NCD16 Steel

Authors: A. Jourani, C. Trevisiol, S. Bouvier

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The aim of this work is to study the coupled effect of microstructure and surface roughness on friction coefficient, wear resistance and wear mechanisms. Friction tests on 35NCD16 steel are performed under different normal loads (50-110 N) on a pin-on-plane configuration at cyclic sliding with abrasive silicon carbide grains ranging from 35 µm to 200 µm. To vary hardness and microstructure, the specimens are subjected to water quenching and tempering at various temperatures from 200°C to 600°C. The evolution of microstructures and wear mechanisms of worn surfaces are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For a given microstructure and hardness, the friction coefficient decreases with increasing of normal load and decreasing of the abrasive particle size. The wear rate increase with increasing of normal load and abrasive particle size. The results also reveal that there is a critical hardness Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ around 430 Hv which maximizes the friction coefficient and wear rate. This corresponds to a microstructure transition from martensite laths to carbides and equiaxed grains, for a tempering around 400°C. Above Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ the friction coefficient and the amount of material loss decrease with an increase of hardness and martensite volume fraction. This study also shows that the debris size and the space between the abrasive particles decrease with a reduction in the particle size. The coarsest abrasive grains lost their cutting edges, accompanied by particle damage and empty space due to the particle detachment from the resin matrix. The compact packing nature of finer abrasive papers implicates lower particle detachment and facilitates the clogging and the transition from abrasive to adhesive wear.

Keywords: martensite, microstructure, friction, wear, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
268 Hard Coatings Characterization Based on Chromium Nitrides: Applications for Wood Machining

Authors: B. Chemani, H. Aknouche, A. Zerizer, R. Marchal

Abstract:

The phenomena occurring during machining are related to the internal friction of the material that deforms and the friction the flake on the rake face of tool. Various researches have been conducted to improve the wear resistance of the tool by thin film deposition. This work aims to present an experimental approach related to wood machining technique to evaluate the wear for the case of ripping Aleppo pine, a species well established in the Mediterranean in general and in Algeria in particular. The study will be done on tungsten carbide cutting tools widely used in woodworking and coated with chrome nitride (CrN) and Chromium Nitride enriched Aluminium (CrAlN) with percentage different of aluminum sputtered through frame magnetron mark Nordiko 3500. The deposition conditions are already optimized by previous studies. The wear tests were performed in the laboratory of ENSAM Cluny (France) on a numerical control ripper of recordi type. This comparative study of the behavior of tools, coated and uncoated, showed that the addition of the aluminum chromium nitride films does not improve the tool ability to resist abrasive wear that is predominant when ripping the Aleppo pine. By against the aluminum addition improves the crystallization of chromium nitride films.

Keywords: Aleppo pine, PVD, coatings, CrAlN, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
267 Machining Stability of a Milling Machine with Different Preloaded Spindle

Authors: Jui-Pin Hung, Qiao-Wen Chang, Kung-Da Wu, Yong-Run Chen

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This study was aimed to investigate the machining stability of a spindle tool with different preloaded amount. To this end, the vibration tests were conducted on the spindle unit with different preload to assess the dynamic characteristics and machining stability of the spindle unit. Current results demonstrate that the tool tip frequency response characteristics and the machining stabilities in X and Y direction are affected to change for spindle with different preload. As can be found from the results, a high preloaded spindle tool shows higher limited cutting depth at mid position, while a spindle with low preload shows a higher limited depth. This implies that the machining stability of spindle tool system is affected to vary by the machine frame structure. Besides, such an effect is quite different and varied with the preload of the spindle.

Keywords: bearing preload, dynamic compliance, machining stability, spindle

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
266 Effect of Process Variables of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Surface Roughness for AA-6063 by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Deepak

Abstract:

WEDM is an amazingly potential electro-wire process for machining of hard metal compounds and metal grid composites without making contact. Wire electrical machining is a developing noncustomary machining process for machining hard to machine materials that are electrically conductive. It is an exceptionally exact, precise, and one of the most famous machining forms in nontraditional machining. WEDM has turned into the fundamental piece of many assembling process ventures, which require precision, variety, and accuracy. In the present examination, AA-6063 is utilized as a workpiece, and execution investigation is done to discover the critical control factors. Impact of different parameters like a pulse on time, pulse off time, servo voltage, peak current, water pressure, wire tension, wire feed upon surface hardness has been researched while machining on AA-6063. RSM has been utilized to advance the yield variable. A variety of execution measures with input factors was demonstrated by utilizing the response surface methodology.

Keywords: AA-6063, response surface methodology, WEDM, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
265 An In-Situ Integrated Micromachining System for Intricate Micro-Parts Machining

Authors: Shun-Tong Chen, Wei-Ping Huang, Hong-Ye Yang, Ming-Chieh Yeh, Chih-Wei Du

Abstract:

This study presents a novel versatile high-precision integrated micromachining system that combines contact and non-contact micromachining techniques to machine intricate micro-parts precisely. Two broad methods of micro fabrication-1) volume additive (micro co-deposition), and 2) volume subtractive (nanometric flycutting, ultrafine w-EDM (wire Electrical Discharge Machining), and micro honing) - are integrated in the developed micromachining system, and their effectiveness is verified. A multidirectional headstock that supports various machining orientations is designed to evaluate the feasibility of multifunctional micromachining. An exchangeable working-tank that allows for various machining mechanisms is also incorporated into the system. Hence, the micro tool and workpiece need not be unloaded or repositioned until all the planned tasks have been completed. By using the designed servo rotary mechanism, a nanometric flycutting approach with a concentric rotary accuracy of 5-nm is constructed and utilized with the system to machine a diffraction-grating element with a nano-metric scale V-groove array. To improve the wear resistance of the micro tool, the micro co-deposition function is used to provide a micro-abrasive coating by an electrochemical method. The construction of ultrafine w-EDM facilitates the fabrication of micro slots with a width of less than 20-µm on a hardened tool. The hardened tool can thus be employed as a micro honing-tool to hone a micro hole with an internal diameter of 200 µm on SKD-11 molded steel. Experimental results prove that intricate micro-parts can be in-situ manufactured with high-precision by the developed integrated micromachining system.

Keywords: integrated micromachining system, in-situ micromachining, nanometric flycutting, ultrafine w-EDM, micro honing

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
264 Axiomatic Design of Laser Beam Machining Process

Authors: Nikhil Deshpande, Rahul Mahajan

Abstract:

Laser Beam Machining (LBM) is a non-traditional machining process that has inherent problems like dross, striation, and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) which reduce the quality of machining. In the present day scenario, these problems are controlled only by iteratively adjusting a large number of process parameters. This paper applies Axiomatic Design principles to design LBM process so as to eliminate the problem of dross and striation and minimize the effect of HAZ. Process parameters and their ranges are proposed to set-up the LBM process, execute the cut and finish the workpiece so as to obtain the best quality cut.

Keywords: laser beam machining, dross, striation, heat affected zone, axiomatic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
263 Cryogenic Machining of Sawdust Incorporated Polypropylene Composites

Authors: K. N. Umesh

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Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) were synthesized artificially by combining polypropylene, wood and resin. It is difficult to obtain a good surface finish by conventional machining on WPC because of material degradation due to excessive heat generated during the process. In order to preserve the material property and deliver a better surface finish and accuracy, a proper solution is devised for the machining of wood composites at low temperature. This research focuses on studying the effects of parameters of cryogenic machining on sawdust incorporated polypropylene composite material, in view of evolving the most suitable composition and an appropriate combination of process parameters. The machining characteristics of the six different compositions of WPC were evaluated by analyzing the trend. An attempt is made to determine proper combinations material composition and process control parameters, through process capability studies. A WPC of 80%-wood (saw dust particles), 20%-polypropylene and 0%-resin was found to be the best alternative for obtaining the best surface finish under cryogenic machining conditions.

Keywords: Cryogenic Machining, Process Capability, Surface Finish, Wood Polymer Composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
262 Automated CNC Part Programming and Process Planning for Turned Components

Authors: Radhey Sham Rajoria

Abstract:

Pressure to increase the competitiveness in the manufacturing sector and for the survival in the market has led to the development of machining centres, which enhance productivity, improve quality, shorten the lead time, and reduce the manufacturing cost. With the innovation of machining centres in the manufacturing sector the production lines have been replaced by these machining centers, having the ability to machine various processes and multiple tooling with automatic tool changer (ATC) for the same part. Also the process plans can be easily generated for complex components. Some means are required to utilize the machining center at its best. The present work is concentrated on the automated part program generation, and in turn automated process plan generation for the turned components on Denford “MIRAC” 8 stations ATC lathe machining centre. A package in C++ on DOS platform is developed which generates the complete CNC part program, process plan and process sequence for the turned components. The input to this system is in the form of a blueprint in graphical format with machining parameters and variables, and the output is the CNC part program which is stored in a .mir file, ready for execution on the machining centre.

Keywords: CNC, MIRAC, ATC, process planning

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261 Auto-Tuning of CNC Parameters According to the Machining Mode Selection

Authors: Jenq-Shyong Chen, Ben-Fong Yu

Abstract:

CNC(computer numerical control) machining centers have been widely used for machining different metal components for various industries. For a specific CNC machine, its everyday job is assigned to cut different products with quite different attributes such as material type, workpiece weight, geometry, tooling, and cutting conditions. Theoretically, the dynamic characteristics of the CNC machine should be properly tuned match each machining job in order to get the optimal machining performance. However, most of the CNC machines are set with only a standard set of CNC parameters. In this study, we have developed an auto-tuning system which can automatically change the CNC parameters and in hence change the machine dynamic characteristics according to the selection of machining modes which are set by the mixed combination of three machine performance indexes: the HO (high surface quality) index, HP (high precision) index and HS (high speed) index. The acceleration, jerk, corner error tolerance, oscillation and dynamic bandwidth of machine’s feed axes have been changed according to the selection of the machine performance indexes. The proposed auto-tuning system of the CNC parameters has been implemented on a PC-based CNC controller and a three-axis machining center. The measured experimental result have shown the promising of our proposed auto-tuning system.

Keywords: auto-tuning, CNC parameters, machining mode, high speed, high accuracy, high surface quality

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260 Efficient Prediction of Surface Roughness Using Box Behnken Design

Authors: Ajay Kumar Sarathe, Abhinay Kumar

Abstract:

Production of quality products required for specific engineering applications is an important issue. The roughness of the surface plays an important role in the quality of the product by using appropriate machining parameters to eliminate wastage due to over machining. To increase the quality of the surface, the optimum machining parameter setting is crucial during the machining operation. The effect of key machining parameters- spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on surface roughness has been evaluated. Experimental work was carried out using High Speed Steel tool and AlSI 1018 as workpiece material. In this study, the predictive model has been developed using Box-Behnken Design. An experimental investigation has been carried out for this work using BBD for three factors and observed that the predictive model of Ra value is closed to predictive value with a marginal error of 2.8648 %. Developed model establishes a correlation between selected key machining parameters that influence the surface roughness in a AISI 1018. F

Keywords: ANOVA, BBD, optimisation, response surface methodology

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259 Investigation the Effect of Quenching Media on Abrasive Wear in Grade Medium Carbon Steel

Authors: Abbas S. Alwan, Waleed K. Hussan

Abstract:

In this paper, a general verification of possible heat treatment of steel has been done with the view of conditions of real abrasive wear of rotivater with soil texture. This technique is found promising to improve the quality of agriculture components working with the soil in dry condition. Abrasive wear resistance is very important in many applications and in most cases it is directly correlated with the hardness of materials surface. Responded of heat treatments were carried out in various media (Still air, Cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %) and follow by low-temperature tempering (250°C) was applied on steel type (AISI 1030). After heat treatment was applied wear with soil texture by using tillage process to determine the (actual wear rate) of the specimens depending on weight loss method. It was found; the wear resistance Increases with increase hardness with varying quenching media as follows; 30 HRC, 45 HRC, 52 HRC, and 60 HRC for nontreated (as received) cooling media as still air, cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %, respectively. Martensitic structure with retained austenite can be obtained depending on the quenching medium. Wear was presented on the worn surfaces of the steels which were used in this work.

Keywords: microstructures, hardness, abrasive wear, heat treatment, soil texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 260