Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1179

Search results for: machining of aluminum alloy

1179 Surface Quality Improvement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting for Spacecraft Structure

Authors: Tarek M. Ahmed, Ahmed S. El Mesalamy, Amro M. Youssef, Tawfik T. El Midany


Abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining is considered as one of the most powerful cutting processes. It can be used for cutting heat sensitive, hard and reflective materials. Aluminum 2024 is a high-strength alloy which is widely used in aerospace and aviation industries. This paper aims to improve aluminum alloy and to investigate the effect of AWJ control parameters on surface geometry quality. Design of experiments (DoE) is used for establishing an experimental matrix. Statistical modeling is used to present a relation between the cutting parameters (pressure, speed, and distance between the nozzle and cut surface) and responses (taper angle and surface roughness). The results revealed a tangible improvement in productivity by using AWJ processing. The taper kerf angle can be improved by decreasing standoff distance and speed and increasing water pressure. While decreasing (cutting speed, pressure and distance between the nozzle and cut surface) improve the surface roughness in the operating window of cutting parameters.

Keywords: abrasive waterjet machining, machining of aluminum alloy, non-traditional cutting, statistical modeling

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1178 Machinability Study of A201-T7 Alloy

Authors: Onan Kilicaslan, Anil Kabaklarli, Levent Subasi, Erdem Bektas, Rifat Yilmaz


The Aluminum-Copper casting alloys are well known for their high mechanical strength, especially when compared to more commonly used Aluminum-Silicon alloys. A201 is one of the best in terms of strength vs. weight ratio among other aluminum alloys, which makes it suitable for premium quality casting applications in aerospace and automotive industries. It is reported that A201 has low castability, but it is easy to machine. However, there is a need to specifically determine the process window for feasible machining. This research investigates the machinability of A201 alloy after T7 heat treatment in terms of chip/burr formation, surface roughness, hardness, and microstructure. The samples are cast with low-pressure sand casting method and milling experiments are performed with uncoated carbide tools using different cutting speeds and feeds. Statistical analysis is used to correlate the machining parameters to surface integrity. It is found that there is a strong dependence of the cutting conditions on machinability and a process window is determined.

Keywords: A201-T7, machinability, milling, surface integrity

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1177 An Investigation of the Strength Deterioration of Forged Aluminum 6082 (T6) Alloy

Authors: Rajveer, Abhinav Saxena, Sanjeev Das


The study is focused on the strength of forged aluminum alloy (AA) 6082 (T6). Aluminum alloy 6082 belongs to Al-Mg-Si family which has a wide range of automotive applications. A decrease in the strength of AA 6082 alloy was observed after T6 treatment. The as-received (extruded), forged, and forged + heat treated samples were examined to understand the reason. These examinations were accomplished by optical (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. It was observed that the defects had an insignificant effect on the alloy strength. The alloy samples were subjected to age hardening treatment and the time to achieve peak hardening was acquired. Standard tensile specimens were prepared from as-received (extruded), forged, forged + solutionized and forged + solutionized + age hardened. Tensile tests were conducted by Instron universal testing machine. It was observed that there was a significant drop in tensile strength in the case of solutionized sample. The detailed study of the fracture samples showed that the solutionizing after forging was not the best way to increase the strength of Al 6082 alloy.

Keywords: aluminum alloy 6082, strength, forging, age hardening

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
1176 Effect of T6 and Re-Aging Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of 7055 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. Esmailian, M. Shakouri, A. Mottahedi, S. G. Shabestari


Heat treatable aluminium alloys such as 7075 and 7055, because of high strength and low density, are used widely in aircraft industry. For best mechanical properties, T6 heat treatment has recommended for this regards, but this temper treatment is sensitive to corrosion induced and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) damage. For improving this property, the over-aging treatment (T7) applies to this alloy, but it decreases the mechanical properties up to 30 percent. Hence, to increase the mechanical properties, without any remarkable decrease in SCC resistant, Retrogression and Re-Aging (RRA) heat treatment is used. This treatment performs in a relatively short time. In this paper, the RRA heat treatment was applied to 7055 aluminum alloy and then effect of RRA time on the mechanical properties of 7055 has been investigated. The results show that the 40 minute time is suitable time for retrogression of 7055 aluminum alloy and ultimate strength increases up to 625MPa.

Keywords: 7055 Aluminum alloy, mechanical properties, SCC resistance, heat Treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1175 Prediction of Cutting Tool Life in Drilling of Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Composite Using a Fuzzy Method

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh


Machining of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) is very significant process and has been a main problem that draws many researchers to investigate the characteristics of MMCs during different machining process. The poor machining properties of hard particles reinforced MMCs make drilling process a rather interesting task. Unlike drilling of conventional materials, many problems can be seriously encountered during drilling of MMCs, such as tool wear and cutting forces. Cutting tool wear is a very significant concern in industries. Cutting tool wear not only influences the quality of the drilled hole, but also affects the cutting tool life. Prediction the cutting tool life during drilling is essential for optimizing the cutting conditions. However, the relationship between tool life and cutting conditions, tool geometrical factors and workpiece material properties has not yet been established by any machining theory. In this research work, fuzzy subtractive clustering system has been used to model the cutting tool life in drilling of Al2O3 particle reinforced aluminum alloy composite to investigate of the effect of cutting conditions on cutting tool life. This investigation can help in controlling and optimizing of cutting conditions when the process parameters are adjusted. The built model for prediction the tool life is identified by using drill diameter, cutting speed, and cutting feed rate as input data. The validity of the model was confirmed by the examinations under various cutting conditions. Experimental results have shown the efficiency of the model to predict cutting tool life.

Keywords: composite, fuzzy, tool life, wear

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1174 Optimizing of the Micro EDM Parameters in Drilling of Titanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy for Higher Machining Accuracy-Fuzzy Modelling

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Mum Wai Yip, M. Sayuti, Lim Siew Fen


Ti6Al4V alloy is highly used in the automotive and aerospace industry due to its good machining characteristics. Micro EDM drilling is commonly used to drill micro hole on extremely hard material with very high depth to diameter ratio. In this study, the parameters of micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) in drilling of Ti6Al4V alloy is optimized for higher machining accuracy with less hole-dilation and hole taper ratio. The micro-EDM machining parameters includes, peak current and pulse on time. Fuzzy analysis was developed to evaluate the machining accuracy. The analysis shows that hole-dilation and hole-taper ratio are increased with the increasing of peak current and pulse on time. However, the surface quality deteriorates as the peak current and pulse on time increase. The combination that gives the optimum result for hole dilation is medium peak current and short pulse on time. Meanwhile, the optimum result for hole taper ratio is low peak current and short pulse on time.

Keywords: Micro EDM, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, fuzzy logic based analysis, optimization, machining accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
1173 Examining of Tool Wear in Cryogenic Machining of Cobalt-Based Haynes 25 Superalloy

Authors: Murat Sarıkaya, Abdulkadir Güllü


Haynes 25 alloy (also known as L-605 alloy) is cobalt based super alloy which has widely applications such as aerospace industry, turbine and furnace parts, power generators and heat exchangers and petroleum refining components due to its excellent characteristics. However, the workability of this alloy is more difficult compared to normal steels or even stainless. In present work, an experimental investigation was performed under cryogenic cooling to determine cutting tool wear patterns and obtain optimal cutting parameters in turning of cobalt based superalloy Haynes 25. In experiments, uncoated carbide tool was used and cutting speed (V) and feed rate (f) were considered as test parameters. Tool wear (VBmax) were measured for process performance indicators. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the importance of machining parameters.

Keywords: cryogenic machining, difficult-to-cut alloy, tool wear, turning

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1172 Nanocharacterization of PIII Treated 7075 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Bruno Bacci Fernandes, Stephan Mändl, Ataíde Ribeiro da Silva Junior, José Osvaldo Rossi, Mário Ueda


Nitrogen implantation in aluminum and its alloys is acquainted for the difficulties in obtaining modified layers deeper than 200 nm. The present work addresses a new method to overcome such a problem; although, the coating with nitrogen and oxygen obtained by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into a 7075 aluminum alloy surface was too shallow. This alloy is commonly used for structural parts in aerospace applications. Such a layer was characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and nanoindentation experiments reciprocating wear tests. From the results, one can assume that the wear of this aluminum alloy starts presenting severe abrasive wear followed by an additional adhesive mechanism. PIII produced a slight difference, as shown in all characterizations carried out in this work. The results shown here can be used as the scientific basis for further nitrogen PIII experiments in aluminum alloys which have the goal to produce thicker modified layers or to improve their surface properties.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, plasma immersion ion implantation, tribological properties, hardness, nanofatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1171 Experimental Analysis of the Origins of the Anisotropy Behavior in the 2017 AA Aluminum Alloy

Authors: May Abdelghani


The present work is devoted to the study of the microstructural anisotropy in mechanical cyclic behavior of the 2017AA aluminum alloy which is widely used in the aerospace industry. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the microstructural origins of this anisotropy already confirmed in our previous work in 2017AA aluminum alloy. To do this, we have used the microstructural analysis resources such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to see the differences between breaks from different directions of cyclic loading. Another resource of investigation was used in this study is that the EBSD method, which allows us to obtain a mapping of the crystallographic texture of our material. According to the obtained results in the microscopic analysis, we are able to identify the origins of the anisotropic behavior at the macroscopic scale.

Keywords: fatigue damage, cyclic behavior, anisotropy, microstructural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
1170 Improvement of Wear Resistance of 356 Aluminum Alloy by High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: M. Farnush


This study is concerned with the microstructural analysis and improvement of wear resistance of 356 aluminum alloy by a high energy electron beam. Shock hardening on material by high energy electron beam improved wear resistance. Particularly, in the surface of material by shock hardening, the wear resistance was greatly enhanced to 29% higher than that of the 356 aluminum alloy substrate. These findings suggested that surface shock hardening using high energy electron beam irradiation was economical and useful for the development of surface shock hardening with improved wear resistance.

Keywords: Al356 alloy, HEEB, wear resistance, frictional characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
1169 Formation of Protective Aluminum-Oxide Layer on the Surface of Fe-Cr-Al Sintered-Metal-Fibers via Multi-Stage Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Loai Ben Naji, Osama M. Ibrahim, Khaled J. Al-Fadhalah


The objective of this paper is to investigate the formation and adhesion of a protective aluminum-oxide (Al2O3, alumina) layer on the surface of Iron-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy (Fe-Cr-Al) sintered-metal-fibers. The oxide-scale layer was developed via multi-stage thermal oxidation at 930 oC for 1 hour, followed by 1 hour at 960 oC, and finally at 990 oC for 2 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show that the multi-stage thermal oxidation resulted in the formation of predominantly Al2O3 platelets-like and whiskers. SEM images also reveal non-uniform oxide-scale growth on the surface of the fibers. Furthermore, peeling/spalling of the alumina protective layer occurred after minimum handling, which indicates weak adhesion forces between the protective layer and the base metal alloy.  Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the heat-treated Fe-Cr-Al sintered-metal-fibers confirmed the high aluminum content on the surface of the protective layer, and the low aluminum content on the exposed base metal alloy surface. In conclusion, the failure of the oxide-scale protective layer exposes the base metal alloy to further oxidation, and the fragile non-uniform oxide-scale is not suitable as a support for catalysts.

Keywords: high-temperature oxidation, iron-chromium-aluminum alloy, alumina protective layer, sintered-metal-fibers

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1168 Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Joints of Cast Al-Mg-Sc Alloy

Authors: K. Subbaiah, C. V. Jeyakumar, S. R. Koteswara Rao


Cast Aluminum-Magnesium-Scandium alloy was Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welded, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint and its component parts were examined and analyzed. The global joint fractured in the base metal, and thus possessed slightly greater tensile strength than the base metal. These results clearly show that Gas Tungsten Arc welding is an optimum / suitable welding process for cast Aluminum-Magnesium-Scandium alloys.

Keywords: cast Al-Mg-Sc alloy, GTAW, microstructure, mechanical properties

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1167 Experimental Investigation and Numerical Simulations of the Cylindrical Machining of a Ti-6Al-4V Tree

Authors: Mohamed Sahli, David Bassir, Thierry Barriere, Xavier Roizard


Predicting the behaviour of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy during the turning operation was very important in the choice of suitable cutting tools and also in the machining strategies. In this study, a 3D model with thermo-mechanical coupling has been proposed to study the influence of cutting parameters and also lubrication on the performance of cutting tools. The constants of the constitutive Johnson-Cook model of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were identified using inverse analysis based on the parameters of the orthogonal cutting process. Then, numerical simulations of the finishing machining operation were developed and experimentally validated for the cylindrical stock removal stage with the finishing cutting tool.

Keywords: titanium turning, cutting tools, FE simulation, chip

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1166 A Systematic Approach for Identifying Turning Center Capabilities with Vertical Machining Center in Milling Operation

Authors: Joseph Chen, N. Hundal


Conventional machining is a form of subtractive manufacturing, in which a collection of material-working processes utilizing power-driven machine tools are used to remove undesired material to achieve a desired geometry. This paper presents an approach for comparison between turning center and vertical machining center by optimization of cutting parameters at cylindrical workpieces leading to minimum surface roughness by using taguchi methodology. Aluminum alloy was taken to conduct experiments due to its unique high strength-weight ratio that is maintained at elevated temperatures and their exceptional corrosion resistance. During testing, the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness were investigated. Additionally, by using taguchi methodology for each of the cutting parameters (spindle speed, depth of cut, insert diameter, and feed rate) minimum surface roughness for the process of turn-milling was determined according to the cutting parameters. A confirmation experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of taguchi method.

Keywords: surface roughness, Taguchi parameter design, turning center, turn-milling operations, vertical machining center

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1165 Tribological Study of TiC Powder Cladding on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Yuan-Ching Lin, Sin-Yu Chen, Pei-Yu Wu


This study reports the improvement in the wear performance of A6061 aluminum alloy clad with mixed powders of titanium carbide (TiC), copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. The wear performance of the A6061 clad layers was evaluated by performing pin-on-disc mode wear test. Experimental results clearly indicate an enhancement in the hardness of the clad layer by about two times that of the A6061 substrate without cladding. Wear test demonstrated a significant improvement in the wear performance of the clad layer when compared with the A6061 substrate without cladding. Moreover, the interface between the clad layer and the A6061 substrate exhibited superior metallurgical bonding. Due to this bonding, the clad layer did not spall during the wear test; as such, massive wear loss was prevented. Additionally, massive oxidized particulate debris was generated on the worn surface during the wear test; this resulted in three-body abrasive wear and reduced the wear behavior of the clad surface.

Keywords: GTAW、A6061 aluminum alloy, 、surface modification, tribological study, TiC powder cladding

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1164 A New Developed Formula to Determine the Shear Buckling Stress in Welded Aluminum Plate Girders

Authors: Badr Alsulami, Ahmed S. Elamary


This paper summarizes and presents main results of an in-depth numerical analysis dealing with the shear buckling resistance of aluminum plate girders. The studies conducted have permitted the development of a simple design expression to determine the critical shear buckling stress in aluminum web panels. This expression takes into account the effects of reduction of strength in aluminum alloys due to the welding process. Ultimate shear resistance (USR) of plate girders can be obtained theoretically using Cardiff theory or Hӧglund’s theory. USR of aluminum alloy plate girders predicted theoretically using BS8118 appear inconsistent when compared with test data. Theoretical predictions based on Hӧglund’s theory, are more realistic. Cardiff theory proposed to predict the USR of steel plate girders only. Welded aluminum alloy plate girders studied experimentally by others; the USR resulted from tests are reviewed. Comparison between the test results with the values obtained from Hӧglund’s theory, BS8118 design method, and Cardiff theory performed theoretically. Finally, a new equation based on Cardiff tension-field theory proposed to predict theoretically the USR of aluminum plate girders.

Keywords: shear resistance, aluminum, Cardiff theory, Hӧglund's theory, plate girder

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1163 Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings for Corrosion Protection of AA6111-T4 Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Shadatul Hanom Rashid, Xiaorong Zhou


Hybrid sol-gel coatings are the blend of both advantages of inorganic and organic networks have been reported as environmentally friendly anti-corrosion surface pre-treatment for several metals, including aluminum alloys. In this current study, Si-Zr hybrid sol-gel coatings were synthesized from (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium(IV) propoxide (TPOZ) precursors and applied on AA6111 aluminum alloy by dip coating technique. The hybrid sol-gel coatings doped with different concentrations of cerium nitrate (Ce(NO3)3) as a corrosion inhibitor were also prepared and the effect of Ce(NO3)3 concentrations on the morphology and corrosion resistance of the coatings were examined. The surface chemistry and morphology of the hybrid sol-gel coatings were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behavior of the coated aluminum alloy samples was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results revealed that good corrosion resistance of hybrid sol-gel coatings were prepared from hydrolysis and condensation reactions of GPTMS, TEOS and TPOZ precursors deposited on AA6111 aluminum alloy. When the coating doped with cerium nitrate, the properties were improved significantly. The hybrid sol-gel coatings containing lower concentration of cerium nitrate offer the best inhibition performance. A proper doping concentration of Ce(NO3)3 can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy, while an excessive concentration of Ce(NO3)3 would reduce the corrosion protection properties, which is associated with defective morphology and instability of the sol-gel coatings.

Keywords: AA6111, Ce(NO3)3, corrosion, hybrid sol-gel coatings

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1162 Effects of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Vibration of the Milling Tool

Authors: Yung C. Lin, Kung D. Wu, Wei C. Shih, Jui P. Hung


High speed and high precision machining have become the most important technology in manufacturing industry. The surface roughness of high precision components is regarded as the important characteristics of the product quality. However, machining chatter could damage the machined surface and restricts the process efficiency. Therefore, selection of the appropriate cutting conditions is of importance to prevent the occurrence of chatter. In addition, vibration of the spindle tool also affects the surface quality, which implies the surface precision can be controlled by monitoring the vibration of the spindle tool. Based on this concept, this study was aimed to investigate the influence of the machining conditions on the surface roughness and the vibration of the spindle tool. To this end, a series of machining tests were conducted on aluminum alloy. In tests, the vibration of the spindle tool was measured by using the acceleration sensors. The surface roughness of the machined parts was examined using white light interferometer. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to establish the mathematical models for predicting surface finish and tool vibration, respectively. The correlation between the surface roughness and spindle tool vibration was also analyzed by ANOVA analysis. According to the machining tests, machined surface with or without chattering was marked on the lobes diagram as the verification of the machining conditions. Using multivariable regression analysis, the mathematical models for predicting the surface roughness and tool vibrations were developed based on the machining parameters, cutting depth (a), feed rate (f) and spindle speed (s). The predicted roughness is shown to agree well with the measured roughness, an average percentage of errors of 10%. The average percentage of errors of the tool vibrations between the measurements and the predictions of mathematical model is about 7.39%. In addition, the tool vibration under various machining conditions has been found to have a positive influence on the surface roughness (r=0.78). As a conclusion from current results, the mathematical models were successfully developed for the predictions of the surface roughness and vibration level of the spindle tool under different cutting condition, which can help to select appropriate cutting parameters and to monitor the machining conditions to achieve high surface quality in milling operation.

Keywords: machining parameters, machining stability, regression analysis, surface roughness

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1161 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Operating Parameters during the Micro-Electro-Discharge Machining of Ni Based Alloy

Authors: Asma Perveen, M. P. Jahan


Ni alloys have managed to cover wide range of applications such as automotive industries, oil gas industries, and aerospace industries. However, these alloys impose challenges while using conventional machining technologies. On the other hand, Micro-Electro-Discharge machining (micro-EDM) is a non-conventional machining method that uses controlled sparks energy to remove material irrespective of the materials hardness. There has been always a huge interest from the industries for developing optimum methodology and parameters in order to enhance the productivity of micro-EDM in terms of reducing machining time and tool wear for different alloys. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the effects of the micro-EDM process parameters, in order to find their optimal values. The input process parameters include voltage, capacitance, and electrode rotational speed, whereas the output parameters considered are machining time, entrance diameter of hole, overcut, tool wear, and crater size. The surface morphology and element characterization are also investigated with the use of SEM and EDX analysis. The experimental result indicates the reduction of machining time with the increment of discharge energy. Discharge energy also contributes to the enlargement of entrance diameter as well as overcut. In addition, tool wears show reduction with the increase of discharge energy. Moreover, crater size is found to be increased in size along with the increment of discharge energy.

Keywords: micro holes, micro EDM, Ni Alloy, discharge energy

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1160 Optimization of Machining Parameters of Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) of Inconel 625 Super Alloy

Authors: Amitesh Goswami, Vishal Gulati, Annu Yadav


In this paper, WEDM has been used to investigate the machining characteristics of Inconel-625 alloy. The machining characteristics namely material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) have been investigated along with surface microstructure analysis using SEM and EDS of the machined surface. Taguchi’s L27 Orthogonal array design has been used by considering six varying input parameters viz. Pulse-on time (Ton), Pulse-off time (Toff), Spark Gap Set Voltage (SV), Peak Current (IP), Wire Feed (WF) and Wire Tension (WT) for the responses of interest. It has been found out that Pulse-on time (Ton) and Spark Gap Set Voltage (SV) are the most significant parameters affecting material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) are. Microstructure analysis of workpiece was also done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that, variations in pulse-on time and pulse-off time causes varying discharge energy and as a result of which deep craters / micro cracks and large/ small number of debris were formed. These results were helpful in studying the effects of pulse-on time and pulse-off time on MRR and SR. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) was also done to check the compositional analysis of the material and it was observed that Copper and Zinc which were initially not present in the Inconel 625, later migrated on the material surface from the brass wire electrode during machining

Keywords: MRR, SEM, SR, taguchi, Wire Electric Discharge Machining

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1159 Effect of Aging Condition on Semisolid Cast 2024 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: S. Wisutmethangoon, S. Pannaray, T. Plookphol, J. Wannasin


2024 Aluminium alloy was squeezed cast by the Gas Induced Semi Solid (GISS) process. Effect of artificial aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of this alloy was studied in the present work. The solutionized specimens were aged hardened at temperatures of 175°C, 200°C, and 225°C under various time durations. The highest hardness of about 77.7 HRE was attained from specimen aged at the temperature of 175 °C for 36 h. Upon investigation the microstructure by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), the phase was mainly attributed to the strengthening effect in the aged alloy. The apparent activation energy for precipitation hardening of the alloy was calculated as 133,805 J/mol.

Keywords: 2024 aluminium alloy, gas induced semi solid, T6 heat treatment, aged hardening, transmission electron microscopy

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1158 Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Aluminum Alloy ADC 10 Produced through Ceramic Shell Investment Casting

Authors: Balwinder Singh


Castings are produced by using aluminum alloy ADC 10 through the process of Ceramic Shell Investment Casting. Experiments are conducted as per the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as mould preheat temperature, preheat time, firing temperature and pouring temperature on surface roughness of ceramic shell investment castings, the Taguchi parameter design and optimization approach is used. Plots of means of significant factors and S/N ratios have been used to determine the best relationship between the responses and model parameters. It is found that the pouring temperature is the most significant factor. The best tensile strength of aluminum alloy ADC 10 is given by 150 ºC shell preheat temperature, 45 minutes preheat time, 900 ºC firing temperature, 650 ºC pouring temperature.

Keywords: investment casting, shell preheat temperature, firing temperature, Taguchi method

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1157 Laser-TIG Welding-Brazing for Dissimilar Metals between Aluminum Alloy and Steel

Authors: Xiangfang Xu, Bintao Wu, Yugang Miao, Duanfeng Han


Experiments were conducted on 5A06 aluminum alloy and Q235 steel using the laser-TIG hybrid heat source welding-brazing method to realize the reliable connection of Al/Fe dissimilar metals and the welding characteristics were analyzed. It was found that the joints with uniform seam and high tensile strength could be obtained using such a method, while the welding process demanded special welding parameters. Spectrum measurements showed that the Al and Fe atoms diffused more thoroughly at the brazing interface and formed a 3μm-thick intermetallic compound layer at the Al/Fe joints brazed connection interface. Shearing tests indicated that the shearing strength of the Al/Fe welding-brazed joint was 165MPa. The fracture occurred near the melting zone of aluminum alloy, which belonged to the mixed mode with the ductile fracture as the base and the brittle fracture as the supplement.

Keywords: Al/Fe dissimilar metals, laser-TIG hybrid heat source, shearing strength, welding-brazing method

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1156 Study of Machinability for Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V through Chip Formation in Milling Process

Authors: Moaz H. Ali, Ahmed H. Al-Saadi


Most of the materials used in the industry of aero-engine components generally consist of titanium alloys. Advanced materials, because of their excellent combination of high specific strength, lightweight, and general corrosion resistance. In fact, chemical wear resistance of aero-engine alloy provide a serious challenge for cutting tool material during the machining process. The reduction in cutting temperature distributions leads to an increase in tool life and a decrease in wear rate. Hence, the chip morphology and segmentation play a predominant role in determining machinability and tool wear during the machining process. The result of low thermal conductivity and diffusivity of this alloy in the concentration of high temperatures at the tool-work-piece and tool-chip interface. Consequently, the chip morphology is very important in the study of machinability of metals as well as the study of cutting tool wear. Otherwise, the result will be accelerating tool wear, increasing manufacturing cost and time consuming.

Keywords: machinability, titanium alloy (ti-6al-4v), chip formation, milling process

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1155 Influence of Silicon Carbide Particle Size and Thermo-Mechanical Processing on Dimensional Stability of Al 2124SiC Nanocomposite

Authors: Mohamed M. Emara, Heba Ashraf


This study is to investigation the effect of silicon carbide (SiC) particle size and thermo-mechanical processing on dimensional stability of aluminum alloy 2124. Three combinations of SiC weight fractions are investigated, 2.5, 5, and 10 wt. % with different SiC particle sizes (25 μm, 5 μm, and 100nm) were produced using mechanical ball mill. The standard testing samples were fabricated using powder metallurgy technique. Both samples, prior and after extrusion, were heated from room temperature up to 400ºC in a dilatometer at different heating rates, that is, 10, 20, and 40ºC/min. The analysis showed that for all materials, there was an increase in length change as temperature increased and the temperature sensitivity of aluminum alloy decreased in the presence of both micro and nano-sized silicon carbide. For all conditions, nanocomposites showed better dimensional stability compared to conventional Al 2124/SiC composites. The after extrusion samples showed better thermal stability and less temperature sensitivity for the aluminum alloy for both micro and nano-sized silicon carbide.

Keywords: aluminum 2124 metal matrix composite, SiC nano-sized reinforcements, powder metallurgy, extrusion mechanical ball mill, dimensional stability

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1154 The Use of Superplastic Tin-Lead Alloy as A solid Lubricant in Free Upsetting of Aluminum and Brass

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Hebah B. Melhem, Ahmad Qandil


The main function of a lubricant in any forming process is to reduce friction between the work piece and the die set, hence reducing the force and energy requirement for forming process and to achieve homogeneous deformation. The free upsetting test is an important open forging test. In this paper, super plastic tin-lead alloy is used as solid lubricant in the free upsetting test of non-ferrous metals and compared with eight different lubricants using the following three criteria: one comparing the value of the reduction in height percentages, i.e. the engineering strain, in identical specimens of the same material under the effect of the same compressive force. The second is comparing the amount of barreling produced in each of the identical specimens, at each lubricant. The third criterion is using the specific energy, i.e. the energy per unit volume consumed in forming each material, using the different lubricants to produce the same reduction in height percentage of identical specimens from each of the two materials, namely: aluminum and brass. It was found that the super plastic tin-lead alloy lubricant has produced higher values of reductions in height percentage and less barreling in the two non-ferrous materials, used in this work namely: aluminum and brass. It was found that the super plastic tin-lead alloy lubricant has produced higher values of reductions in height percentage and less barreling in the two non-ferrous materials, used in this work, under the same compression force among the different used lubricants.

Keywords: aluminum, brass, different lubricants, free upsetting, solid lubricants, superplastic tin-lead alloy

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1153 Normal Spectral Emissivity of Roughened Aluminum Alloy AL 6061 Surfaces at High Temperature

Authors: Sumeet Kumar, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam


Normal spectral emissivity of Al 6061 alloys with different surface finishes was experimentally measured at 833°K. Four different samples were prepared by polishing the surfaces of the alloy by 80, 220, 600 grit sizes of SiC abrasive papers and diamond paste. The samples were heated in air for 6 h at 833°K, and the emissivity was measured during the process from pyrometers operating at wavelengths of 3.9, 5.14 and 7.8 μm. The results indicated that the emissivity was increasing with heating time and the rate of increase was rapid during the initial stage of heating in comparison with the later stage. This appears to be because of the parabolic rate law followed by the process of oxidation. Further, it is found that the increase in emissivity with heating time was higher for rough surfaces than that for polished surfaces. Both the results were analyzed at all the three wavelengths, and qualitatively similar results were obtained for all of them. In this way emissivity of the alloy can be increased by roughening the surfaces and heating it at high temperature until the surfaces are oxidized.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, high temperature, normal spectral emissivity, surface roughness

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1152 Optimization of Wire EDM Parameters for Fabrication of Micro Channels

Authors: Gurinder Singh Brar, Sarbjeet Singh, Harry Garg


Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) is thermal machining process capable of machining very hard electrically conductive material irrespective of their hardness. WEDM is being widely used to machine micro-scale parts with the high dimensional accuracy and surface finish. The objective of this paper is to optimize the process parameters of wire EDM to fabricate the microchannels and to calculate the surface finish and material removal rate of microchannels fabricated using wire EDM. The material used is aluminum 6061 alloy. The experiments were performed using CNC wire cut electric discharge machine. The effect of various parameters of WEDM like pulse on time (TON) with the levels (100, 150, 200), pulse off time (TOFF) with the levels (25, 35, 45) and current (IP) with the levels (105, 110, 115) were investigated to study the effect on output parameter i.e. Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR). Each experiment was conducted under different conditions of a pulse on time, pulse off time and peak current. For material removal rate, TON and Ip were the most significant process parameter. MRR increases with the increase in TON and Ip and decreases with the increase in TOFF. For surface roughness, TON and Ip have the maximum effect and TOFF was found out to be less effective.

Keywords: microchannels, Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM), Metal Removal Rate (MRR), surface finish

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1151 Effect of Aluminium Content on Bending Properties and Microstructure of AlₓCoCrFeNi Alloy Fabricated by Induction Melting

Authors: Marzena Tokarewicz, Malgorzata Gradzka-Dahlke


High-entropy alloys (HEAs) have gained significant attention due to their great potential as functional and structural materials. HEAs have very good mechanical properties (in particular, alloys based on CoCrNi). They also show the ability to maintain their strength at high temperatures, which is extremely important in some applications. AlCoCrFeNi alloy is one of the most studied high-entropy alloys. Scientists often study the effect of changing the aluminum content in this alloy because it causes significant changes in phase presence and microstructure and consequently affects its hardness, ductility, and other properties. Research conducted by the authors also investigates the effect of aluminium content in AlₓCoCrFeNi alloy on its microstructure and mechanical properties. AlₓCoCrFeNi alloys were prepared by vacuum induction melting. The obtained samples were examined for chemical composition, microstructure, and microhardness. The three-point bending method was carried out to determine the bending strength, bending modulus, and conventional bending yield strength. The obtained results confirm the influence of aluminum content on the properties of AlₓCoCrFeNi alloy. Most studies on AlₓCoCrFeNi alloy focus on the determination of mechanical properties in compression or tension, much less in bending. The achieved results provide valuable information on the bending properties of AlₓCoCrFeNi alloy and lead to interesting conclusions.

Keywords: bending properties, high-entropy alloys, induction melting, microstructure

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1150 Heat Forging Analysis Method on Blank Consist of Two Metals

Authors: Takashi Ueda, Shinichi Enoki


Forging parts is used to automobiles. Because they have high strength and it is possible to press them into complicated shape. When it is possible to manufacture hollow forging parts, it leads to reduce weight of the automobiles. But, hollow forging parts are confined to axisymmetrical shape. Hollow forging parts that were pressed to complicated shape are expected. Therefore, we forge a blank that aluminum alloy was inserted in stainless steel. After that, we can provide complex forging parts that are reduced weight, if it is possible to be melted the aluminum alloy away by using different of melting points. It is necessary to establish heat forging analysis method on blank consist of stainless steel and aluminum alloy. Because, this forging is different from conventional forging and this technology is not confirmed. In this study, we compared forging experiment with numerical analysis on the view point of forming load and shape after forming and establish how to set the material temperatures of two metals and material property of stainless steel on the analysis method. Consequently, temperature difference of stainless steel and aluminum alloy was obtained by experiment. We got material property of stainless steel on forging experimental by compression tests. We had compared numerical analysis that was used the temperature difference of two metals and the material property of stainless steel on forging experimental with forging experiment. Forging analysis method on blank consist of two metals was established by result of numerical analysis having agreed with result of forging experiment.

Keywords: forging, lightweight, analysis, hollow

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