Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 88

Search results for: airfoil

88 Application of Co-Flow Jet Concept to Aircraft Lift Increase

Authors: Sai Likitha Siddanathi


Present project is aimed at increasing the amount of lift produced by typical airfoil. This is achieved by its modification into the co-flow jet structure where a new internal flow is created inside the airfoil from well-designed apertures on its surface. The limit where produced excess lift overcomes the weight of pumping system inserted in airfoil upper portion, and drag force is converted into thrust is discussed in terms of airfoil velocity and angle of attack. Two normal and co-flow jet models are numerically designed and experimental results for both fabricated normal airfoil and CFJ model have been tested in low subsonic wind tunnel. Application has been made to subsonic NACA 652-415 airfoil. Produced lift in CFJ airfoil indicates a maximum value up to a factor of 5 above normal airfoil nearby flow separation ie in relatively weak flow distribution.

Keywords: flow Jet, lift coefficient, drag coefficient, airfoil performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
87 Effect of Adverse Pressure Gradient on a Fluctuating Velocity over the Co-Flow Jet Airfoil

Authors: Morteza Mirhosseini, Amir B. Khoshnevis


The boundary layer separation and new active flow control of a NACA 0025 airfoil were studied experimentally. This new flow control is sometimes known as a co-flow jet (cfj) airfoil. This paper presents the fluctuating velocity in a wall jet over the co-flow jet airfoil subjected to an adverse pressure gradient and a curved surface. In these results, the fluctuating velocity at the inner part increasing by increased the angle of attack up to 12o and this has due to the jet energized, while the angle of attack 20o has different. The airfoil cord based Reynolds number has 105.

Keywords: adverse pressure gradient, fluctuating velocity, wall jet, co-flow jet airfoil

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
86 Experimental Investigation on Noise from Rod-Airfoil with Leading Edge Serrations

Authors: Siti Ruhliah Lizarose Samion, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Con Doolan


The present work is an experimental investigation of adapting a passive treatment leading edge serrations over a rod-airfoil flow-induced noise generation. The leading edge serrations are bio-inspired from a barn-owl silent flight. The rod-airfoil configuration is a benchmark configuration taken to investigate airfoil-turbulence interaction noise (ATIN). Location of serrations placed and the wideness of serrations are the two parameters taken in this study. The ATIN is reduced up to 3.5 dB for a wide leading serrations case. A correlation is found between the wideness of serrations and the noise reduction mechanism of the airfoil.

Keywords: aerodynamic noise, leading edge serrations, rod-airfoil, experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
85 The Influence of Variable Geometrical Modifications of the Trailing Edge of Supercritical Airfoil on the Characteristics of Aerodynamics

Authors: P. Lauk, K. E. Seegel, T. Tähemaa


The fuel consumption of modern, high wing loading, commercial aircraft in the first stage of flight is high because the usable flight level is lower and the weather conditions (jet stream) have great impact on aircraft performance. To reduce the fuel consumption, it is necessary to raise during first stage of flight the L/D ratio value within Cl 0.55-0.65. Different variable geometrical wing trailing edge modifications of SC(2)-410 airfoil were compared at M 0.78 using the CFD software STAR-CCM+ simulation based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The numerical results obtained show that by increasing the width of the airfoil by 4% and by modifying the trailing edge airfoil, it is possible to decrease airfoil drag at Cl 0.70 for up to 26.6% and at the same time to increase commercial aircraft L/D ratio for up to 5.0%. Fuel consumption can be reduced in proportion to the increase in L/D ratio.

Keywords: L/D ratio, miniflaps, mini-TED, supercritical airfoil

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
84 Surface Pressure Distribution of a Flapped-Airfoil for Different Momentum Injection at the Leading Edge

Authors: Mohammad Mashud, S. M. Nahid Hasan


The aim of the research work is to modify the NACA 4215 airfoil with flap and rotary cylinder at the leading edge of the airfoil and experimentally study the static pressure distribution over the airfoil completed with flap and leading-edge vortex generator. In this research, NACA 4215 wing model has been constructed by generating the profile geometry using the standard equations and design software such as AutoCAD and SolidWorks. To perform the experiment, three wooden models are prepared and tested in subsonic wind tunnel. The experiments were carried out in various angles of attack. Flap angle and momentum injection rate are changed to observe the characteristics of pressure distribution. In this research, a new concept of flow separation control mechanism has been introduced to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil. Control of flow separation over airfoil which experiences a vortex generator (rotating cylinder) at the leading edge of airfoil is experimentally simulated under the effects of momentum injection. The experimental results show that the flow separation control is possible by the proposed mechanism, and benefits can be achieved by momentum injection technique. The wing performance is significantly improved due to control of flow separation by momentum injection method.

Keywords: airfoil, momentum injection, flap, pressure distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
83 Variation of Airfoil Pressure Profile Due to Confined Air Streams: Application in Gas-Oil Separators

Authors: Amir Hossein Haji, Nabeel Al-Rawahi, Gholamreza Vakili-Nezhaad


An innovative design has been examined for a gas-oil separator based on pressure reduction over an airfoil surface. The primary motivations are to shorten the release trajectory of the bubbles by minimizing the thickness of the oil layer as well as improving uniform pressure reduction zones. Restricted airflow over an airfoil is investigated for its effect on the pressure drop enhancement and the maximum attainable attack angle prior to the stall condition. Aerodynamic separation is delayed based on numerical simulation of Wortmann FX 63137 Airfoil in a confined domain using FLUENT 6.3.26. The proposed set up results in higher pressure drop compared with the free stream case. With the aim of optimum power consumption we have pursued further restriction to an air jet case over the airfoil. Then, a curved strip model is suggested for the air jet which can be applied as an analysis/design tool for the best performance conditions. Pressure reduction is shown to be inversely proportional to the curvature of the upper airfoil profile. This reduction occurs within the tracking zones where the air jet is effectively attached to the airfoil surface. The zero slope condition is suggested to estimate the onset of these zones after which the minimum curvature should be searched. The corresponding zero slope curvature is applied for estimation of the maximum pressure drop which shows satisfactory agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: airfoil, air jet, curved fluid flow, gas-oil separator

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
82 Comparative Analysis of High Lift Airfoils for Motorsports Applications

Authors: M. Fozan Ur Rab, Mahrukh, M. Alam, N. Sheikh


The purpose of this study is to analyze various high lift low Reynolds number airfoils using two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code in the isolated flow field and select optimum airfoil to suit the motorsports application. The airfoil is selected after comparing the stall behavior, transition location, pressure recovery, pressure distribution and boundary layer characteristics of various airfoils. The prime consideration while selecting airfoil is highest Cl while achieving the sustainable performance over a range of Reynolds numbers encountered on the race track. The increase in Cl is always accompanied by the increase in Cd but this must be compromised since the main goal is to increase an aerodynamic grip. It is always desirable to increase the down-force in Formula One (F1)/Formula Student (FS) to gain reduction in lap time. This paper establishes the criteria for selection of high lift low Reynolds number airfoil while considering various parameters which affect the performance of airfoils.

Keywords: aerodynamics, airfoil, downforce, formula student, lap time

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
81 Effect of Synthetic Jet on Wind Turbine Noise

Authors: Reda Mankbadi


The current work explores the use of Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) for control of the acoustic radiation of a low-speed transitioning airfoil in a uniform stream. In the adopted numerical procedure, the actuator is modeled without its resonator cavity through imposing a simple fluctuating-velocity boundary condition at the bottom of the actuator's orifice. The orifice cavity, with the properly defined boundary condition, is then embedded into the airfoil surface. High-accuracy viscous simulations are then conducted to study the effects of the actuation on sound radiated by the airfoil. Results show that SJA can considerably suppress the radiated sound of the airfoil in uniform incoming stream.

Keywords: simulations, aeroacoustics, wind turbine noise, synthetic jet actuators (SJAs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
80 Numerical Investigation of Dynamic Stall over a Wind Turbine Pitching Airfoil by Using OpenFOAM

Authors: Mahbod Seyednia, Shidvash Vakilipour, Mehran Masdari


Computations for two-dimensional flow past a stationary and harmonically pitching wind turbine airfoil at a moderate value of Reynolds number (400000) are carried out by progressively increasing the angle of attack for stationary airfoil and at fixed pitching frequencies for rotary one. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with Unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations for turbulence modeling are solved by OpenFOAM package to investigate the aerodynamic phenomena occurred at stationary and pitching conditions on a NACA 6-series wind turbine airfoil. The aim of this study is to enhance the accuracy of numerical simulation in predicting the aerodynamic behavior of an oscillating airfoil in OpenFOAM. Hence, for turbulence modelling, k-ω-SST with low-Reynolds correction is employed to capture the unsteady phenomena occurred in stationary and oscillating motion of the airfoil. Using aerodynamic and pressure coefficients along with flow patterns, the unsteady aerodynamics at pre-, near-, and post-static stall regions are analyzed in harmonically pitching airfoil, and the results are validated with the corresponding experimental data possessed by the authors. The results indicate that implementing the mentioned turbulence model leads to accurate prediction of the angle of static stall for stationary airfoil and flow separation, dynamic stall phenomenon, and reattachment of the flow on the surface of airfoil for pitching one. Due to the geometry of the studied 6-series airfoil, the vortex on the upper surface of the airfoil during upstrokes is formed at the trailing edge. Therefore, the pattern flow obtained by our numerical simulations represents the formation and change of the trailing-edge vortex at near- and post-stall regions where this process determines the dynamic stall phenomenon.

Keywords: CFD, moderate Reynolds number, OpenFOAM, pitching oscillation, unsteady aerodynamics, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
79 Numerical Investigations on Dynamic Stall of a Pitching-Plunging Helicopter Blade Airfoil

Authors: Xie Kai, Laith K. Abbas, Chen Dongyang, Yang Fufeng, Rui Xiaoting


Effect of plunging motion on the pitch oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A simulation model based on overset grid technology and k - ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is established, and the numerical simulation results are compared with available experimental data and other simulations. Two cases of phase angle φ = 0, μ which represents the phase difference between the pitching and plunging motions of an airfoil are performed. Airfoil vortex generation, moving, and shedding are discussed in detail. Good agreements have been achieved with the available literature. The upward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack less than the actual one during pitching analysis. It is observed that the formation of the stall vortex is suppressed, resulting in a decrease in the lift coefficient and a delay of the stall angle. However, the downward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack higher the actual one.

Keywords: dynamic stall, pitching-plunging, computational fluid dynamics, helicopter blade rotor, airfoil

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
78 Resolution and Experimental Validation of the Asymptotic Model of a Viscous Laminar Supersonic Flow around a Thin Airfoil

Authors: Eddegdag Nasser, Naamane Azzeddine, Radouani Mohammed, Ensam Meknes


In this study, we are interested in the asymptotic modeling of the two-dimensional stationary supersonic flow of a viscous compressible fluid around wing airfoil. The aim of this article is to solve the partial differential equations of the flow far from the leading edge and near the wall using the triple-deck technique is what brought again in precision according to the principle of least degeneration. In order to validate our theoretical model, these obtained results will be compared with the experimental results. The comparison of the results of our model with experimentation has shown that they are quantitatively acceptable compared to the obtained experimental results. The experimental study was conducted using the AF300 supersonic wind tunnel and a NACA Reduced airfoil model with two pressure Taps on extrados. In this experiment, we have considered the incident upstream supersonic Mach number over a dissymmetric NACA airfoil wing. The validation and the accuracy of the results support our model.

Keywords: supersonic, viscous, triple deck technique, asymptotic methods, AF300 supersonic wind tunnel, reduced airfoil model

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
77 Aerodynamic Analysis of Dimple Effect on Aircraft Wing

Authors: E. Livya, G. Anitha, P. Valli


The main objective of aircraft aerodynamics is to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics and maneuverability of the aircraft. This enhancement includes the reduction in drag and stall phenomenon. The airfoil which contains dimples will have comparatively less drag than the plain airfoil. Introducing dimples on the aircraft wing will create turbulence by creating vortices which delays the boundary layer separation resulting in decrease of pressure drag and also increase in the angle of stall. In addition, wake reduction leads to reduction in acoustic emission. The overall objective of this paper is to improve the aircraft maneuverability by delaying the flow separation point at stall and thereby reducing the drag by applying the dimple effect over the aircraft wing. This project includes both computational and experimental analysis of dimple effect on aircraft wing, using NACA 0018 airfoil. Dimple shapes of Semi-sphere, hexagon, cylinder, square are selected for the analysis; airfoil is tested under the inlet velocity of 30m/s at different angle of attack (5˚, 10˚, 15˚, 20˚, and 25˚). This analysis favours the dimple effect by increasing L/D ratio and thereby providing the maximum aerodynamic efficiency, which provides the enhanced performance for the aircraft.

Keywords: airfoil, dimple effect, turbulence, boundary layer separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
76 Analysis of Stall Angle Delay in Airfoil Coupled with Spinning Cylinder

Authors: N. Kiran, S. A. Vikas, Yatish Chandra, S. Srinivasan


Several Centuries ago, the aerodynamic studies on rotating cylinders and spheres have started. From the observation, the rotation of a cylinder has a remarkable effect on the aerodynamic characteristics is noticed. In case of airfoils as the angle of attack increases, the drag increases with reduction in lift i.e at the critical angle of attack. If at this point a strong impulse is imparted to the boundary layer by means of a spinning cylinder, the re-energisation of boundary layer is achieved and hence delaying the boundary layer separation and stalling characteristics. Analysis of aerodynamic effects spinning cylinder either at leading edge or at trailing edge of the airfoil is carried in the past, the positioning of cylinder close to trailing edge and its effects in delaying the stall are yet to be analyzed in depth. This paper aim is to understand the combined aerodynamic effects of coupling the spinning cylinder with the airfoil closer to the Trailing edge, by considering different spin ratio of the cylinder, its location and geometrical parameters in relation to the chord of the airfoil. From the analysis, it was observed that the spinning cylinder speed of rotation and location had a impact on stalling characteristics for a prescribed free stream condition. The results predicted through CFD analysis and experimental analysis showed a raise in aerodynamic efficiency and as the spin ratio increases, increase in stalling angle of attack is noticed when compared to the airfoil without spinning cylinder.

Keywords: aerodynamics, airfoil, spinning cylinder, stalling

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
75 Simulations of NACA 65-415 and NACA 64-206 Airfoils Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: David Nagy


This paper exemplifies the influence of the purpose of an aircraft on the aerodynamic properties of its airfoil. In particular, the research takes into consideration two types of aircraft, namely cargo aircraft and military high-speed aircraft and compares their airfoil characteristics using their NACA airfoils as well as computational fluid dynamics. The results show that airfoils of aircraft designed for cargo have a heavier focus on maintaining a large lift force whereas speed-oriented airplanes focus on minimizing the drag force.

Keywords: aerodynamic simulation, aircraft, airfoil, computational fluid dynamics, lift to drag ratio, NACA 64-206, NACA 65-415

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
74 Aerodynamic Performance of a Pitching Bio-Inspired Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Hadi Zarafshani, Shidvash Vakilipour, Shahin Teimori, Sara Barati


In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of a rigid two-dimensional pitching bio-inspired corrugate airfoil was numerically investigated at Reynolds number of 14000. The Open Field Operations And Manipulations (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamic tool is used to solve flow governing equations numerically. The k-ω SST turbulence model with low Reynolds correction (k-ω SST LRC) and the pimpleDyMFOAM solver are utilized to simulate the flow field around pitching bio-airfoil. The lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil are calculated at reduced frequencies k=1.24-4.96 and the angular amplitude of A=5°-20°. Results show that in a fixed reduced frequency, the absolute value of the sectional lift and drag coefficients increase with increasing pitching amplitude. In a fixed angular amplitude, the absolute value of the lift and drag coefficients increase as the pitching reduced frequency increases.

Keywords: bio-inspired pitching airfoils, OpenFOAM, low Reynolds k-ω SST model, lift and drag coefficients

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
73 Thrust Enhancement on a Two Dimensional Elliptic Airfoil in a Forward Flight

Authors: S. M. Dash, K. B. Lua, T. T. Lim


This paper presents results of numerical and experimental studies on a two-dimensional (2D) flapping elliptic airfoil in a forward flight condition at Reynolds number of 5000. The study is motivated from an earlier investigation which shows that the deterioration in thrust performance of a sinusoidal heaving and pitching 2D (NACA0012) airfoil at high flapping frequency can be recovered by changing the effective angle of attack profile to square wave, sawtooth, or cosine wave shape. To better understand why such modifications lead to superior thrust performance, we take a closer look at the transient aerodynamic force behavior of an airfoil when the effective angle of attack profile changes gradually from a generic smooth trapezoidal profile to a sinusoid shape by modifying the base length of the trapezoid. The choice of using a smooth trapezoidal profile is to avoid the infinite acceleration condition encountered in the square wave profile. Our results show that the enhancement in the time-averaged thrust performance at high flapping frequency can be attributed to the delay and reduction in the drag producing valley region in the transient thrust force coefficient when the effective angle of attack profile changes from sinusoidal to trapezoidal.

Keywords: two-dimensional flapping airfoil, thrust performance, effective angle of attack, CFD, experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
72 Transport and Mixing Phenomena Developed by Vortex Formation in Flow around Airfoil Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures

Authors: Riaz Ahmad, Jiazhong Zhang, Asma Farooqi


In this study, mass transport between separation bubbles and the flow around a two-dimensional airfoil are numerically investigated using Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). Finite Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) technique is used for the computation to identify invariant manifolds and LCSs. Moreover, the Characteristic Base Split (CBS) scheme combined with dual time stepping technique is applied to simulate such transient flow at low Reynolds number. We then investigate the evolution of vortex structures during the transport process with the aid of LCSs. To explore the vortex formation at the surface of the airfoil, the dynamics of separatrix is also taken into account which is formed by the combination of stable-unstable manifolds. The Lagrangian analysis gives a detailed understanding of vortex dynamics and separation bubbles which plays a significant role to explore the performance of the unsteady flow generated by the airfoil. Transport process and flow separation phenomena are studied extensively to analyze the flow pattern by Lagrangian point of view.

Keywords: transport phenomena, CBS Method, vortex formation, Lagrangian Coherent Structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
71 Design and Study of a Wind-Solar Hybrid System for Lighting Application

Authors: Nikhil V. Nayak, P. P. Revankar, M. B. Gorawar


Wind energy has been shown to be one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. With current technology, the low cost of wind energy is competitive with more conventional sources of energy such as coal. Most airfoil blades available for commercial grade wind turbines incorporate a straight span-wise profile and airfoil shaped cross sections. This paper is aimed at studying and designing a wind-solar hybrid system for light load application. The tools like qblade and solidworks are used to model and analyze the wind turbine system, the material used for the blade and hub is balsa wood and the tower a lattice type. The expected power output is 100 W for an average wind speed of 4.5 m/s.

Keywords: renewable energy, hybrid, airfoil blades, wind speeds, make-in-india, camber, QBlade, solidworks, balsa wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
70 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Using a Novel Active Slat

Authors: Basman Elhadidi, Islam Elqatary, Osama Mohamady, Hesham Othman


An active slat is developed to increase the lift and delay the separation for a DU96-W180 airfoil. The active slat is a fixed slat that can be closed, fully opened or intermittently opened by a rotating vane depending on the need. Experimental results show that the active slat has reduced the mean pressure and increased the mean velocity on the suction side of the airfoil for all positive angles of attack, indicating an increase of lift. The experimental data and numerical simulations also show that the direction of actuator vane rotation can influence the mixing of the flow streams on the suction side and hence influence the aerodynamic performance.

Keywords: active slat, flow control, DU96-W180 airfoil, flow streams

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
69 Numerical Investigation of Improved Aerodynamic Performance of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Using Synthetic Jet

Authors: K. Boualem, T. Yahiaoui, A. Azzi


Numerical investigations are performed to analyze the flow behavior over NACA0015 and to evaluate the efficiency of synthetic jet as active control device. The second objective of this work is to investigate the influence of momentum coefficient of synthetic jet on the flow behaviour. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations of the turbulent flow are solved using, k-ω SST provided by ANSYS CFX-CFD code. The model presented in this paper is a comprehensive representation of the information found in the literature. Comparison of obtained numerical flow parameters with the experimental ones shows that the adopted computational procedure reflects nearly the real flow nature. Also, numerical results state that use of synthetic jets devices has positive effects on the flow separation, and thus, aerodynamic performance improvement of NACA0015 airfoil. It can also be observed that the use of synthetic jet increases the lift coefficient about 13.3% and reduces the drag coefficient about 52.7%.

Keywords: active control, synthetic jet, NACA airfoil, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
68 Numerical Analysis of a Mechanism for the Morphology in the Extrados of an Airfoil

Authors: E. R. Jimenez Barron, M. Castillo Morales, D. F. Ramírez Morales


The study of the morphology (shape change) in wings leads to the optimization of aerodynamic characteristics in an aircraft, so for the development and implementation of a change in the structure and shape of an airfoil, in this case the extrados, helps to increase the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft at different operating velocities, according to the required mission profile. A previous work on morphology is continued where the 'initial' profile is the NACA 4415 and as a new profile 'objective' the FUSION. The objective of this work is the dimensioning of the elements of the mechanism used to achieve the required changes. We consulted the different materials used in the aeronautics industry, as well as new materials in this area that could contribute to the good performance of the mechanism without negatively affecting the aerodynamics. These results allow evaluating the performance of a wing with variable extrados with respect to the defined morphology.

Keywords: numerical analysis, mechanisms, morphing airfoil, morphing wings

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
67 Structural and Modal Analyses of an s1223 High-Lift Airfoil Wing for Drone Design

Authors: Johnson Okoduwa Imumbhon, Mohammad Didarul Alam, Yiding Cao


Structural analyses are commonly employed to test the integrity of aircraft component systems in the design stage to demonstrate the capability of the structural components to withstand what it was designed for, as well as to predict potential failure of the components. The analyses are also essential for weight minimization and selecting the most resilient materials that will provide optimal outcomes. This research focuses on testing the structural nature of a high-lift low Reynolds number airfoil profile design, the Selig S1223, under certain loading conditions for a drone model application. The wing (ribs, spars, and skin) of the drone model was made of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer and designed in SolidWorks, while the finite element analysis was carried out in ANSYS mechanical in conjunction with the lift and drag forces that were derived from the aerodynamic airfoil analysis. Additionally, modal analysis was performed to calculate the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the wing structure. The structural strain and stress determined the minimal deformations under the wing loading conditions, and the modal analysis showed the prominent modes that were excited by the given forces. The research findings from the structural analysis of the S1223 high-lift airfoil indicated that it is applicable for use in an unmanned aerial vehicle as well as a novel reciprocating-airfoil-driven vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) drone model.

Keywords: CFRP, finite element analysis, high-lift, S1223, strain, stress, VTOL

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
66 Numerical Study of Laminar Separation Bubble Over an Airfoil Using SST γ-ReθT Turbulence Model on Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Younes El Khchine, Mohammed Sriti


A parametric study has been conducted to analyse the flow around the S809 airfoil of a wind turbine in order to better understand the characteristics and effects of laminar separation bubble (LSB) on aerodynamic design for maximizing wind turbine efficiency. Numerical simulations were performed at a low Reynolds number by solving the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations based on C-type structural mesh and using γ-Reθt turbulence model. Two-dimensional study was conducted for the chord Reynolds number of 1×10⁵ and angles of attack (AoA) between 0 and 20.15 degrees. The simulation results obtained for the aerodynamic coefficients at various angles of attack (AoA) were compared with XFoil results. A sensitivity study was performed to examine the effects of Reynolds number andfree-stream turbulence intensity on the location and length of laminar separation bubble and aerodynamic performances of the wind turbine. The results show that increasing the Reynolds number leads to a delay in the laminar separation on the upper surface of the airfoil. The increase in Reynolds numberleads to an accelerate transition process, and the turbulent reattachment point move closer to the leading edge owing to an earlier reattachment of the turbulent shear layer. This leads to a considerable reduction in the length of the separation bubble as the Reynolds number is increased. The increase of the level of free-stream turbulence intensity leads to a decrease in separation bubble length and an increase in the lift coefficient while having negligible effects on the stall angle. When the AoA increased, the bubbleon the suction airfoil surface was found to moves upstream to the leading edge of the airfoil, that, causes earlier laminar separation.

Keywords: laminar separation bubble, turbulence intensity, S809 airfoil, transition model, reynolds number

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65 Study on the Geometric Similarity in Computational Fluid Dynamics Calculation and the Requirement of Surface Mesh Quality

Authors: Qian Yi Ooi


At present, airfoil parameters are still designed and optimized according to the scale of conventional aircraft, and there are still some slight deviations in terms of scale differences. However, insufficient parameters or poor surface mesh quality is likely to occur if these small deviations are embedded in a future civil aircraft with a size that is quite different from conventional aircraft, such as a blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft with future potential, resulting in large deviations in geometric similarity in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. To avoid this situation, the study on the CFD calculation on the geometric similarity of airfoil parameters and the quality of the surface mesh is conducted to obtain the ability of different parameterization methods applied on different airfoil scales. The research objects are three airfoil scales, including the wing root and wingtip of conventional civil aircraft and the wing root of the giant hybrid wing, used by three parameterization methods to compare the calculation differences between different sizes of airfoils. In this study, the constants including NACA 0012, a Reynolds number of 10 million, an angle of attack of zero, a C-grid for meshing, and the k-epsilon (k-ε) turbulence model are used. The experimental variables include three airfoil parameterization methods: point cloud method, B-spline curve method, and class function/shape function transformation (CST) method. The airfoil dimensions are set to 3.98 meters, 17.67 meters, and 48 meters, respectively. In addition, this study also uses different numbers of edge meshing and the same bias factor in the CFD simulation. Studies have shown that with the change of airfoil scales, different parameterization methods, the number of control points, and the meshing number of divisions should be used to improve the accuracy of the aerodynamic performance of the wing. When the airfoil ratio increases, the most basic point cloud parameterization method will require more and larger data to support the accuracy of the airfoil’s aerodynamic performance, which will face the severe test of insufficient computer capacity. On the other hand, when using the B-spline curve method, average number of control points and meshing number of divisions should be set appropriately to obtain higher accuracy; however, the quantitative balance cannot be directly defined, but the decisions should be made repeatedly by adding and subtracting. Lastly, when using the CST method, it is found that limited control points are enough to accurately parameterize the larger-sized wing; a higher degree of accuracy and stability can be obtained by using a lower-performance computer.

Keywords: airfoil, computational fluid dynamics, geometric similarity, surface mesh quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
64 A Detailed Study of Two Different Airfoils on Flight Performance of MAV of Same Physical Dimension

Authors: Shoeb A. Adeel, Shashant Anand, Vivek Paul, Dinesh, Suraj, Roshan


The paper presents a study of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wingspans of 20 Cm with two different airfoil configurations. MAVs have vast potential applications in both military and civilian areas. These MAVs are fully autonomous and supply real-time data. The paper focuses on two different designs of the MAVs one being N22 airfoil and the other a flat plate with similar dimension. As designed, the MAV would fly in a low Reynolds-number regime at airspeeds of 15 & 20 m/sec. Propulsion would be provided by an electric motor with an advanced lithium. Because of the close coupling between vehicle elements, system integration would be a significant challenge, requiring tight packaging and multifunction components to meet mass limitations and Centre of Gravity (C.G) balancing. These MAVs are feasible and within a couple of years of technology development in key areas including sensors, propulsion, Aerodynamics, and packaging these would be easily available to the users at affordable prices. The paper finally compares the flight performance of the two configurations.

Keywords: airfoil, CFD, MAV, flight performance, endurance, climb, lift, drag

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
63 A New Family of Flying Wing Low Reynolds Number Airfoils

Authors: Ciro Sobrinho Campolina Martins, Halison da Silva Pereira, Vitor Mainenti Leal Lopes


Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been used in a wide range of applications, from precise agriculture monitoring for irrigation and fertilization to military attack missions. Long range performance is required for many of these applications. Tailless aircrafts are commonly used as long-range configurations and, due to its small amount of stability, the airfoil shape design of its wings plays a central role on the performance of the airplane. In this work, a new family of flying wing airfoils is designed for low Reynolds number flows, typical of small-middle UAVs. Camber, thickness and their maximum positions in the chord are variables used for the airfoil geometry optimization. Aerodynamic non-dimensional coefficients were obtained by the well-established Panel Method. High efficient airfoils with small pitch moment coefficient are obtained from the analysis described and its aerodynamic polars are plotted.

Keywords: airfoil design, flying wing, low Reynolds number, tailless aircraft, UAV

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62 Supersonic Flow around a Dihedral Airfoil: Modeling and Experimentation Investigation

Authors: A. Naamane, M. Hasnaoui


Numerical modeling of fluid flows, whether compressible or incompressible, laminar or turbulent presents a considerable contribution in the scientific and industrial fields. However, the development of an approximate model of a supersonic flow requires the introduction of specific and more precise techniques and methods. For this purpose, the object of this paper is modeling a supersonic flow of inviscid fluid around a dihedral airfoil. Based on the thin airfoils theory and the non-dimensional stationary Steichen equation of a two-dimensional supersonic flow in isentropic evolution, we obtained a solution for the downstream velocity potential of the oblique shock at the second order of relative thickness that characterizes a perturbation parameter. This result has been dealt with by the asymptotic analysis and characteristics method. In order to validate our model, the results are discussed in comparison with theoretical and experimental results. Indeed, firstly, the comparison of the results of our model has shown that they are quantitatively acceptable compared to the existing theoretical results. Finally, an experimental study was conducted using the AF300 supersonic wind tunnel. In this experiment, we have considered the incident upstream Mach number over a symmetrical dihedral airfoil wing. The comparison of the different Mach number downstream results of our model with those of the existing theoretical data (relative margin between 0.07% and 4%) and with experimental results (concordance for a deflection angle between 1° and 11°) support the validation of our model with accuracy.

Keywords: asymptotic modelling, dihedral airfoil, supersonic flow, supersonic wind tunnel

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61 Control Flow around NACA 4415 Airfoil Using Slot and Injection

Authors: Imine Zakaria, Meftah Sidi Mohamed El Amine


One of the most vital aerodynamic organs of a flying machine is the wing, which allows it to fly in the air efficiently. The flow around the wing is very sensitive to changes in the angle of attack. Beyond a value, there is a phenomenon of the boundary layer separation on the upper surface, which causes instability and total degradation of aerodynamic performance called a stall. However, controlling flow around an airfoil has become a researcher concern in the aeronautics field. There are two techniques for controlling flow around a wing to improve its aerodynamic performance: passive and active controls. Blowing and suction are among the active techniques that control the boundary layer separation around an airfoil. Their objective is to give energy to the air particles in the boundary layer separation zones and to create vortex structures that will homogenize the velocity near the wall and allow control. Blowing and suction have long been used as flow control actuators around obstacles. In 1904 Prandtl applied a permanent blowing to a cylinder to delay the boundary layer separation. In the present study, several numerical investigations have been developed to predict a turbulent flow around an aerodynamic profile. CFD code was used for several angles of attack in order to validate the present work with that of the literature in the case of a clean profile. The variation of the lift coefficient CL with the momentum coefficient

Keywords: CFD, control flow, lift, slot

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60 Large-Eddy Simulations for Flow Control

Authors: Reda Mankbadi


There are several technologically-important flow situations in which there is a need to control the outcome of the fluid flow. This could include flow separation, drag, noise, as well as particulate separations, to list only a few. One possible approach is the passive control, in which the design geometry is changed. An alternative approach is the Active Flow Control (AFC) technology in which an actuator is imbedded in the flow field to change the outcome. Examples of AFC are pulsed jets, synthetic jets, plasma actuators, heating and cooling, Etc. In this work will present an overview of the development of this field. Some examples will include: Airfoil Noise Suppression: LES is used to simulate the effect of the synthetic jet actuator on controlling the far field sound of a transitional airfoil. The results show considerable suppression of the noise if the synthetic jet is operated at frequencies. Mixing Enhancement and suppression: Results will be presented to show that imposing acoustic excitations at the nozzle exit can lead to enhancement or reduction of the jet plume mixing. In a vertical takeoff of Aircraft or in Space Launch, we will present results on the effects of water injection on reducing noise, and on protect the structure and pay load from fatigue damage. Other applications will include airfoil-gust interaction and propulsion systems optimizations.

Keywords: aerodynamics, simulations, aeroacoustics, active flow control (AFC), Large-Eddy Simulations (LES)

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59 Vibration Analysis of a Solar Powered UAV

Authors: Kevin Anderson, Sukhwinder Singh Sandhu, Nouh Anies, Shilpa Ravichandra, Steven Dobbs, Donald Edberg


This paper presents the results of a Finite Element based vibration analysis of a solar powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The purpose of this paper was to quantify the free vibration, forced vibration response due to differing point inputs in order to mimic the vibration induced by actuators (magnet in coil generators) used to aid in the flight of the UAV. A Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) study was performed in order to ascertain pertinent deigns stresses and deflections as well as aerodynamic parameters of the UAV airfoil. The 10 ft span airfoil is modeled using Mylar as the primary material. Results show that the free mode in bending is 4.8 Hz while the first forced bending mode is in the range of 16.2 to 16.7 Hz depending on the location of excitation. The free torsional bending mode is 28.3 Hz, and the first forced torsional mode is in the range of 26.4 to 27.8 Hz, depending on the location of excitation. The FSI results predict the coefficients of aerodynamic drag and lift of 0.0052 and 0.077, respectively, which matches hand-calculations used to validate the Finite Element based results. FSI based maximum von Mises stresses and deflections were found to be 0.282 MPa and 3.4 mm, respectively. Dynamic pressures on the airfoil range of 1.04 to 1.23 kPa corresponding to velocity magnitudes in the range of 22 to 66 m/s.

Keywords: ANSYS, finite element, FSI, UAV, vibrations

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