Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7083

Search results for: pressure distribution

7083 Water Distribution Uniformity of Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation under Low Operating Pressure

Authors: Manal Osman


Sprinkler irrigation system became more popular to reduce water consumption and increase irrigation efficiency. The water distribution uniformity plays an important role in the performance of the sprinkler irrigation system. The use of low operating pressure instead of high operating pressure can be achieved many benefits including energy and water saving. An experimental study was performed to investigate the water distribution uniformity of the solid-set sprinkler irrigation system under low operating pressure. Different low operating pressures (62, 82, 102 and 122 kPa) were selected. The range of operating pressure was lower than the recommended in the previous studies to investigate the effect of low pressure on the water distribution uniformity. Different nozzle diameters (4, 5, 6 and 7 mm) were used. The outdoor single sprinkler test was performed. The water distribution of single sprinkler, the coefficients of uniformity such as coefficient of uniformity (CU), distribution uniformity of low quarter (DUlq), distribution uniformity of low half (DUlh), coefficient of variation (CV) and the distribution characteristics like rotation speed, throw radius and overlapping distance are presented in this paper.

Keywords: low operating pressure, sprinkler irrigation system, water distribution uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
7082 Influence of Pressure from Compression Textile Bands: Their Using in the Treatment of Venous Human Leg Ulcers

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui


The aim of study was to evaluate pressure distribution characteristics of the elastic textile bandages using two instrumental techniques: a prototype Instrument and a load Transference. The prototype instrument which simulates shape of real leg has pressure sensors which measure bandage pressure. Using this instrument, the results show that elastic textile bandages presents different pressure distribution characteristics and none produces a uniform distribution around lower limb. The load transference test procedure is used to determine whether a relationship exists between elastic textile bandage structure and pressure distribution characteristics. The test procedure assesses degree of load, directly transferred through a textile when loads series are applied to bandaging surface. A range of weave fabrics was produced using needle weaving machine and a sewing technique. A textile bandage was developed with optimal characteristics far superior pressure distribution than other bandages. From results, we find that theoretical pressure is not consistent exactly with practical pressure. It is important in this study to make a practical application for specialized nurses in order to verify the results and draw useful conclusions for predicting the use of this type of elastic band.

Keywords: textile, cotton, pressure, venous ulcers, elastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
7081 Estimation of Pressure Profile and Boundary Layer Characteristics over NACA 4412 Airfoil

Authors: Anwar Ul Haque, Waqar Asrar, Erwin Sulaeman, Jaffar S. M. Ali


Pressure distribution data of the standard airfoils is usually used for the calibration purposes in subsonic wind tunnels. Results of such experiments are quite old and obtained by using the model in the spanwise direction. In this manuscript, pressure distribution over NACA 4412 airfoil model was presented by placing the 3D model in the lateral direction. The model is made of metal with pressure ports distributed longitudinally as well as in the lateral direction. The pressure model was attached to the floor of the tunnel with the help of the base plate to give the specified angle of attack to the model. Before the start of the experiments, the pressure tubes of the respective ports of the 128 ports pressure scanner are checked for leakage, and the losses due to the length of the pipes were also incorporated in the results for the specified pressure range. Growth rate maps of the boundary layer thickness were also plotted. It was found that with the increase in the velocity, the dynamic pressure distribution was also increased for the alpha seep. Plots of pressure distribution so obtained were overlapped with those obtained by using XFLR software, a low fidelity tool. It was found that at moderate and high angles of attack, the distribution of the pressure coefficients obtained from the experiments is high when compared with the XFLR ® results obtained along with the span of the wing. This under-prediction by XFLR ® is more obvious on the windward than on the leeward side.

Keywords: subsonic flow, boundary layer, wind tunnel, pressure testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
7080 A Robust System for Foot Arch Type Classification from Static Foot Pressure Distribution Data Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

Authors: R. Periyasamy, Deepak Joshi, Sneh Anand


Foot posture assessment is important to evaluate foot type, causing gait and postural defects in all age groups. Although different methods are used for classification of foot arch type in clinical/research examination, there is no clear approach for selecting the most appropriate measurement system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a system for evaluation of foot type as clinical decision-making aids for diagnosis of flat and normal arch based on the Arch Index (AI) and foot pressure distribution parameter - Power Ratio (PR) data. The accuracy of the system was evaluated for 27 subjects with age ranging from 24 to 65 years. Foot area measurements (hind foot, mid foot, and forefoot) were acquired simultaneously from foot pressure intensity image using portable PedoPowerGraph system and analysis of the image in frequency domain to obtain foot pressure distribution parameter - PR data. From our results, we obtain 100% classification accuracy of normal and flat foot by using the linear discriminant analysis method. We observe there is no misclassification of foot types because of incorporating foot pressure distribution data instead of only arch index (AI). We found that the mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data and arch index (AI) value are well correlated to foot arch type based on visual analysis. Therefore, this paper suggests that the proposed system is accurate and easy to determine foot arch type from arch index (AI), as well as incorporating mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data instead of physical area of contact. Hence, such computational tool based system can help the clinicians for assessment of foot structure and cross-check their diagnosis of flat foot from mid-foot pressure distribution.

Keywords: arch index, computational tool, static foot pressure intensity image, foot pressure distribution, linear discriminant analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
7079 Effects of Pore-Water Pressure on the Motion of Debris Flow

Authors: Meng-Yu Lin, Wan-Ju Lee


Pore-water pressure, which mediates effective stress and shear strength at grain contacts, has a great influence on the motion of debris flow. The factors that control the diffusion of excess pore-water pressure play very important roles in the debris-flow motion. This research investigates these effects by solving the distribution of pore-water pressure numerically in an unsteady, surging motion of debris flow. The governing equations are the depth-averaged equations for the motion of debris-flow surges coupled with the one-dimensional diffusion equation for excess pore-water pressures. The pore-pressure diffusion equation is solved using a Fourier series, which may improve the accuracy of the solution. The motion of debris-flow surge is modelled using a Lagrangian particle method. From the computational results, the effects of pore-pressure diffusivities and the initial excess pore pressure on the formations of debris-flow surges are investigated. Computational results show that the presence of pore water can increase surge velocities and then changes the profiles of depth distribution. Due to the linear distribution of the vertical component of pore-water velocity, pore pressure dissipates rapidly near the bottom and forms a parabolic distribution in the vertical direction. Increases in the diffusivity of pore-water pressure cause the pore pressures decay more rapidly and then decrease the mobility of the surge.

Keywords: debris flow, diffusion, Lagrangian particle method, pore-pressure diffusivity, pore-water pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
7078 The Pressure Distribution on the Rectangular and Trapezoidal Storage Tanks' Perimeters Due to Liquid Sloshing Impact

Authors: Hassan Saghi, Gholam Reza Askarzadeh Garmroud, Seyyed Ali Reza Emamian


Sloshing phenomenon is a complicated free surface flow problem that increases the dynamic pressure on the sidewalls and the bottom of the storage tanks. When the storage tanks are partially filled, it is essential to be able to evaluate the fluid dynamic loads on the tank’s perimeter. In this paper, a numerical code was developed to determine the pressure distribution on the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact. Assuming the fluid to be inviscid, the Laplace equation and the nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled BEM-FEM. The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data. Finally, this code is used for partially filled rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks and the pressure distribution on the tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact is estimated. The results show that the maximum pressure on the perimeter of the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks was decreased along the sidewalls from the top to the bottom. Furthermore, the period of the pressure distribution is different for different points on the tank’s perimeter and it is bigger in the trapezoidal tanks compared to the rectangular ones.

Keywords: pressure distribution, liquid sloshing impact, sway motion, trapezoidal storage tank, coupled BEM-FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
7077 On the Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Internal Pressure in Air Bearings

Authors: Abdurrahim Dal, Tuncay Karaçay


Dynamics of a rotor supported by air bearings is strongly depends on the pressure distribution between the rotor and the bearing. In this study, internal pressure in air bearings is numerical and experimental analyzed for different radial clearances. Firstly the pressure distribution between rotor and bearing is modeled using Reynold's equation and this model is solved numerically. The rotor-bearing system is also modeled in four degree of freedom and it is simulated for different radial clearances. Then, in order to validate numerical results, a test rig is designed and the rotor bearing system is run under the same operational conditions. Pressure signals of left and right bearings are recorded. Internal pressure variations are compared for numerical and experimental results for different radial clearances.

Keywords: air bearing, internal pressure, Reynold’s equation, rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
7076 Three-Dimensional Spillage Effects on the Pressure Distribution of a Double Ramp

Authors: Pengcheng Quan, Shan Zhong


Double ramp geometry is widely used in supersonic and hypersonic environments as it presents unique flow patterns for shock wave-boundary layer interaction studies as well as for two-dimensional inlets and deflected control surfaces for re-entry vehicles. Hence, the surface pressure distribution is critical for optimum design. Though when the model is wide enough on spanwise direction the flow can be regarded as a two-dimensional flow, in actual applications a finite width would normally cause some three-dimensional spillage effects. No research has been found addressed this problem, hence the primary interest of this study is to set up a liable surface pressure distribution on a double ramp with three-dimensional effects. Both numerical and experimental (pressure sensitive paints) are applied to obtain the pressure distribution; the results agree well except that the numerical computation doesn’t capture the Gortler vortices. The pressure variations on the spanwise planes are used to analyse the development of the Gortler vortices and the effects of three-dimensional spillage on the vortices. Results indicate that the three-dimensionl spillage effects not only enhance the developing of the Gortler vortice, but also increase the periodic distance between vortice pairs.

Keywords: spillage effects, pressure sensitive paints, hypersonic, double ramp

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
7075 The Effect of Taekwondo on Plantar Pressure Distribution and Arch Index

Authors: Maryam Kakavand, Samira Entezari, Sara Khoshjamalfekri, Raghad Mimar


The objective of this study is 1) to compare elite female and beginner taekwondo players in terms of plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure, and right and left longitudinal arches, and 2) to compare preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite players. To the best of authors’ knowledge, as of yet, there is no information available about the plantar pressure distribution and arch index among taekwondo players. Material and Methods: An analytical-comparative research method is applied. Therefore seven elite athletes and eight novice athletes were selected. The emed-C50 platform was used to assess plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure of different areas, and planter longitudinal arch in a second step protocol. Independent t-test and dependent t-test were used at a level of 0.05 to compare the elites and beginners' right and left feet, and preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite athletes, respectively. Results: In comparing the right and left limbs of elite and beginner groups, findings indicate that there is only a significant difference in the mean pressure of the first metatarsal of the right foot. Findings also showed a significant difference in the contact area of the toes 3, 4, 5 regions between elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups’ right and left limbs and elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs in terms of pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, and arch index. Conclusion: It seems that taekwondo exercises have affected pressure distribution patterns among advanced players causing some differences in their planter pressure distribution pattern when compared to that of beginners. Therefore, taekwondo exercises may be a factor contributing to asymmetry performance in preferred and non-preferred limbs.

Keywords: planter pressure, arch index, taekwondo, elite

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
7074 A Predictive MOC Solver for Water Hammer Waves Distribution in Network

Authors: A. Bayle, F. Plouraboué


Water Distribution Network (WDN) still suffers from a lack of knowledge about fast pressure transient events prediction, although the latter may considerably impact their durability. Accidental or planned operating activities indeed give rise to complex pressure interactions and may drastically modified the local pressure value generating leaks and, in rare cases, pipe’s break. In this context, a numerical predictive analysis is conducted to prevent such event and optimize network management. A couple of Python/FORTRAN 90, home-made software, has been developed using Method Of Characteristic (MOC) solving for water-hammer equations. The solver is validated by direct comparison with theoretical and experimental measurement in simple configurations whilst afterward extended to network analysis. The algorithm's most costly steps are designed for parallel computation. A various set of boundary conditions and energetic losses models are considered for the network simulations. The results are analyzed in both real and frequencies domain and provide crucial information on the pressure distribution behavior within the network.

Keywords: energetic losses models, method of characteristic, numerical predictive analysis, water distribution network, water hammer

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
7073 Numerical Study of Effects of Air Dam on the Flow Field and Pressure Distribution of a Passenger Car

Authors: Min Ye Koo, Ji Ho Ahn, Byung Il You, Gyo Woo Lee


Everything that is attached to the outside of the vehicle to improve the driving performance of the vehicle by changing the flow characteristics of the surrounding air or to pursue the external personality is called a tuning part. Typical tuning components include front or rear air dam, also known as spoilers, splitter, and side air dam. Particularly, the front air dam prevents the airflow flowing into the lower portion of the vehicle and increases the amount of air flow to the side and front of the vehicle body, thereby reducing lift force generation that lifts the vehicle body, and thus, improving the steering and driving performance of the vehicle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of anterior air dam in the flow around a sedan passenger car using computational fluid dynamics. The effects of flow velocity, trajectory of fluid particles on static pressure distribution and pressure distribution on body surface were investigated by varying flow velocity and size of air dam. As a result, it has been confirmed that the front air dam improves the flow characteristics, thereby reducing the generation of lift force of the vehicle, so it helps in steering and driving characteristics.

Keywords: numerical study, air dam, flow field, pressure distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
7072 Pressure Distribution, Load Capacity, and Thermal Effect with Generalized Maxwell Model in Journal Bearing Lubrication

Authors: M. Guemmadi, A. Ouibrahim


This numerical investigation aims to evaluate how a viscoelastic lubricant described by a generalized Maxwell model, affects the pressure distribution, the load capacity and thermal effect in a journal bearing lubrication. We use for the purpose the CFD package software completed by adapted user define functions (UDFs) to solve the coupled equations of momentum, of energy and of the viscoelastic model (generalized Maxwell model). Two parameters, viscosity and relaxation time are involved to show how viscoelasticity substantially affect the pressure distribution, the load capacity and the thermal transfer by comparison to Newtonian lubricant. These results were also compared with the available published results.

Keywords: journal bearing, lubrication, Maxwell model, viscoelastic fluids, computational modelling, load capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
7071 Experimental and Comparative Study of Composite Thin Cylinder Subjected to Internal Pressure

Authors: Hakim S. Sultan Aljibori


An experimental procedure is developed to study the performance of composite thin wall cylinders subjected to internal pressure loading for investigations of stress distribution through the composite cylinders wall. Three types of fibers were used in this study are; woven roving glass fiber/epoxy, hybrid fiber/epoxy, and Kevlar fiber/epoxy composite specimens were fabricated and tested. All of these specimens subjected to uniformed pressure load using the hydraulic pump. Axial stress is identified, and values were found after collecting all the results. Comparison between the deferent types of specimens was done. Thus, the present investigation concludes the efficient and effective composite cylinder experimentally and provides a considerable advantage for using woven roving fibers in pressure vessels applications.

Keywords: stress distribution, composite material, internal pressure, glass fiber, hybrid fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
7070 CFD Prediction of the Round Elbow Fitting Loss Coefficient

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli


Pressure loss in ductworks is an important factor to be considered in design of engineering systems such as power-plants, refineries, HVAC systems to reduce energy costs. Ductwork can be composed by straight ducts and different types of fittings (elbows, transitions, converging and diverging tees and wyes). Duct fittings are significant sources of pressure loss in fluid distribution systems. Fitting losses can be even more significant than equipment components such as coils, filters, and dampers. At the present work, a conventional 90o round elbow under turbulent incompressible airflow is studied. Mass, momentum, and k-e turbulence model equations are solved employing the finite volume method. The SIMPLE algorithm is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. In order to validate the numerical tool, the elbow pressure loss coefficient is determined using the same conditions to compare with ASHRAE database. Furthermore, the effect of Reynolds number variation on the elbow pressure loss coefficient is investigated. These results can be useful to perform better preliminary design of air distribution ductworks in air conditioning systems.

Keywords: duct fitting, pressure loss, elbow, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
7069 CO2 Gas Solubility and Foam Generation

Authors: Chanmoly Or, Kyuro Sasaki, Yuichi Sugai, Masanori Nakano, Motonao Imai


Cold drainage mechanism of oil production is a complicated process which involves with solubility and foaming processes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane (as light oil) and the effect of depressurization processes on microbubble generation. The experimental study of sensitivity parameters of temperature and pressure on CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane was conducted at temperature of 20 °C and 50 °C and pressure ranged 2.0–7.0 MPa by using PVT (RUSKA Model 2370) apparatus. The experiments of foamy hexadecane were also prepared by depressurizing from saturated pressure of 6.4 MPa and temperature of 50 °C. The experimental results show the CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane linearly increases with increasing pressure. At pressure 4.5 MPa, CO2 gas dissolved in hexadecane 2.5 mmol.g-1 for temperature of 50 °C and 3.5 mmol.g-1 for temperature of 20 °C. The bubbles of foamy hexadecane were observed that most of large bubbles were coalesced shortly whereas the small one keeps presence. The experimental result of foamy hexadecane indicated large depressurization step (∆P) produces high quality of foam with high microbubble distribution.

Keywords: CO2 gas solubility, depressurization process, foamy hexadecane, microbubble distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
7068 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
7067 Surface Pressure Distribution of a Flapped-Airfoil for Different Momentum Injection at the Leading Edge

Authors: Mohammad Mashud, S. M. Nahid Hasan


The aim of the research work is to modify the NACA 4215 airfoil with flap and rotary cylinder at the leading edge of the airfoil and experimentally study the static pressure distribution over the airfoil completed with flap and leading-edge vortex generator. In this research, NACA 4215 wing model has been constructed by generating the profile geometry using the standard equations and design software such as AutoCAD and SolidWorks. To perform the experiment, three wooden models are prepared and tested in subsonic wind tunnel. The experiments were carried out in various angles of attack. Flap angle and momentum injection rate are changed to observe the characteristics of pressure distribution. In this research, a new concept of flow separation control mechanism has been introduced to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil. Control of flow separation over airfoil which experiences a vortex generator (rotating cylinder) at the leading edge of airfoil is experimentally simulated under the effects of momentum injection. The experimental results show that the flow separation control is possible by the proposed mechanism, and benefits can be achieved by momentum injection technique. The wing performance is significantly improved due to control of flow separation by momentum injection method.

Keywords: airfoil, momentum injection, flap, pressure distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
7066 A Convolution Neural Network Approach to Predict Pes-Planus Using Plantar Pressure Mapping Images

Authors: Adel Khorramrouz, Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Ehsan Norouzi, Morvarid Lalenoor


Background: Plantar pressure distribution measurement has been used for a long time to assess foot disorders. Plantar pressure is an important component affecting the foot and ankle function and Changes in plantar pressure distribution could indicate various foot and ankle disorders. Morphologic and mechanical properties of the foot may be important factors affecting the plantar pressure distribution. Accurate and early measurement may help to reduce the prevalence of pes planus. With recent developments in technology, new techniques such as machine learning have been used to assist clinicians in predicting patients with foot disorders. Significance of the study: This study proposes a neural network learning-based flat foot classification methodology using static foot pressure distribution. Methodologies: Data were collected from 895 patients who were referred to a foot clinic due to foot disorders. Patients with pes planus were labeled by an experienced physician based on clinical examination. Then all subjects (with and without pes planus) were evaluated for static plantar pressures distribution. Patients who were diagnosed with the flat foot in both feet were included in the study. In the next step, the leg length was normalized and the network was trained for plantar pressure mapping images. Findings: From a total of 895 image data, 581 were labeled as pes planus. A computational neural network (CNN) ran to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The prediction accuracy of the basic CNN-based model was performed and the prediction model was derived through the proposed methodology. In the basic CNN model, the training accuracy was 79.14%, and the test accuracy was 72.09%. Conclusion: This model can be easily and simply used by patients with pes planus and doctors to predict the classification of pes planus and prescreen for possible musculoskeletal disorders related to this condition. However, more models need to be considered and compared for higher accuracy.

Keywords: foot disorder, machine learning, neural network, pes planus

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7065 Numerical Simulation of the Kurtosis Effect on the EHL Problem

Authors: S. Gao, S. Srirattayawong


In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed for studying the effect of surface roughness profile on the EHL problem. The cylinders contact geometry, meshing and calculation of the conservation of mass and momentum equations are carried out by using the commercial software packages ICEMCFD and ANSYS Fluent. The user defined functions (UDFs) for density, viscosity and elastic deformation of the cylinders as the functions of pressure and temperature have been defined for the CFD model. Three different surface roughness profiles are created and incorporated into the CFD model. It is found that the developed CFD model can predict the characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer in the EHL problem, including the leading parameters such as the pressure distribution, minimal film thickness, viscosity, and density changes. The obtained results show that the pressure profile at the center of the contact area directly relates to the roughness amplitude. The rough surface with kurtosis value over 3 influences the fluctuated shape of pressure distribution higher than other cases.

Keywords: CFD, EHL, kurtosis, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
7064 Investigating the Dynamic Plantar Pressure Distribution in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Hilal Keklicek, Baris Cetin, Yeliz Salci, Ayla Fil, Umut Altinkaynak, Kadriye Armutlu


Objectives and Goals: Spasticity is a common symptom characterized with a velocity dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes (muscle tone) in patient with multiple sclerosis (MS). Hypertonic muscles affect the normal plantigrade contact by disturbing accommodation of foot to the ground while walking. It is important to know the differences between healthy and neurologic foot features for management of spasticity related deformities and/or determination of rehabilitation purposes and contents. This study was planned with the aim of investigating the dynamic plantar pressure distribution in individuals with MS and determining the differences between healthy individuals (HI). Methods: Fifty-five individuals with MS (108 foot with spasticity according to Modified Ashworth Scale) and 20 HI (40 foot) were the participants of the study. The dynamic pedobarograph was utilized for evaluation of dynamic loading parameters. Participants were informed to walk at their self-selected speed for seven times to eliminate learning effect. The parameters were divided into 2 categories including; maximum loading pressure (N/cm2) and time of maximum pressure (ms) were collected from heal medial, heal lateral, mid foot, heads of first, second, third, fourth and fifth metatarsal bones. Results: There were differences between the groups in maximum loading pressure of heal medial (p < .001), heal lateral (p < .001), midfoot (p=.041) and 5th metatarsal areas (p=.036). Also, there were differences between the groups the time of maximum pressure of all metatarsal areas, midfoot, heal medial and heal lateral (p < .001) in favor of HI. Conclusions: The study provided basic data about foot pressure distribution in individuals with MS. Results of the study primarily showed that spasticity of lower extremity muscle disrupted the posteromedial foot loading. Secondarily, according to the study result, spasticity lead to inappropriate timing during load transfer from hind foot to forefoot.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, plantar pressure distribution, gait, norm values

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
7063 Spatial Emission of Ions Produced by the APF Plasma Focus Device

Authors: M. Habibi


The angular distribution of ion beam emission from the APF plasma focus device (15kV, 40μf, 115nH) filled with nitrogen gas has been examined through investigating the effect of ion beams on aluminum thin foils in different angular positions. The samples are studied in different distances from the anode end with different shots. The optimum pressure that would be obtained at the applied voltages of 12kV was 0.7 torr. The ions flux declined as the pressure inclined and the maximum ion density at 0.7 torr was about 10.26 × 1022 ions/steradian. The irradiated foils were analyzed with SEM method in order to study their surface and morphological changes. The results of the analysis showed melting and surface evaporation effects and generation of some cracks in the specimens. The result of ion patterns on the samples obtained in this study can be useful in determining ion spatial distributions on the top of anode.

Keywords: plasma focus, spatial distribution, high energy ions, ion angular distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
7062 Atomistic Insight into the System of Trapped Oil Droplet/ Nanofluid System in Nanochannels

Authors: Yuanhao Chang, Senbo Xiao, Zhiliang Zhang, Jianying He


The role of nanoparticles (NPs) in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being increasingly emphasized. In this study, the motion of NPs and local stress distribution of tapped oil droplet/nanofluid in nanochannels are studied with coarse-grained modeling and molecular dynamic simulations. The results illustrate three motion patterns for NPs: hydrophilic NPs are more likely to adsorb on the channel and stay near the three-phase contact areas, hydrophobic NPs move inside the oil droplet as clusters and more mixed NPs are trapped at the oil-water interface. NPs in each pattern affect the flow of fluid and the interfacial thickness to various degrees. Based on the calculation of atomistic stress, the characteristic that the higher value of stress occurs at the place where NPs aggregate can be obtained. Different occurrence patterns correspond to specific local stress distribution. Significantly, in the three-phase contact area for hydrophilic NPs, the local stress distribution close to the pattern of structural disjoining pressure is observed, which proves the existence of structural disjoining pressure in molecular dynamics simulation for the first time. Our results guide the design and screen of NPs for EOR and provide a basic understanding of nanofluid applications.

Keywords: local stress distribution, nanoparticles, enhanced oil recovery, molecular dynamics simulation, trapped oil droplet, structural disjoining pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
7061 Neural Network and Support Vector Machine for Prediction of Foot Disorders Based on Foot Analysis

Authors: Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Adel Khorramrouz, Lalenoor Morvarid, Bagheri Mahtab


Background:- Foot disorders are common in musculoskeletal problems. Plantar pressure distribution measurement is one the most important part of foot disorders diagnosis for quantitative analysis. However, the association of plantar pressure and foot disorders is not clear. With the growth of dataset and machine learning methods, the relationship between foot disorders and plantar pressures can be detected. Significance of the study:- The purpose of this study was to predict the probability of common foot disorders based on peak plantar pressure distribution and center of pressure during walking. Methodologies:- 2323 participants were assessed in a foot therapy clinic between 2015 and 2021. Foot disorders were diagnosed by an experienced physician and then they were asked to walk on a force plate scanner. After the data preprocessing, due to the difference in walking time and foot size, we normalized the samples based on time and foot size. Some of force plate variables were selected as input to a deep neural network (DNN), and the probability of any each foot disorder was measured. In next step, we used support vector machine (SVM) and run dataset for each foot disorder (classification of yes or no). We compared DNN and SVM for foot disorders prediction based on plantar pressure distributions and center of pressure. Findings:- The results demonstrated that the accuracy of deep learning architecture is sufficient for most clinical and research applications in the study population. In addition, the SVM approach has more accuracy for predictions, enabling applications for foot disorders diagnosis. The detection accuracy was 71% by the deep learning algorithm and 78% by the SVM algorithm. Moreover, when we worked with peak plantar pressure distribution, it was more accurate than center of pressure dataset. Conclusion:- Both algorithms- deep learning and SVM will help therapist and patients to improve the data pool and enhance foot disorders prediction with less expense and error after removing some restrictions properly.

Keywords: deep neural network, foot disorder, plantar pressure, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
7060 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng


The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
7059 Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles

Authors: Hee-Chang Lim


The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.

Keywords: rectangular bodies, wind direction, aspect ratio, surface pressure distribution, wind-tunnel measurement, k-ε model, DES model, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
7058 Steady State Creep Behavior of Functionally Graded Thick Cylinder

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Harmanjit Singh


Creep behavior of thick-walled functionally graded cylinder consisting of AlSiC and subjected to internal pressure and high temperature has been analyzed. The functional relationship between strain rate with stress can be described by the well-known threshold stress based creep law with a stress exponent of five. The effect of imposing non-linear particle gradient on the distribution of creep stresses in the thick-walled functionally graded composite cylinder has been investigated. The study revealed that for the assumed non-linear particle distribution, the radial stress decreases throughout the cylinder, whereas the tangential, axial and effective stresses have averaging effect. The strain rates in the functionally graded composite cylinder could be reduced to significant extent by employing non-linear gradient in the distribution of reinforcement.

Keywords: functionally graded material, pressure, steady state creep, thick-cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
7057 Investigation of Contact Pressure Distribution at Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Interfaces Using Tactile Sensors

Authors: Chen Liu, Dawit Negussey


EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) geofoam as light-weight material in geotechnical applications are made of pre-expanded resin beads that form fused cellular micro-structures. The strength and deformation properties of geofoam blocks are determined by unconfined compression of small test samples between rigid loading plates. Applied loads are presumed to be supported uniformly over the entire mating end areas. Predictions of field performance on the basis of such laboratory tests widely over-estimate actual post-construction settlements and exaggerate predictions of long-term creep deformations. This investigation examined the development of contact pressures at a large number of discrete points at low and large strain levels for different densities of geofoam. Development of pressure patterns for fine and coarse interface material textures as well as for molding skin and hot wire cut geofoam surfaces were examined. The lab testing showed that I-Scan tactile sensors are useful for detailed observation of contact pressures at a large number of discrete points simultaneously. At low strain level (1%), the lower density EPS block presents low variations in localized stress distribution compared to higher density EPS. At high strain level (10%), the dense geofoam reached the sensor cut-off limit. The imprint and pressure patterns for different interface textures can be distinguished with tactile sensing. The pressure sensing system can be used in many fields with real-time pressure detection. The research findings provide a better understanding of EPS geofoam behavior for improvement of design methods and performance prediction of critical infrastructures, which will be anticipated to guide future improvements in design and rapid construction of critical transportation infrastructures with geofoam in geotechnical applications.

Keywords: geofoam, pressure distribution, tactile pressure sensors, interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
7056 A Proposed Mechanism for Skewing Symmetric Distributions

Authors: M. T. Alodat


In this paper, we propose a mechanism for skewing any symmetric distribution. The new distribution is called the deflation-inflation distribution (DID). We discuss some statistical properties of the DID such moments, stochastic representation, log-concavity. Also we fit the distribution to real data and we compare it to normal distribution and Azzlaini's skew normal distribution. Numerical results show that the DID fits the the tree ring data better than the other two distributions.

Keywords: normal distribution, moments, Fisher information, symmetric distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 523
7055 Improvement of Parallel Compressor Model in Dealing Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution

Authors: Kewei Xu, Jens Friedrich, Kevin Dwinger, Wei Fan, Xijin Zhang


Parallel Compressor Model (PCM) is a simplified approach to predict compressor performance with inlet distortions. In PCM calculation, it is assumed that the sub-compressors’ outlet static pressure is uniform and therefore simplifies PCM calculation procedure. However, if the compressor’s outlet duct is not long and straight, such assumption frequently induces error ranging from 10% to 15%. This paper provides a revised calculation method of PCM that can correct the error. The revised method employs energy equation, momentum equation and continuity equation to acquire needed parameters and replace the equal static pressure assumption. Based on the revised method, PCM is applied on two compression system with different blades types. The predictions of their performance in non-uniform inlet conditions are yielded through the revised calculation method and are employed to evaluate the method’s efficiency. Validating the results by experimental data, it is found that although little deviation occurs, calculated result agrees well with experiment data whose error ranges from 0.1% to 3%. Therefore, this proves the revised calculation method of PCM possesses great advantages in predicting the performance of the distorted compressor with limited exhaust duct.

Keywords: parallel compressor model (pcm), revised calculation method, inlet distortion, outlet unequal pressure distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
7054 Two-Dimensional Observation of Oil Displacement by Water in a Petroleum Reservoir through Numerical Simulation and Application to a Petroleum Reservoir

Authors: Ahmad Fahim Nasiry, Shigeo Honma


We examine two-dimensional oil displacement by water in a petroleum reservoir. The pore fluid is immiscible, and the porous media is homogenous and isotropic in the horizontal direction. Buckley-Leverett theory and a combination of Laplacian and Darcy’s law are used to study the fluid flow through porous media, and the Laplacian that defines the dispersion and diffusion of fluid in the sand using heavy oil is discussed. The reservoir is homogenous in the horizontal direction, as expressed by the partial differential equation. Two main factors which are observed are the water saturation and pressure distribution in the reservoir, and they are evaluated for predicting oil recovery in two dimensions by a physical and mathematical simulation model. We review the numerical simulation that solves difficult partial differential reservoir equations. Based on the numerical simulations, the saturation and pressure equations are calculated by the iterative alternating direction implicit method and the iterative alternating direction explicit method, respectively, according to the finite difference assumption. However, to understand the displacement of oil by water and the amount of water dispersion in the reservoir better, an interpolated contour line of the water distribution of the five-spot pattern, that provides an approximate solution which agrees well with the experimental results, is also presented. Finally, a computer program is developed to calculate the equation for pressure and water saturation and to draw the pressure contour line and water distribution contour line for the reservoir.

Keywords: numerical simulation, immiscible, finite difference, IADI, IDE, waterflooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 244