Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9266

Search results for: liquid sloshing impact

9266 Study the Sloshing Phenomenon in the Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V, Pradeep AG, Shivakumar Bhavi

Abstract:

Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels 25%, 50%, and 75% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for three different liquid levels has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles. Maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: sloshing, CFD, VOF, baffles

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
9265 The Pressure Distribution on the Rectangular and Trapezoidal Storage Tanks' Perimeters Due to Liquid Sloshing Impact

Authors: Hassan Saghi, Gholam Reza Askarzadeh Garmroud, Seyyed Ali Reza Emamian

Abstract:

Sloshing phenomenon is a complicated free surface flow problem that increases the dynamic pressure on the sidewalls and the bottom of the storage tanks. When the storage tanks are partially filled, it is essential to be able to evaluate the fluid dynamic loads on the tank’s perimeter. In this paper, a numerical code was developed to determine the pressure distribution on the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact. Assuming the fluid to be inviscid, the Laplace equation and the nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled BEM-FEM. The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data. Finally, this code is used for partially filled rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks and the pressure distribution on the tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact is estimated. The results show that the maximum pressure on the perimeter of the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks was decreased along the sidewalls from the top to the bottom. Furthermore, the period of the pressure distribution is different for different points on the tank’s perimeter and it is bigger in the trapezoidal tanks compared to the rectangular ones.

Keywords: pressure distribution, liquid sloshing impact, sway motion, trapezoidal storage tank, coupled BEM-FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
9264 Sloshing Response of Liquid in Prismatic Container under Oscillation

Authors: P. R. Maiti, S. K. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Sloshing is a physical phenomenon characterized by the oscillation of unrestrained free surface of liquid in a partially liquid filled container subjected to external excitation. Determination of sloshing frequency in container is important to avoid resonance condition of the system. The complex behavior of the free surface movement and its combined mode of vibration make difficulty for exact analysis of sloshing. In the present study, numerical analysis is carried out for a partially liquid filled tank under external forces. Boundary element approach is used to formulate the sloshing problem in two -dimensional prismatic container with potential flow. Effort has been made to find slosh response for two dimensional problems in partially liquid filled prismatic container.

Keywords: sloshing, boundary element method, prismatic container, oscillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
9263 Study the Sloshing Phenomenon in the Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V., Pradeep A. G., Shivakumar Bhavi

Abstract:

Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V, Pradeep AG, Shivakumar Bhavi Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid is involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels of 50% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for two different baffle configurations has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles; maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: CFD, sloshing, VOF, multiphase

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
9262 Coupled Analysis with Fluid and Flexible Multibody Dynamics of 6-DOF Platform with Liquid Sloshing Tank

Authors: Sung-Pill Kim, Dae-Gyu Sung, Hee-Sung Shin, Jong-Chun Park

Abstract:

When a sloshing tank filled partially with liquid is excited with the motion of platform, it can be observed that the center of mass inside the tank is changed and impact loads is instantaneously applied to the wall, which causes dynamic loads additionally to the supporting links of platform. In this case, therefore, the dynamic behavior of platform associated with fluid motion should be considered in the early stage of design for safety and economics of the system. In this paper, the dynamic loads due to liquid sloshing motion in a rectangular tank which is loaded up on the upper deck of a Stewart platform are simulated using a coupled analysis of Moving Particle Simulation (MPS) and Flexible Multi-Body Dynamics (FMBD). The co-simulation is performed using two commercial softwares, Recurdyn for solving FMBD and Particleworks for analyzing fluid motion based on MPS method. For validating the present coupled system, a rectangular sloshing tank being enforced with inline sway motion by 1-DOF motion platform is assumed, and time-varied free-surface elevation and reaction force at a fixed joint are compared with experiments.

Keywords: dynamic loads, liquid sloshing tank, Stewart platform, moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, flexible multi-body dynamics (FMBD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
9261 Numerical Simulation of Sloshing Control Using Input Shaping

Authors: Dongjoo Kim

Abstract:

Effective control of sloshing in a liquid container is an important issue to be resolved in many applications. In this study, numerical simulations are performed to design the velocity profile of rectangular container and investigate the effectiveness of input shaping for sloshing control. Trapezoidal profiles of container velocity are chosen to be reference commands and they are convolved with a series of impulses to generate shaped ones that induce minimal residual oscillations. The performances of several input shapers are compared from the viewpoint of transient peak and residual oscillations of sloshing. Results show that sloshing can be effectively controlled by input shaping (Supported by the NRF programs, NRF-2015R1D1A1A01059675, of Korean government).

Keywords: input shaping, rectangular container, sloshing, trapezoidal profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
9260 Evaluation of Sloshing in Process Equipment for Floating Cryogenic Application

Authors: Bo Jin

Abstract:

A variety of process equipment having flow in and out is widely used in industrial land-based cryogenic facilities. In some of this equipment, such as vapor-liquid separator, a liquid level is established during the steady operation. As the implementation of such industrial processes extends to off-shore floating facilities, it is important to investigate the effect of sea motion on the process equipment partially filled with liquid. One important aspect to consider is the occurrence of sloshing therein. The flow characteristics are different from the classical study of sloshing, where the fluid is enclosed inside a vessel (e.g., storage tank) with no flow in or out. Liquid inside process equipment continuously flows in and out of the system. To understand this key difference, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate the liquid motion inside a partially filled cylinder with and without continuous flow in and out. For a partially filled vertical cylinder without any continuous flow in and out, the CFD model is found to be able to capture the well-known sloshing behavior documented in the literature. For the cylinder with a continuous steady flow in and out, the CFD simulation results demonstrate that the continuous flow suppresses sloshing. Given typical cryogenic fluid has very low viscosity, an analysis based on potential flow theory is developed to explain why flow into and out of the cylinder changes the natural frequency of the system and thereby suppresses sloshing. This analysis further validates the CFD results.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, cryogenic process equipment, off-shore floating processes, sloshing

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
9259 Investigating the Sloshing Characteristics of a Liquid by Using an Image Processing Method

Authors: Ufuk Tosun, Reza Aghazadeh, Mehmet Bülent Özer

Abstract:

This study puts forward a method to analyze the sloshing characteristics of liquid in a tuned sloshing absorber system by using image processing tools. Tuned sloshing vibration absorbers have recently attracted researchers’ attention as a seismic load damper in constructions due to its practical and logistical convenience. The absorber is liquid which sloshes and applies a force in opposite phase to the motion of structure. Experimentally characterization of the sloshing behavior can be utilized as means of verifying the results of numerical analysis. It can also be used to identify the accuracy of assumptions related to the motion of the liquid. There are extensive theoretical and experimental studies in the literature related to the dynamical and structural behavior of tuned sloshing dampers. In most of these works there are efforts to estimate the sloshing behavior of the liquid such as free surface motion and total force applied by liquid to the wall of container. For these purposes the use of sensors such as load cells and ultrasonic sensors are prevalent in experimental works. Load cells are only capable of measuring the force and requires conducting tests both with and without liquid to obtain pure sloshing force. Ultrasonic level sensors give point-wise measurements and hence they are not applicable to measure the whole free surface motion. Furthermore, in the case of liquid splashing it may give incorrect data. In this work a method for evaluating the sloshing wave height by using camera records and image processing techniques is presented. In this method the motion of the liquid and its container, made of a transparent material, is recorded by a high speed camera which is aligned to the free surface of the liquid. The video captured by the camera is processed frame by frame by using MATLAB Image Processing toolbox. The process starts with cropping the desired region. By recognizing the regions containing liquid and eliminating noise and liquid splashing, the final picture depicting the free surface of liquid is achieved. This picture then is used to obtain the height of the liquid through the length of container. This process is verified by ultrasonic sensors that measured fluid height on the surface of liquid.

Keywords: fluid structure interaction, image processing, sloshing, tuned liquid damper

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
9258 Vibration Mitigation in Partially Liquid-Filled Vessel Using Passive Energy Absorbers

Authors: Maor Farid, Oleg Gendelman

Abstract:

The following study deals with fluid vibration of a liquid in a partially filled vessel under periodic ground excitation. This external excitation might lead to hidraulic impact applied on the vessel inner walls. In order to model these sloshing dynamic regimes, several equivalent mechanical models were suggested in the literature, such as series of pendula or mass-spring systems that are able to impact the inner tank walls. In the following study, we use the latter methodology, use parameter values documented in literature corresponding to cylindrical tanks and consider structural elasticity of the tank. The hydraulic impulses are modeled by the high-exponent potential function. Additional system parameters are found with the help of Finite-Element (FE) analysis. Model-driven stress assessment method is developed. Finally, vibration mitigation performances of both tuned mass damper (TMD) and nonlinear energy sink (NES) are examined.

Keywords: nonlinear energy sink (NES), reduced-order modelling, liquid sloshing, vibration mitigation, vibro-impact dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
9257 Sloshing-Induced Overflow Assessment of the Seismically-Isolated Nuclear Tanks

Authors: Kihyon Kwon, Hyun T. Park, Gil Y. Chung, Sang-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

This paper focuses on assessing sloshing-induced overflow of the seismically-isolated nuclear tanks based on Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis. Typically, fluid motion in the seismically-isolated nuclear tank systems may be rather amplified and even overflowed under earthquake. Sloshing-induced overflow in those structures has to be reliably assessed and predicted since it can often cause critical damages to humans and environments. FSI analysis is herein performed to compute the total cumulative overflowed water volume more accurately, by coupling ANSYS with CFX for structural and fluid analyses, respectively. The approach is illustrated on a nuclear liquid storage tank, Spent Fuel Pool (SFP), forgiven conditions under consideration: different liquid levels, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGAs), and post earthquakes.

Keywords: FSI analysis, seismically-isolated nuclear tank system, sloshing-induced overflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
9256 Response Regimes and Vibration Mitigation in Equivalent Mechanical Model of Strongly Nonlinear Liquid Sloshing

Authors: Maor Farid, Oleg Gendelman

Abstract:

Equivalent mechanical model of liquid sloshing in partially-filled cylindrical vessel is treated in the cases of free oscillations and of horizontal base excitation. The model is designed to cover both the linear and essentially nonlinear sloshing regimes. The latter fluid behaviour might involve hydraulic impacts interacting with the inner walls of the tank. These impulsive interactions are often modeled by high-power potential and dissipation functions. For the sake of analytical description, we use the traditional approach by modeling the impacts with velocity-dependent restitution coefficient. This modelling is similar to vibro-impact nonlinear energy sink (VI NES) which was recently explored for its vibration mitigation performances and nonlinear response regimes. Steady-state periodic regimes and chaotic strongly modulated responses (CSMR) are detected. Those dynamical regimes were described by the system's slow motion on the slow invariant manifold (SIM). There is a good agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. Subsequently, Finite-Element (FE) method is used to determine and verify the model parameters and to identify dominant dynamical regimes, natural modes and frequencies. The tank failure modes are identified and critical locations are identified. Mathematical relation is found between degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) motion and the mechanical stress applied in the tank critical section. This is the prior attempt to take under consideration large-amplitude nonlinear sloshing and tank structure elasticity effects for design, regulation definition and resistance analysis purposes. Both linear (tuned mass damper, TMD) and nonlinear (nonlinear energy sink, NES) passive energy absorbers contribution to the overall system mitigation is firstly examined, in terms of both stress reduction and time for vibration decay.

Keywords: nonlinear energy sink (NES), reduced-order modelling, liquid sloshing, vibration mitigation, vibro-impact dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
9255 Behavior of an Elevated Liquid Storage Tank under Near-Fault Earthquakes

Authors: Koushik Roy, Sourav Gur, Sudib K. Mishra

Abstract:

Evidence of pulse type features in near-fault ground motions has raised serious concern to the structural engineering community, in view of their possible implications on the behavior of structures located on the fault regions. Studies in the recent past explore the effects of pulse type ground motion on the special structures, such as transmission towers in view of their high flexibility. Identically, long period sloshing of liquid in the storage tanks under dynamic loading might increase their failure vulnerability under near-fault pulses. Therefore, the behavior of the elevated liquid storage tank is taken up in this study. Simple lumped mass model is considered, with the bilinear force-deformation hysteresis behavior. Set of near-fault seismic ground acceleration time histories are adopted for this purpose, along with the far-field records for comparison. It has been demonstrated that pulse type motions lead to significant increase of the responses; in particular, sloshing of the fluid mass could be as high as 5 times, then the far field counterpart. For identical storage capacity, slender tanks are found to be more vulnerable than the broad ones.

Keywords: far-field motion, hysteresis, liquid storage tank, near fault earthquake, sloshing

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
9254 An Optimization Algorithm for Reducing the Liquid Oscillation in the Moving Containers

Authors: Reza Babajanivalashedi, Stefania Lo Feudo, Jean-Luc Dion

Abstract:

Liquid sloshing is a crucial problem for the dynamic of moving containers in the packaging industries. Sloshing issues have been so far mainly modeled within the framework of fluid dynamics or by using equivalent mechanical models with different kinds of movements and shapes of containers. Nevertheless, these approaches do not allow to determinate the shape of the free surface of the liquid in case of the irregular shape of the moving containers, so that experimental measurements may be required. If there is too much slosh in the moving tank, the liquid can be splashed out on the packages. So, the free surface oscillation must be controlled/reduced to eliminate the splashing. The purpose of this research is to propose an optimization algorithm for finding an optimum command law to reduce surface elevation. In the first step, the free surface of the liquid is simulated based on the separation variable and weak formulation models. Then Genetic and Gradient algorithms are developed for finding the optimum command law. The optimum command law is compared with existing command laws, and the results show that there is a significant difference in surface oscillation between optimum and existing command laws. This algorithm is applicable for different varieties of bottles in case of using the camera for detecting the liquid elevation, and it can produce new command laws for different kinds of tanks to reduce the surface oscillation and remove the splashing phenomenon.

Keywords: sloshing phenomenon, separation variables, weak formulation, optimization algorithm, command law

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
9253 Nonlinear Interaction of Free Surface Sloshing of Gaussian Hump with Its Container

Authors: Mohammad R. Jalali

Abstract:

Movement of liquid with a free surface in a container is known as slosh. For instance, slosh occurs when water in a closed tank is set in motion by a free surface displacement, or when liquid natural gas in a container is vibrated by an external driving force, such as an earthquake or movement induced by transport. Slosh is also derived from resonant switching of a natural basin. During sloshing, different types of motion are produced by energy exchange between the liquid and its container. In present study, a numerical model is developed to simulate the nonlinear even harmonic oscillations of free surface sloshing of an initial disturbance to the free surface of a liquid in a closed square basin. The response of the liquid free surface is affected by amplitude and motion frequencies of its container; therefore, sloshing involves complex fluid-structure interactions. In the present study, nonlinear interaction of free surface sloshing of an initial Gaussian hump with its uneven container is predicted numerically. For this purpose, Green-Naghdi (GN) equations are applied as governing equation of fluid field to produce nonlinear second-order and higher-order wave interactions. These equations reduce the dimensions from three to two, yielding equations that can be solved efficiently. The GN approach assumes a particular flow kinematic structure in the vertical direction for shallow and deep-water problems. The fluid velocity profile is finite sum of coefficients depending on space and time multiplied by a weighting function. It should be noted that in GN theory, the flow is rotational. In this study, GN numerical simulations of initial Gaussian hump are compared with Fourier series semi-analytical solutions of the linearized shallow water equations. The comparison reveals that satisfactory agreement exists between the numerical simulation and the analytical solution of the overall free surface sloshing patterns. The resonant free surface motions driven by an initial Gaussian disturbance are obtained by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the free surface elevation time history components. Numerically predicted velocity vectors and magnitude contours for the free surface patterns indicate that interaction of Gaussian hump with its container has localized effect. The result of this sloshing is applicable to the design of stable liquefied oil containers in tankers and offshore platforms.

Keywords: fluid-structure interactions, free surface sloshing, Gaussian hump, Green-Naghdi equations, numerical predictions

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
9252 Comparative Study of Dynamic Effect on Analysis Approaches for Circular Tanks Using Codal Provisions

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, Aishwarya Alok, P. R. Maiti

Abstract:

Liquid storage tanks have become widespread during the recent decades due to their extensive usage. Analysis of liquid containing tanks is known to be complex due to hydrodynamic force exerted on tank which makes the analysis a complex one. The objective of this research is to carry out analysis of liquid domain along with structural interaction for various geometries of circular tanks considering seismic effects. An attempt has been made to determine hydrodynamic pressure distribution on the tank wall considering impulsive and convective components of liquid mass. To get a better picture, a comparative study of Draft IS 1893 Part 2, ACI 350.3 and Eurocode 8 for Circular Shaped Tank has been performed. Further, the differences in the magnitude of shear and moment at base as obtained from static (IS 3370 IV) and dynamic (Draft IS 1892 Part 2) analysis of ground supported circular tank highlight the need for us to mature from the old code to a newer code, which is more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: liquid filled containers, circular tanks, IS 1893 (part 2), seismic analysis, sloshing

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
9251 Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in an Elastic Pipe with Viscoelastic Liquid

Authors: S. Levitsky, R. Bergman

Abstract:

Fluid rheology may have essential impact on sound propagation in a liquid-filled pipe, especially, in a low frequency range. Rheological parameters of liquid are temperature-sensitive, which ultimately results in a temperature dependence of the wave speed and attenuation in the waveguide. The study is devoted to modeling of this effect at sound propagation in an elastic pipe with polymeric liquid, described by generalized Maxwell model with non-zero high-frequency viscosity. It is assumed that relaxation spectrum is distributed according to the Spriggs law; temperature impact on the liquid rheology is described on the basis of the temperature-superposition principle and activation theory. The dispersion equation for the waveguide, considered as a thin-walled tube with polymeric solution, is obtained within a quasi-one-dimensional formulation. Results of the study illustrate the influence of temperature on sound propagation in the system.

Keywords: elastic tube, sound propagation, temperature effect, viscoelastic liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
9250 Foundation Retrofitting of Storage Tank under Seismic Load

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hossein Zade, E. Izadi, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

The different seismic behavior of liquid storage tanks rather than conventional structures makes their responses more complicated. Uplifting and excessive settlement due to liquid sloshing are the most frequent damages in cylindrical liquid tanks after shell bucking failure modes. As a matter of fact, uses of liquid storage tanks because of the simple construction on compact layer of soil as a foundation are very conventional, but in some cases need to retrofit are essential. The tank seismic behavior can be improved by modifying dynamic characteristic of tank with verifying seismic loads as well as retrofitting and improving base ground. This paper focuses on a typical steel tank on loose, medium and stiff sandy soil and describes an evaluation of displacement of the tank before and after retrofitting. The Abaqus program was selected for its ability to include shell and structural steel elements, soil-structure interaction, and geometrical nonlinearities and contact type elements. The result shows considerable decreasing in settlement and uplifting in the case of retrofitted tank. Also, by increasing shear strength parameter of soil, the performance of the liquid storage tank under the case of seismic load increased.

Keywords: steel tank, soil-structure, sandy soil, seismic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
9249 Improvement of Performance of Anti-Splash Device for Cargo Oil Tank Vent Pipe Using CFD Simulation

Authors: Sung-Min Kim, Joon-Hong Park, Hyuk Choi

Abstract:

This study is focused on the comparative analysis and improvement to grasp the flow characteristic of the anti-splash device located under the P/V valve and new concept design models using the CFD. The P/V valve located upper deck to solve the pressure rising and vacuum condition of inner tank of the liquid cargo ships occurred oil outflow accident by transverse and longitudinal sloshing force. Anti-splash device is fitted to improve and prevent this problem in the shipbuilding industry, but the oil outflow accidents are still reported by ship owners. Thus, 4 types of new design model are presented by this study, and then comparative analysis is conducted with new models and existing model. Mostly the key criterion of this problem is flux in the outlet of the anti-splash device. Therefore, the flow and velocity are grasped by transient analysis, and then it decided optimum model and design parameters to develop model. Later, it is needed to develop an anti-splash device by flow test to get certification and verification using experiment equipments.

Keywords: anti-splash device, P/V valve, sloshing, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
9248 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky

Abstract:

Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
9247 Phytoremediation Aeration System by Using Water Lettuce (Pistia Stratiotes I) Based on Zero Waste to Reduce the Impact of Industrial Liquid Waste in Jember, Indonesia

Authors: Wahyu Eko Diyanto, Amalia Dyah Arumsari, Ulfatu Layinatinnahdiyah Arrosyadi

Abstract:

Tofu industry is one of the local food industry which is can being competitive industry in the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). However, a lot of tofu entrepreneurs just thinking how to produce good quality product without considering the impact of environmental conditions from the production process. Production of tofu per day requires a number of 15 kg with liquid waste generated is 652.5 liters. That liquid waste is discharged directly into waterways, whereas tofu liquid waste contains organic compounds that quickly unraveled, so it can pollute waterways. In addition, tofu liquid waste is high in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorus. This research is aim to create a method of handling liquid waste effectively and efficiently by using water lettuce. The method is done by observation and experiment by using phytoremediation method in the tofu liquid waste using water lettuce and adding aeration to reduce the concentration of contaminants. The results of the research analyzed the waste quality standard parameters based on SNI (National Standardization Agency of Indonesia). The efficiency concentration and parameters average of tofu liquid waste are obtained pH 3,42% (from 4,0 to be 3,3), COD 76,13% (from 3579 ppm to be 854 ppm), BOD 55 % (from 11600 ppm to be 5242 ppm), TSS 93,6% (from 3174 ppm to be 203 ppm), turbidity is 64,8% (from 977 NTU to be 1013 NTU), and temperature 36oC (from 45oC to be 40oC). The efficiency of these parameters indicates a safe value for the effluent to be channeled in waterways. Water lettuce and tofu liquid waste phytoremediation result will be used as biogas as renewable energy.

Keywords: aeration, phytoremediation, water letuce, tofu liquid waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
9246 A Study on Improvement of Performance of Anti-Splash Device for Cargo Oil Tank Vent Pipe Using CFD Simulation and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Min-Woo Kim, Ok-Kyun Na, Jun-Ho Byun, Jong-Hwan Park, Seung-Hwa Yang, Joon-Hong Park, Young-Chul Park

Abstract:

This study is focused on the comparative analysis and improvement to grasp the flow characteristic of the Anti-Splash Device located under the P/V Valve and new concept design models using the CFD analysis and Artificial Neural Network. The P/V valve located upper deck to solve the pressure rising and vacuum condition of inner tank of the liquid cargo ships occurred oil outflow accident by transverse and longitudinal sloshing force. Anti-Splash Device is fitted to improve and prevent this problem in the shipbuilding industry. But the oil outflow accidents are still reported by ship owners. Thus, four types of new design model are presented by study. Then, comparative analysis is conducted with new models and existing model. Mostly the key criterion of this problem is flux in the outlet of the Anti-Splash Device. Therefore, the flow and velocity are grasped by transient analysis. And then it decided optimum model and design parameters to develop model. Later, it needs to develop an Anti-Splash Device by Flow Test to get certification and verification using experiment equipment.

Keywords: anti-splash device, P/V valve, sloshing, artificial neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
9245 Nonlinear Modelling of Sloshing Waves and Solitary Waves in Shallow Basins

Authors: Mohammad R. Jalali, Mohammad M. Jalali

Abstract:

The earliest theories of sloshing waves and solitary waves based on potential theory idealisations and irrotational flow have been extended to be applicable to more realistic domains. To this end, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are widely used. Three-dimensional CFD methods such as Navier-Stokes solvers with volume of fluid treatment of the free surface and Navier-Stokes solvers with mappings of the free surface inherently impose high computational expense; therefore, considerable effort has gone into developing depth-averaged approaches. Examples of such approaches include Green–Naghdi (GN) equations. In Cartesian system, GN velocity profile depends on horizontal directions, x-direction and y-direction. The effect of vertical direction (z-direction) is also taken into consideration by applying weighting function in approximation. GN theory considers the effect of vertical acceleration and the consequent non-hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, in GN theory, the flow is rotational. The present study illustrates the application of GN equations to propagation of sloshing waves and solitary waves. For this purpose, GN equations solver is verified for the benchmark tests of Gaussian hump sloshing and solitary wave propagation in shallow basins. Analysis of the free surface sloshing of even harmonic components of an initial Gaussian hump demonstrates that the GN model gives predictions in satisfactory agreement with the linear analytical solutions. Discrepancies between the GN predictions and the linear analytical solutions arise from the effect of wave nonlinearities arising from the wave amplitude itself and wave-wave interactions. Numerically predicted solitary wave propagation indicates that the GN model produces simulations in good agreement with the analytical solution of the linearised wave theory. Comparison between the GN model numerical prediction and the result from perturbation analysis confirms that nonlinear interaction between solitary wave and a solid wall is satisfactorilly modelled. Moreover, solitary wave propagation at an angle to the x-axis and the interaction of solitary waves with each other are conducted to validate the developed model.

Keywords: Green–Naghdi equations, nonlinearity, numerical prediction, sloshing waves, solitary waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
9244 Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger

Authors: Wenjing Ding, Weiwei Shan, Zijuan, Wang, Chao He

Abstract:

Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen spray, temperature regulating system, heat exchanger, numerical simulation

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9243 Heat Transfer Investigation in a Dimple Plate Heat Exchanger Using Ionic Liquid and Ionanofluid

Authors: Divya P. Soman, S. Karthika, P. Kalaichelvi, T. K. Radhakrishnan

Abstract:

Heat transfer characteristics of ionic liquid solution as cold fluid in plate heat exchanger with dimple plate geometry was studied. The ionic liquid solution used in this study was 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. The present experimental study is to understand the heat transfer behavior of different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide concentrations (0.1 and 0.2% w/w) in water. In addition, the heat transfer activity of ionanofluid as cold fluid was investigated. The ionanofluid was prepared by dispersing 0.3% w/w Al2O3 in the ionic liquid solution as base fluid. Experiments were also conducted to determine thermophysical properties of ionanofluid. The empirical correlations as a function of temperature were developed to predict the thermophysical properties. Finally, the heat transfer performance of ionic liquid solution, ionanofluid, nanofluid and water were compared. The impact of hot fluid’s (water) Reynolds number on overall heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of cold fluids were analyzed. The nanofluid and ionanofluid were found to possess better heat transfer behavior than water and ionic liquid solution. Heat transfer augmentation was observed for ionanofluid when compared with the base fluid (0.1% w/w ionic liquid solution).

Keywords: ionic liquid, nanofluid, ionanofluid, dimple plate heat exchanger, Nusselt number, overall heat transfer coefficient

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9242 Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Hemp/Jute Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature

Authors: B. Vinod, L. Jsudev

Abstract:

Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material is gaining lot of attention in recent years, as they are light in weight, less in cost, and ecologically advanced surrogate material to glass and carbon fibers in composites. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites like cryogenic wind tunnels, cryogenic transport vessels, support structures in space shuttles and rockets are gaining importance. In these unique cryogenic applications, the requirements of polymer composites are extremely severe and complicated. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures such as liquid helium (4.2 K), liquid hydrogen (20 K), liquid nitrogen (77 K), and liquid oxygen (90 K) temperatures, etc., to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hemp and Jute fibers are used as reinforcement material as they have high specific strength, stiffness and good adhering property and has the potential to replace the synthetic fibers. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen temperature, polymer composite, tensile properties, flexural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
9241 Simulation Studies of Solid-Particle and Liquid-Drop Erosion of NiAl Alloy

Authors: Rong Liu, Kuiying Chen, Ju Chen, Jingrong Zhao, Ming Liang

Abstract:

This article presents modeling studies of NiAl alloy under solid-particle erosion and liquid-drop erosion. In the solid particle erosion simulation, attention is paid to the oxide scale thickness variation on the alloy in high-temperature erosion environments. The erosion damage is assumed to be deformation wear and cutting wear mechanisms, incorporating the influence of the oxide scale on the eroded surface; thus the instantaneous oxide thickness is the result of synergetic effect of erosion and oxidation. For liquid-drop erosion, special interest is in investigating the effects of drop velocity and drop size on the damage of the target surface. The models of impact stress wave, mean depth of penetration, and maximum depth of erosion rate (Max DER) are employed to develop various maps for NiAl alloy, including target thickness vs. drop size (diameter), rate of mean depth of penetration (MDRP) vs. drop impact velocity, and damage threshold velocity (DTV) vs. drop size.

Keywords: liquid-drop erosion, NiAl alloy, oxide scale thickness, solid-particle erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
9240 Dynamic Process of Single Water Droplet Impacting on a Hot Heptane Surface

Authors: Mingjun Xu, Shouxiang Lu

Abstract:

Understanding the interaction mechanism between the water droplet and pool fire has an important significance in engineering application of water sprinkle/spray/mist fire suppression. The micro impact process is unclear when the droplet impacts on the burning liquid surface at present. To deepen the understanding of the mechanisms of pool fire suppression with water spray/mist, dynamic processes of single water droplet impinging onto a hot heptane surface are visualized with the aid of a high-speed digital camera at 2000 fps. Each test is repeated 20 times. The water droplet diameter is around 1.98 mm, and the impact Weber number ranges from 30 to 695. The heptane is heated by a hot plate to mimic the burning condition, and the temperature varies from 30 to 90°C. The results show that three typical phenomena, including penetration, crater-jet and surface bubble, are observed, and the pool temperature has a significant influence on the critical condition for the appearance of each phenomenon. A global picture of different phenomena is built according to impact Weber number and pool temperature. In addition, the pool temperature and Weber number have important influences on the characteristic parameters including maximum crater depth, crown height and liquid column height. For a fixed Weber number, the liquid column height increases with pool temperature.

Keywords: droplet impact, fire suppression, hot surface, water spray

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
9239 Measurement of Liquid Film Thickness in a Vertical Annular Two Phase Flow Changing the Gas-Liquid Density Ratio

Authors: Shoji Mori, Kunito Okuyama

Abstract:

Annular two phase flow is encountered in many industrial equipments, including flow near nuclear fuel rods in boiling water reactor (BWR). Especially, disturbance waves play important roles in the pressure drop, the generation of entrainments, and the dryout of the liquid film. Therefore, it is important to clarify the behavior of disturbance waves and base film. However, most of the previous studies have been performed under atmospheric pressure conditions that provides the properties of liquid and gas which are significantly different from those of a BWR. Therefore, the effect of properties in gas and liquid on liquid film characteristics should be clarified. In this paper we focus on the effect of gas-liquid density ratio on liquid film thickness characteristics. The experiments have been conducted at four density ratio conditions (ρL/ρG =763, 451, 231, and 31). As a result, it is found that and interfacial shear stress collapse not only tF ave but also tF max and tF min successfully under the same liquid mass flow rate conditions irrespective of ρL/ρG, and moreover a non-dimensional parameter tends to collapse tF max,tF ave,and tF min in the wide range of experimental conditions (ρL/ρG:31~763,We:10~1800,ReL:500 ~ 2200).

Keywords: two phase flow, liquid film, annular flow, disturbance wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
9238 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek

Abstract:

The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
9237 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Hybrid Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: B. Vinod, L. J. Sudev

Abstract:

Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material are gaining lot of attention in recent years. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites are gaining importance. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen temperature, polymer composite, tensile properties, flexural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 264