Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3437

Search results for: pressure contour

3437 Numerical Investigation of Pressure and Velocity Field Contours of Dynamics of Drop Formation

Authors: Pardeep Bishnoi, Mayank Srivastava, Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha


This article represents the numerical investigation of the pressure and velocity field variation of the dynamics of pendant drop formation through a capillary tube. Numerical simulations are executed using volume of fluid (VOF) method in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this problem, Non Newtonian fluid is considered as dispersed fluid whereas air is considered as a continuous fluid. Pressure contours at various time steps expose that pressure varies nearly hydrostatically at each step of the dynamics of drop formation. A result also shows the pressure variation of the liquid droplet during free fall in the computational domain. The evacuation of the fluid from the necking region is also shown by the contour of the velocity field. The role of surface tension in the Pressure contour of the dynamics of drop formation is also studied.

Keywords: pressure contour, surface tension, volume of fluid, velocity field

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3436 Two-Dimensional Observation of Oil Displacement by Water in a Petroleum Reservoir through Numerical Simulation and Application to a Petroleum Reservoir

Authors: Ahmad Fahim Nasiry, Shigeo Honma


We examine two-dimensional oil displacement by water in a petroleum reservoir. The pore fluid is immiscible, and the porous media is homogenous and isotropic in the horizontal direction. Buckley-Leverett theory and a combination of Laplacian and Darcy’s law are used to study the fluid flow through porous media, and the Laplacian that defines the dispersion and diffusion of fluid in the sand using heavy oil is discussed. The reservoir is homogenous in the horizontal direction, as expressed by the partial differential equation. Two main factors which are observed are the water saturation and pressure distribution in the reservoir, and they are evaluated for predicting oil recovery in two dimensions by a physical and mathematical simulation model. We review the numerical simulation that solves difficult partial differential reservoir equations. Based on the numerical simulations, the saturation and pressure equations are calculated by the iterative alternating direction implicit method and the iterative alternating direction explicit method, respectively, according to the finite difference assumption. However, to understand the displacement of oil by water and the amount of water dispersion in the reservoir better, an interpolated contour line of the water distribution of the five-spot pattern, that provides an approximate solution which agrees well with the experimental results, is also presented. Finally, a computer program is developed to calculate the equation for pressure and water saturation and to draw the pressure contour line and water distribution contour line for the reservoir.

Keywords: numerical simulation, immiscible, finite difference, IADI, IDE, waterflooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
3435 Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering

Authors: Prasannakumar Palaniappan, Dong Ho Shin, Chul Gyu Song


The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.

Keywords: contour filtering, linear array, photoacoustic tomography, universal back projection

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3434 Image Segmentation Using Active Contours Based on Anisotropic Diffusion

Authors: Shafiullah Soomro


Active contour is one of the image segmentation techniques and its goal is to capture required object boundaries within an image. In this paper, we propose a novel image segmentation method by using an active contour method based on anisotropic diffusion feature enhancement technique. The traditional active contour methods use only pixel information to perform segmentation, which produces inaccurate results when an image has some noise or complex background. We use Perona and Malik diffusion scheme for feature enhancement, which sharpens the object boundaries and blurs the background variations. Our main contribution is the formulation of a new SPF (signed pressure force) function, which uses global intensity information across the regions. By minimizing an energy function using partial differential framework the proposed method captures semantically meaningful boundaries instead of catching uninterested regions. Finally, we use a Gaussian kernel which eliminates the problem of reinitialization in level set function. We use several synthetic and real images from different modalities to validate the performance of the proposed method. In the experimental section, we have found the proposed method performance is better qualitatively and quantitatively and yield results with higher accuracy compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: active contours, anisotropic diffusion, level-set, partial differential equations

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3433 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng


The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

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3432 Concentric Circle Detection based on Edge Pre-Classification and Extended RANSAC

Authors: Zhongjie Yu, Hancheng Yu


In this paper, we propose an effective method to detect concentric circles with imperfect edges. First, the gradient of edge pixel is coded and a 2-D lookup table is built to speed up normal generation. Then we take an accumulator to estimate the rough center and collect plausible edges of concentric circles through gradient and distance. Later, we take the contour-based method, which takes the contour and edge intersection, to pre-classify the edges. Finally, we use the extended RANSAC method to find all the candidate circles. The center of concentric circles is determined by the two circles with the highest concentricity. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has both good performance and accuracy for the detection of concentric circles.

Keywords: concentric circle detection, gradient, contour, edge pre-classification, RANSAC

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3431 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi


A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
3430 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig


In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: blood pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
3429 Calibration Methods of Direct and Indirect Reading Pressure Sensor and Uncertainty Determination

Authors: Sinem O. Aktan, Musa Y. Akkurt


Experimental pressure calibration methods can be classified into three areas: (1) measurements in liquid or gas systems, (2) measurements in static-solid media systems, and (3) measurements in dynamic shock systems. Fluid (liquid and gas) systems high accuracies can be obtainable and commonly used for the calibration method of a pressure sensor. Pressure calibrations can be performed for metrological traceability in two ways, which are on-site (field) and in the laboratory. Laboratory and on-site calibration procedures and the requirements of the DKD-R-6-1 and Euramet cg-17 guidelines will also be addressed. In this study, calibration methods of direct and indirect reading pressure sensor and measurement uncertainty contributions will be explained.

Keywords: pressure metrology, pressure calibration, dead-weight tester, pressure uncertainty

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3428 Particle Filter Supported with the Neural Network for Aircraft Tracking Based on Kernel and Active Contour

Authors: Mohammad Izadkhah, Mojtaba Hoseini, Alireza Khalili Tehrani


In this paper we presented a new method for tracking flying targets in color video sequences based on contour and kernel. The aim of this work is to overcome the problem of losing target in changing light, large displacement, changing speed, and occlusion. The proposed method is made in three steps, estimate the target location by particle filter, segmentation target region using neural network and find the exact contours by greedy snake algorithm. In the proposed method we have used both region and contour information to create target candidate model and this model is dynamically updated during tracking. To avoid the accumulation of errors when updating, target region given to a perceptron neural network to separate the target from background. Then its output used for exact calculation of size and center of the target. Also it is used as the initial contour for the greedy snake algorithm to find the exact target's edge. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a database which contains a lot of challenges such as high speed and agility of aircrafts, background clutter, occlusions, camera movement, and so on. The experimental results show that the use of neural network increases the accuracy of tracking and segmentation.

Keywords: video tracking, particle filter, greedy snake, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
3427 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.


Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
3426 Controlling Melanocytic Hyperactivity Is No More A Dream With Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Afzaal Bashir, Sunaina Afzaal


Background: Facial contour deformities associated with pigmentary changes are of major concern for plastic surgeons, both being important and difficult in treating such issues. No definite ideal treatment option is available to address simultaneously both the contour defect as well as related pigmentation. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to compare the long term effects of conventional adipose tissue grafting, and ex-vivo expanded MSCs enriched adipose tissue grafting for the treatment of contour deformities with pigmentary changes on the face. Material and Methods: In this study, eighty (80) patients of contour deformities of face with hyperpigmentation were recruited after informed consent. Two techniques i.e., conventional fat grafting (C-FG) and fat grafts enriched with expanded adipose stem cells (FG-ASCs), were used to address the pigmentation. Both techniques were explained to patients and enrolled patients were divided into two groups i.e. C-FG and FG-ASCS, per patients’ choice and satisfaction. Patients of FG-ASCs group were treated with fat grafts enriched with expanded adipose stem cells, while patients of C-FGsgroup were treated with conventional fat grafting. Patients were followed for 12 months, and improvement in face pigmentation was assessed clinically as well as measured objectively. Patients’ satisfaction was also documented as highlysatisfied, satisfied, andunsatisfied. This clinical trial was registered at with ID: NTC03564808. Results: Mean age of patients was 24.42(±4.49), 66 patients were females. Forehead was involved in 61.20% cases, the cheek in 21.20% cases, chin in 11.20% cases and nose in 6.20% cases. In GF-ASCs group, the integrated color density (ICD) was decreased (1.08×106 ±4.64×10⁵) as compared to C-FG group (2.80×105±1.69×10⁵). Patients treated with fat grafts enriched with expanded adipose stem cells were significantly more satisfied as compared to patients treated with conventional fat grafting only. Conclusion: Mesenchymal stem cell enriched autologous fat grafting is preferred option for improving the contour deformities related increased pigmentation of face skin.

Keywords: hyperpigmentation, color density, enriched adipose tissue graft, fat grafting, contour deformities, image J.

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3425 Combining an Optimized Closed Principal Curve-Based Method and Evolutionary Neural Network for Ultrasound Prostate Segmentation

Authors: Tao Peng, Jing Zhao, Yanqing Xu, Jing Cai


Due to missing/ambiguous boundaries between the prostate and neighboring structures, the presence of shadow artifacts, as well as the large variability in prostate shapes, ultrasound prostate segmentation is challenging. To handle these issues, this paper develops a hybrid method for ultrasound prostate segmentation by combining an optimized closed principal curve-based method and the evolutionary neural network; the former can fit curves with great curvature and generate a contour composed of line segments connected by sorted vertices, and the latter is used to express an appropriate map function (represented by parameters of evolutionary neural network) for generating the smooth prostate contour to match the ground truth contour. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results showed that our proposed method obtains accurate and robust performances.

Keywords: ultrasound prostate segmentation, optimized closed polygonal segment method, evolutionary neural network, smooth mathematical model, principal curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
3424 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

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3423 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma


This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, pressure vessel, saddle, support

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3422 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama


Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, cavitation, negative pressure, observation

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
3421 Level Set Based Extraction and Update of Lake Contours Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Images

Authors: Yindi Zhao, Yun Zhang, Silu Xia, Lixin Wu


The contours and areas of water surfaces, especially lakes, often change due to natural disasters and construction activities. It is an effective way to extract and update water contours from satellite images using image processing algorithms. However, to produce optimal water surface contours that are close to true boundaries is still a challenging task. This paper compares the performances of three different level set models, including the Chan-Vese (CV) model, the signed pressure force (SPF) model, and the region-scalable fitting (RSF) energy model for extracting lake contours. After experiment testing, it is indicated that the RSF model, in which a region-scalable fitting (RSF) energy functional is defined and incorporated into a variational level set formulation, is superior to CV and SPF, and it can get desirable contour lines when there are “holes” in the regions of waters, such as the islands in the lake. Therefore, the RSF model is applied to extracting lake contours from Landsat satellite images. Four temporal Landsat satellite images of the years of 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014 are used in our study. All of them were acquired in May, with the same path/row (121/036) covering Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China. Firstly, the near infrared (NIR) band is selected for water extraction. Image registration is conducted on NIR bands of different temporal images for information update, and linear stretching is also done in order to distinguish water from other land cover types. Then for the first temporal image acquired in 2000, lake contours are extracted via the RSF model with initialization of user-defined rectangles. Afterwards, using the lake contours extracted the previous temporal image as the initialized values, lake contours are updated for the current temporal image by means of the RSF model. Meanwhile, the changed and unchanged lakes are also detected. The results show that great changes have taken place in two lakes, i.e. Dalong Lake and Panan Lake, and RSF can actually extract and effectively update lake contours using multi-temporal satellite image.

Keywords: level set model, multi-temporal image, lake contour extraction, contour update

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3420 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda


In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75 mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: flow visualization, pressure measurement, reverse flow, vortex tube

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3419 Temperature Contour Detection of Salt Ice Using Color Thermal Image Segmentation Method

Authors: Azam Fazelpour, Saeed Reza Dehghani, Vlastimil Masek, Yuri S. Muzychka


The study uses a novel image analysis based on thermal imaging to detect temperature contours created on salt ice surface during transient phenomena. Thermal cameras detect objects by using their emissivities and IR radiance. The ice surface temperature is not uniform during transient processes. The temperature starts to increase from the boundary of ice towards the center of that. Thermal cameras are able to report temperature changes on the ice surface at every individual moment. Various contours, which show different temperature areas, appear on the ice surface picture captured by a thermal camera. Identifying the exact boundary of these contours is valuable to facilitate ice surface temperature analysis. Image processing techniques are used to extract each contour area precisely. In this study, several pictures are recorded while the temperature is increasing throughout the ice surface. Some pictures are selected to be processed by a specific time interval. An image segmentation method is applied to images to determine the contour areas. Color thermal images are used to exploit the main information. Red, green and blue elements of color images are investigated to find the best contour boundaries. The algorithms of image enhancement and noise removal are applied to images to obtain a high contrast and clear image. A novel edge detection algorithm based on differences in the color of the pixels is established to determine contour boundaries. In this method, the edges of the contours are obtained according to properties of red, blue and green image elements. The color image elements are assessed considering their information. Useful elements proceed to process and useless elements are removed from the process to reduce the consuming time. Neighbor pixels with close intensities are assigned in one contour and differences in intensities determine boundaries. The results are then verified by conducting experimental tests. An experimental setup is performed using ice samples and a thermal camera. To observe the created ice contour by the thermal camera, the samples, which are initially at -20° C, are contacted with a warmer surface. Pictures are captured for 20 seconds. The method is applied to five images ,which are captured at the time intervals of 5 seconds. The study shows the green image element carries no useful information; therefore, the boundary detection method is applied on red and blue image elements. In this case study, the results indicate that proposed algorithm shows the boundaries more effective than other edges detection methods such as Sobel and Canny. Comparison between the contour detection in this method and temperature analysis, which states real boundaries, shows a good agreement. This color image edge detection method is applicable to other similar cases according to their image properties.

Keywords: color image processing, edge detection, ice contour boundary, salt ice, thermal image

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3418 Design and Simulation of MEMS-Based Capacitive Pressure Sensors

Authors: Kirankumar B. Balavalad, Bhagyashree Mudhol, B. G. Sheeparamatti


MEMS sensor have gained popularity in automotive, biomedical, and industrial applications. In this paper, the design and simulation of conventional, slotted, and perforated MEMS capacitive pressure sensor is proposed. Polysilicon material is used as diaphragm material that deflects due to applied pressure. Better sensitivity is the main advantage of conventional pressure sensor as compared with other two sensors and perforated pressure sensor achieves large operating pressure range. The proposed MEMS sensor demonstrated with diaphragm length 50um, gap depth 3um is being modelled. The simulation is carried out for different types of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor using COMSOL Multiphysics and Coventor ware.

Keywords: MEMS, conventional pressure sensor, slotted and perforated diaphragm, COMSOL multiphysics, coventor ware

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3417 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoop Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (FoS) in Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Mohammed Hani Ajani


The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass

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3416 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoops Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (Fos) in the Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Mohammad Hani Ajani


The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
3415 Experimental Analysis of Advanced Multi-Axial Preforms Conformability to Complex Contours

Authors: Andrew Hardman, Alistair T. McIlhagger, Edward Archer


A degree of research has been undertaken in the determination of 3D textile preforms behaviour to compression with direct comparison to 2D counterparts. Multiscale simulations have been developed to try and accurately analyse the behaviour of varying architectures post-consolidation. However, further understanding is required to experimentally identify the mechanisms and deformations that exist upon conforming to a complex contour. Due to the complexity of 3D textile preforms, determination of yarn behaviour to a complex contour is assessed through consolidation by means of vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM), and the resulting mechanisms are investigated by micrograph analysis. Varying architectures; with known areal densities, pic density and thicknesses are assessed for a cohesive study. The resulting performance of each is assessed qualitatively as well as quantitatively from the perspective of material in terms of the change in representative unit cell (RVE) across the curved beam contour, in crimp percentage, tow angle, resin rich areas and binder distortion. A novel textile is developed from the resulting analysis to overcome the observed deformations.

Keywords: comformability, compression, binder architecture, 3D weaving, textile preform

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3414 Significant Stressed Zone of Highway Embankment

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed, P. Eng


The Axle Pressure and the Consolidation Pressure decrease with the height of the highway embankment and the depth of subsoil. This reduction of pressure depends on the height and width of the embankment. The depth is defined as the significantly stressed zone at which the pressure is reduced to 0.2 or 20%. The axle pressure is reduced to 7% for embankment height 1-3m and to 0.7% for embankment height 4-12m at the bottom level of Highway Embankment. This observation implies that, the portion of axle pressure transferred to subsoil underlying the embankment is not significant for ESAL factor 4.8. The 70% consolidation to have occurred after the construction of the surface layer of pavement. Considering this ratio of post construction settlement, 70% consolidation pressure (Δσ70) is used in this analysis. The magnitude of influence depth or Significant Stressed Zone (Ds) had been obtained for the range of crest width (at the top level of the embankment) is kept between 5m and 50m and for the range of embankment height from 1.0m to 12.0m considering 70% of consolidation pressure (Δσ70). Significantly stressed zones (Ds) for 70% embankment pressure are found as 2-6.2He for embankment top width 5-50m.

Keywords: consolidation pressure, consolidation settlement, ESAL, highway embankment, HS 20-44, significant stressed zone, stress distribution

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3413 A CFD Analysis of Flow through a High-Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline with an Undeformed and Deformed Orifice Plate

Authors: R. Kiš, M. Malcho, M. Janovcová


This work aims to present a numerical analysis of the natural gas which flows through a high-pressure pipeline and an orifice plate, through the use of CFD methods. The paper contains CFD calculations for the flow of natural gas in a pipe with different geometry used for the orifice plates. One of them has a standard geometry and a shape without any deformation and the other is deformed by the action of the pressure differential. It shows the behaviour of natural gas in a pipeline using the velocity profiles and pressure fields of the gas in both models with their differences. The entire research is based on the elimination of any inaccuracy which should appear in the flow of the natural gas measured in the high-pressure pipelines of the gas industry and which is currently not given in the relevant standard.

Keywords: orifice plate, high-pressure pipeline, natural gas, CFD analysis

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3412 On the Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Internal Pressure in Air Bearings

Authors: Abdurrahim Dal, Tuncay Karaçay


Dynamics of a rotor supported by air bearings is strongly depends on the pressure distribution between the rotor and the bearing. In this study, internal pressure in air bearings is numerical and experimental analyzed for different radial clearances. Firstly the pressure distribution between rotor and bearing is modeled using Reynold's equation and this model is solved numerically. The rotor-bearing system is also modeled in four degree of freedom and it is simulated for different radial clearances. Then, in order to validate numerical results, a test rig is designed and the rotor bearing system is run under the same operational conditions. Pressure signals of left and right bearings are recorded. Internal pressure variations are compared for numerical and experimental results for different radial clearances.

Keywords: air bearing, internal pressure, Reynold’s equation, rotor

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3411 Pressure Regulator Optimization in LPG Fuel Injection Systems

Authors: M. Akif Ceviz, Alirıza Kaleli, Erdoğan Güner


LPG pressure regulator is a device which is used to change the phase of LPG from liquid to gas by decreasing the pressure. During the phase change, it is necessary to supply the latent heat of LPG to prevent excessive low temperature. Engine coolant is circulated in the pressure regulator for this purpose. Therefore, pressure regulator is a type of heat exchanger that should be designed for different engine operating conditions. The design of the regulator should ensure that the flow of LPG is in gaseous phase to the injectors during the engine steady state and transient operating conditions. The pressure regulators in the LPG gaseous injection systems currently used can easily change the phase of LPG, however, there is no any control on the LPG temperature in conventional LPG injection systems. It is possible to increase temperature excessively. In this study, a control unit has been tested to keep the LPG temperature in a band. Result of the study showed that the engine performance characteristics can be increased by using the system.

Keywords: temperature, pressure regulator, LPG, PID

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3410 The Mainspring of Controlling of Low Pressure Steam Drum at Lower Pressure than Its Design for Adjusting the Urea Synthesis Pressure

Authors: Reza Behtash, Enayat Enayati


The pool condenser is in principal a horizontal reactor, containing a bundle of U-tubes for heat exchange, coupling to low pressure steam drum. Condensation of gas takes place in a condensed pool around the tubes of the condenser. The heat of condensation is removed by the generation of low pressure steam on the inner tube side of the bundle. A circulation pump transfers ample boiler feed water to these tubes. The pressure of the steam generated influenced the heat flux. Changing the steam pressure means changing the steam condensate temperature and therefore the temperature difference between the tube side and the shell side. 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2COONH4 + Heat. This reaction is exothermic and according to Le Chatelier's Principle if the heat is not removed enough, it will come back to left side and generate of the gas and so the Urea synthesis pressure will rise. The most principal reasons for high Urea synthesis pressure are non proportional of Ammonia/Dioxide Carbon ratio and too high a pressure in low pressure steam drum. Proportional of Ammonia/Dioxide Carbon ratio is 3.0 and normal pressure for low pressure steam drum is 4.5 bar. As regards these conditions were proportional but we could not control the synthesis pressure the plant endangered, therefore we had to control the steam drum pressure at about 3.5 bar. While we opened the pool condenser, we found the partition plate used to divide inlet and outlet boiler feed water to tubes, was broken partially and so amount of boiler feed water bypass the tubes and the heat was not removed totally and it resulted in the generation of gases and high pressure in synthesis.

Keywords: boiler, pressure, pool condenser, partition plate

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3409 Delineating Floodplain along the Nasia River in Northern Ghana Using HAND Contour

Authors: Benjamin K. Ghansah, Richard K. Appoh, Iliya Nababa, Eric K. Forkuo


The Nasia River is an important source of water for domestic and agricultural purposes to the inhabitants of its catchment. Major farming activities takes place within the floodplain of the river and its network of tributaries. The actual inundation extent of the river system is; however, unknown. Reasons for this lack of information include financial constraints and inadequate human resources as flood modelling is becoming increasingly complex by the day. Knowledge of the inundation extent will help in the assessment of risk posed by the annual flooding of the river, and help in the planning of flood recession agricultural activities. This study used a simple terrain based algorithm, Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND), to delineate the floodplain of the Nasia River and its tributaries. The HAND model is a drainage normalized digital elevation model, which has its height reference based on the local drainage systems rather than the average mean sea level (AMSL). The underlying principle guiding the development of the HAND model is that hillslope flow paths behave differently when the reference gradient is to the local drainage network as compared to the seaward gradient. The new terrain model of the catchment was created using the NASA’s SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 30m as the only data input. Contours (HAND Contour) were then generated from the normalized DEM. Based on field flood inundation survey, historical information of flooding of the area as well as satellite images, a HAND Contour of 2m was found to best correlates with the flood inundation extent of the river and its tributaries. A percentage accuracy of 75% was obtained when the surface area created by the 2m contour was compared with surface area of the floodplain computed from a satellite image captured during the peak flooding season in September 2016. It was estimated that the flooding of the Nasia River and its tributaries created a floodplain area of 1011 km².

Keywords: digital elevation model, floodplain, HAND contour, inundation extent, Nasia River

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3408 Negative Pressure Waves in Hydraulic Systems

Authors: Fuad H. Veliev


Negative pressure phenomenon appears in many thermodynamic, geophysical and biophysical processes in the Nature and technological systems. For more than 100 years of the laboratory researches beginning from F. M. Donny’s tests, the great values of negative pressure have been achieved. But this phenomenon has not been practically applied, being only a nice lab toy due to the special demands for the purity and homogeneity of the liquids for its appearance. The possibility of creation of direct wave of negative pressure in real heterogeneous liquid systems was confirmed experimentally under the certain kinetic and hydraulic conditions. The negative pressure can be considered as the factor of both useful and destroying energies. The new approach to generation of the negative pressure waves in impure, unclean fluids has allowed the creation of principally new energy saving technologies and installations to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of different production processes. It was proved that the negative pressure is one of the main factors causing hard troubles in some technological and natural processes. Received results emphasize the necessity to take into account the role of the negative pressure as an energy factor in evaluation of many transient thermohydrodynamic processes in the Nature and production systems.

Keywords: liquid systems, negative pressure, temperature, wave, metastable state

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