Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2283

Search results for: strategic decisions

2283 Strategic Decision Making Practice in Croatia: Which Decision Making Style is More Effective?

Authors: Ivana Bulog

Abstract:

Decision making is a vital part of the business world and any other field of human endeavor. Which way a business organization will take, and where that way will lead it, depends on broad range of decisions made by managers in the managerial structure. Strategic decisions are of the greatest importance for organizational success. Although much empirical research has been done trying to describe and explain its nature and effectiveness, knowledge about strategic decision making is still incomplete. This paper explores the nature of strategic decision making in particular setting - in Croatian companies. The main focus of this research is on the style that decision makers on strategic management level are following when making decisions of life importance for their companies. Two main decision making style that explain the way decision maker collects and processes available information and performs all the activities in strategic decision making process were empirical tested: rational and intuitive one. Besides analyzing their existence on strategic management level in Croatian companies, their effectiveness is analyzed as well. Results showed that decision makers at strategic management level are following both styles somewhat equally in order to function effectively, and that intuitive style is more effective when considering decisions outcomes.

Keywords: decision making style, decision making effectiveness, strategic decisions, management sciences

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2282 Investigating the Impact of Individual Risk Willingness and Group-Interaction Effects on Business Model Innovation Decisions. A Mixed-Method Approach

Authors: Sarah Müller-Sägebrecht

Abstract:

Today’s volatile environment challenges executives to make the right strategic decisions togainsustainable success. Entrepreneurship scholars postulate mainly positive effects of environmental changes on entrepreneurship behavior, such as developing new business opportunities, promoting ingenuity, and the satisfaction of resource voids. A strategic solution approach to overcome threatening environmental changes and catch new business opportunities is business model innovation (BMI). Although this research stream has gained further importance in the last decade, BMI research is still insufficient. Especially BMI barriers, such as inefficientstrategic decision-making processes, need to be identified. Strategic decisions strongly impact organizational future and are therefore usually made in groups. Although groups draw on a more extensive information base than single individuals, group-interaction effects can influence the decision-making process - in a favorable but also unfavorable way. Decisions are characterized by uncertainty and risk, whereby their intensity is perceived individuallydifferently. The individual risk willingness influences which option humans choose. The special nature of strategic decisions, such as in BMI processes, is that these decisions are not made individually but in groups due to their high organizational scope. These groups consist of different personalities whose individual risk willingness can vary considerably. It is known from group decision theory that these individuals influence each other, observable in different group-interaction effects. The following research questions arise i) Which impact has the individual risk-willingness on BMI decisions?And ii) how do group-interaction effects impact BMI decisions? Afterconducting 26 in-depth interviews with executives from the manufacturing industry, the mixed-method approachreveals the following results: i) Risk-averse decision-makers have an increased need to be guided by facts.The more information available to them, the lower they perceive uncertainty and the more willing they are to pursue a specific decision option. However, the resultsalso show that social interaction does not changethe individual risk willingness in the decision-making process. ii) Generally, it could be observed that duringBMI decisions, group interaction is primarily beneficial to increase the group’s informationbase for making good decisions, less than for social interaction. Further, decision-makers mainly focus on information available to all decision-makers in the team but less on personal knowledge. This work contributes to strategic decision-making literature twofold. First, it gives insights into how group-interaction effects influence an organization’s strategic BMI decision-making. Second, it enriches risk-management research by highlighting how individual risk-willingness impacts organizational strategic decision-making. To date, it was known in BMI research that risk aversion would be an internal BMI barrier. However, with this study, it becomes clear that it is not risk aversion that inhibits BMI. Instead, the lack of information prevents risk-averse decision-makers from choosing a riskier option.Simultaneously, results show that risk-averse decision-makers are not easily carried away by the higher risk willingness of their team members. Instead, they use social interaction to gather missing information. Therefore, executives need to provide sufficient information to all decision-makers to catch promisingbusiness opportunities.

Keywords: business model innovation, group biases, group decisions, group-interaction effects, mixed-method approach, risk willingness

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2281 The Roles, Strategic Coordination, and Alignment of CTOs: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Shailendra Natraj, Kristin Paetzold, B. R. Katzy

Abstract:

The significant role of technology in strategic business decisions has created the need for executives who understand technology and recognize profitable applications to products, services and processes. The role of CTO’s is very complex within technology-based firms, which stretches from the technology aspects to the strategic goal and vision of the firm. Often the roles of CTOs scales from as functional leaders, strategic leaders or supera- functional leaders. In most of the companies the roles are unclear and fuzzy. We in our research are trying to explore each of the orientation and link between leadership types (functional, strategic and super functional) of CTOs, responsibilities, credibility and strategic and conceptual responsibilities. Approach: We conducted a comprehensive literature review with the available databank sources. Results: From the conducted literature review we could identify that most of the research work conducted so far were mainly distributed between roles and responsibilities of CTOs. The available sources pointed were limited to roles of CTOs as functional leaders. Contribution: In our findings based on the literature review, we could identify that apart from the conducted research what so far has not been focused yet are (a) The leadership types (mainly) strategic and super-functional leaders) of CTOs, (b) the responsibilities and credibility of CTOs and (c) the strategic and conceptual responsibilities of CTOs.

Keywords: CTO, chief technology officer, strategy, technology leaders

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2280 Using Analytic Hierarchy Process as a Decision-Making Tool in Project Portfolio Management

Authors: Darius Danesh, Michael J. Ryan, Alireza Abbasi

Abstract:

Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is an essential component of an organisation’s strategic procedures, which requires attention of several factors to envisage a range of long-term outcomes to support strategic project portfolio decisions. To evaluate overall efficiency at the portfolio level, it is essential to identify the functionality of specific projects as well as to aggregate those findings in a mathematically meaningful manner that indicates the strategic significance of the associated projects at a number of levels of abstraction. PPM success is directly associated with the quality of decisions made and poor judgment increases portfolio costs. Hence, various Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques have been designed and employed to support the decision-making functions. This paper reviews possible option to improve the decision-making outcomes in the organisational portfolio management processes using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) both from academic and practical perspectives and will examine the usability, certainty and quality of the technique. The results of the study will also provide insight into the technical risk associated with current decision-making model to underpin initiative tracking and strategic portfolio management.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, decision support systems, multi-criteria decision making, project portfolio management

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2279 Economic Assessment Methodology to Support Decisions for Transport Infrastructure Development

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou

Abstract:

The decades after the end of the second War provide evidence that infrastructures investments contibute to economic development, on terms of productivity and income growth. In order to force productivity and increase competitiveness the financing of large transport infrastructure projects are on the top of the agenda in strategic planning process. Such a decision may take form some days to some decades and stakeholders as well as decision makers need tools in order to estimate the economic impact on natioanl economy of such an investment. The key question in such decisions is if the effects caused by the new infrastructure could be able to boost economic development on one hand, and create new jobs and activities on the other. This paper deals with the review of estimation of the mega transport infrastructure projects economic effects in economy.

Keywords: economic impact, transport infrastructure, strategic planning, decision making

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2278 Impact of Strategic Leadership on Corporate Performance

Authors: Adesina Nathaniel Olanrewaju

Abstract:

The motivation behind this study is the need to see strategic leadership as one of the key driving forces for improving corporate performance. Strategic leadership is seen as a potent source of management development and sustained competitive advantage for both employee and organizational performance. There is currently a charge on leaders as a major cause of organizational failure. Stakeholders give what they can afford, not necessarily what the organization needs and impose operational and financial decisions on the leaders, 200 respondents were fit for the analysis from the six geo-political regions in Nigeria. The selection was done equally among various parastatals through random sampling technique from the south-south, south-east, south-west, north-east, north-west and north-central. A descriptive research of the survey was employed. The data were subjected to t-test analysis and correlation and regression were used for the analysis. The findings revealed that there is a strong relationship and impact between a strategic leader and corporate performance. Recommendations were made based on the findings that strategic leaders should be given the blueprint, company’s policy and the stakeholders’ expectation within a time frame the work is to be carried out.

Keywords: time, strategic, organization, stakeholder, leader, performance

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2277 Talent Management through Integration of Talent Value Chain and Human Capital Analytics Approaches

Authors: Wuttigrai Ngamsirijit

Abstract:

Talent management in today’s modern organizations has become data-driven due to a demand for objective human resource decision making and development of analytics technologies. HR managers have been faced with some obstacles in exploiting data and information to obtain their effective talent management decisions. These include process-based data and records; insufficient human capital-related measures and metrics; lack of capabilities in data modeling in strategic manners; and, time consuming to add up numbers and make decisions. This paper proposes a framework of talent management through integration of talent value chain and human capital analytics approaches. It encompasses key data, measures, and metrics regarding strategic talent management decisions along the organizational and talent value chain. Moreover, specific predictive and prescriptive models incorporating these data and information are recommended to help managers in understanding the state of talent, gaps in managing talent and the organization, and the ways to develop optimized talent strategies.    

Keywords: decision making, human capital analytics, talent management, talent value chain

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2276 Simultaneous Relationship among Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance: Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Ayu Diar Sari, Sidharta Utama

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to examine the empirical association among strategic corporate social responsibility (Strategic CSR), corporate governance (CG), and firm performance by investigating their causal effects. In order to get the comprehensive result, this study uses CSR variables which consist of Strategic CSR, Non-Strategic CSR and CSR as a whole. Exerting the two stage least square (2SLS) method, the result showed that CG mechanism positively influences CSR, Non-Strategic CSR, and firm performance (both ROA and PBV). CSR and Non-Strategic CSR positively influence ROA. Meanwhile CSR, Strategic and Non-Strategic CSR positively influence PBV. Firm’s Strategic CSR engagement plays a significantly positive role in enhancing PBV. The results supported the social impact hypothesis, agency theory, and conflict resolution theory.

Keywords: corporate financial performance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, strategic corporate social responsibility

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2275 Option Pricing Theory Applied to the Service Sector

Authors: Luke Miller

Abstract:

This paper develops an options pricing methodology to value strategic pricing strategies in the services sector. More specifically, this study provides a unifying taxonomy of current service sector pricing practices, frames these pricing decisions as strategic real options, demonstrates accepted option valuation techniques to assess service sector pricing decisions, and suggests future research areas where pricing decisions and real options overlap. Enhancing revenue in the service sector requires proactive decision making in a world of uncertainty. In an effort to strategically price service products, revenue enhancement necessitates a careful study of the service costs, customer base, competition, legalities, and shared economies with the market. Pricing decisions involve the quality of inputs, manpower, and best practices to maintain superior service. These decisions further hinge on identifying relevant pricing strategies and understanding how these strategies impact a firm’s value. A relatively new area of research applies option pricing theory to investments in real assets and is commonly known as real options. The real options approach is based on the premise that many corporate decisions to invest or divest in assets are simply an option wherein the firm has the right to make an investment without any obligation to act. The decision maker, therefore, has more flexibility and the value of this operating flexibility should be taken into consideration. The real options framework has already been applied to numerous areas including manufacturing, inventory, natural resources, research and development, strategic decisions, technology, and stock valuation. Additionally, numerous surveys have identified a growing need for the real options decision framework within all areas of corporate decision-making. Despite the wide applicability of real options, no study has been carried out linking service sector pricing decisions and real options. This is surprising given the service sector comprises 80% of the US employment and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Identifying real options as a practical tool to value different service sector pricing strategies is believed to have a significant impact on firm decisions. This paper identifies and discusses four distinct pricing strategies available to the service sector from an options’ perspective: (1) Cost-based profit margin, (2) Increased customer base, (3) Platform pricing, and (4) Buffet pricing. Within each strategy lie several pricing tactics available to the service firm. These tactics can be viewed as options the decision maker has to best manage a strategic position in the market. To demonstrate the effectiveness of including flexibility in the pricing decision, a series of pricing strategies were developed and valued using a real options binomial lattice structure. The options pricing approach discussed in this study allows service firms to directly incorporate market-driven perspectives into the decision process and thus synchronizing service operations with organizational economic goals.

Keywords: option pricing theory, real options, service sector, valuation

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2274 Relationship between Strategic Management and Organizational Culture in Sport Organization (Case Study: Selected Sport Federations of Islamic Republic of Iran)

Authors: Mohammad Ali Ghareh, Habib Honari, Alireza Ahmadi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between strategic management and organizational culture in sport federations of Islamic Republic of Iran. Strategic management is a set of decisions and actions which define the long term performance of an organization. Organizational culture can be considered as an identity for every organization and somehow gives an identification to organization members. Organizational culture result in a certain commitments in organization members which is more valuable than individual profits and interests. The method of research was descriptive and correlational, conducted as a field study. The statistical population consisted of the employees of 10 sports federations and 170 persons were selected as sample. For data gathering, Barringer and Bluedorn’s strategic management questionnaire (1999) and Sakyn’s organizational culture questionnaire (2001) were used. The reliability of the questionnaires were 0.82 and 0.80 respectively, and the validity was approved by 8 experienced professors in sport management. To analyze data, KS (Kolmogorov–Smirnov) test and Pearson's coefficient were used. The results have shown that there is a significant meaningful relationship between strategic management and organizational culture (p < 0.05, r= 0.62). Beside this, there is a positive relationship between strategic management variables including scanning intensity, planning flexibility, locus of planning, planning horizon, strategic controls, and organizational culture (p < 0.05). Based on this research result it can be derived that strategic management planning and operation in terms of appropriate organizational culture is more applicable. By agreeing on their values and beliefs, adaptation to changes, caring about the individualities, coordination in tasks, modifying the individual and organizational goals, the federations will be able to achieve their strategic goals.

Keywords: strategic management, organizational culture, sports federations, Islamic Republic of Iran

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2273 Strategic Planning in South African Higher Education

Authors: Noxolo Mafu

Abstract:

This study presents an overview of strategic planning in South African higher education institutions by tracing its trends and mystique in order to identify its impact. Over the democratic decades, strategic planning has become integral to institutional survival. It has been used as a potent tool by several institutions to catch up and surpass counterparts. While planning has always been part of higher education, strategic planning should be considered different. Strategic planning is primarily about development and maintenance of a strategic fitting between an institution and its dynamic opportunities. This presupposes existence of sets of stages that institutions pursue of which, can be regarded for assessment of the impact of strategic planning in an institution. The network theory serves guides the study in demystifying apparent organisational networks in strategic planning processes.

Keywords: network theory, strategy, planning, strategic planning, assessment, impact

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2272 Offering a Model for Selecting the Most Suitable Type of Thinking for Managers

Authors: H. Emari, Z. Emari

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to design an applied framework for strategic thinking which can be applied in all managerial levels and all types of organizational environments. No special applied frame has been presented for this thinking. This paper presents a theoretical framework for the thinking type of a manager by making a historical research and studying the scientific documents about thinking of a strategist. In the new theoretical framework it has been tried to suggest the best type of thinking for a strategist after analyzing the environment of his decisions. So, in this framework, the traditional viewpoint about strategic thinking, which has considered it as a special type of right-brain thinking against other types of right-brain thinking and suggested it for a strategist, was put aside and suggests that the strategist should use a suitable type of thinking under different conditions.

Keywords: strategic thinking, systemic thinking, lateral thinking, intuitive thinking, hybrid thinking

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2271 Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process Model to Weight and Prioritize Challenges and Barriers to Strategic Approach

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mohebi, Nima Kazempour, Mohammad Naeim Kazempour

Abstract:

Strategic thinking enables managers to find out what factors are effective in achieving the desired goals and how these factors create value for the customer. Strategic thinking can be interpreted as a form of mental and inner strength in the manager, who by utilizing it, while considering the conditions of the environment and unstable global environment changes, takes decisions, and plans actions, and designs the strategy of his organization in today's changing and unsustainable business environment. Strategic thinking is very important in today’s business world, because without this thinking, the organization's efforts to achieve developed strategies will not be effective. In this study, through a detailed study of the challenges and barriers to strategic thinking that is carried out by various scholars and experts theoretically and experimentally, 7 major factors were identified. Then, based on these main factors of challenges and related elements, a tool in the form of a questionnaire was developed in order to determine their importance and priority from the perspective of strategic management experts. Using statistical tests the reliability and validity of this instrument, including its structural validity, has been examined and approved using factor analysis. These factors are weighted and prioritized using AHP techniques and the opinions of scholars and experts. Prioritization of barriers to strategic thinking include: lack of participatory management, lack of a systematic approach, difficulty in aligning the organization members, lack of incentive organizational culture, behavioural and internal barriers of managers, lack of key managers and lack of access to timely and accurate information.

Keywords: strategic thinking, challenges and barriers to strategic thinking, EN bank, AHP method

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2270 Middle-Level Management Involvement in Strategy Process, and Organizational Performance

Authors: Mazyar Taghavi

Abstract:

This research examines middle-level managers’ involvement in strategy process in 15 manufacturing and service companies in Iran. We considered two dominant theoretical arguments for expecting a positive association. According to the first direction involvement improves organizational performance by improving the quality of strategic decisions. According to the second track, middle managers contribute to increased levels of performance through strategic consensus among them. Results indicate that involvement in the strategy is related to organizational performance. Involvement is associated with consensus (i.e. strategic understanding and commitment) among middle-level managers. However, findings indicate that consensus is not related to the organizational performance.

Keywords: middle-level management, strategy process, organizational performance, strategy consensus

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2269 The Moderation Effect of Critical Item on the Strategic Purchasing: Quality Performance Relationship

Authors: Kwong Yeung

Abstract:

Theories about strategic purchasing and quality performance are underdeveloped. Understanding the evolving role of purchasing from reactive to proactive is a pressing strategic issue. Using survey responses from 176 manufacturing and electronics industry professionals, we study the relationships between strategic purchasing and supply chain partners’ quality performance to answer the following questions: Can transaction cost economics be used to elucidate the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship? Is this strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship moderated by critical item analysis? The findings indicate that critical item analysis positively and significantly moderates the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship.

Keywords: critical item analysis, moderation, quality performance, strategic purchasing, transaction cost economics

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2268 Strategic Maintenance Management of Built Facilities in an Organisation

Authors: Anita D. Adamu, Winston M. W. Shakantu

Abstract:

Maintenance management is no longer a stand-alone activity. It has now assumed a strategic position in many organisations that have recognised its importance in achieving primary goals and a key aspect of effective management of facilities. This paper aims at providing an understanding of the role and function of strategic management in creating and sustaining an effective maintenance management system in an organisation. The background provides an articulated concept and principles of strategic management. The theoretical concepts paved way for a conceptual framework for which strategic management can be integrated into the maintenance management system of an organisation to improve effectiveness in the maintenance of facilities.

Keywords: facilities, maintenance management, organisations, strategic management

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2267 Holomorphic Prioritization of Sets within Decagram of Strategic Decision Making of POSM Using Operational Research (OR): Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Analysis

Authors: Elias Ogutu Azariah Tembe, Hussain Abdullah Habib Al-Salamin

Abstract:

There is decagram of strategic decisions of operations and production/service management (POSM) within operational research (OR) which must collate, namely: design, inventory, quality, location, process and capacity, layout, scheduling, maintain ace, and supply chain. This paper presents an architectural configuration conceptual framework of a decagram of sets decisions in a form of mathematical complete graph and abelian graph. Mathematically, a complete graph is undirected (UDG), and directed (DG) a relationship where every pair of vertices are connected, collated, confluent, and holomorphic. There has not been any study conducted which, however, prioritizes the holomorphic sets which of POMS within OR field of study. The study utilizes OR structured technique known as The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) analysis for organizing, sorting and prioritizing (ranking) the sets within the decagram of POMS according to their attribution (propensity), and provides an analysis how the prioritization has real-world application within the 21st century.

Keywords: holomorphic, decagram, decagon, confluent, complete graph, AHP analysis, SCM, HRM, OR, OM, abelian graph

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2266 Strategic Alliances of US Engineering and Construction Companies in China

Authors: Zonggui Chen, Yuhong Wang, Yun Le

Abstract:

U.S. engineering and construction companies have increased their presence in China. A strategy for them to enter and operate in China is to forge strategic alliances with local firms. Managing the differences in motives and cultures and using proper controls are essential for a productive strategic alliance. Based on literature and in-depth interviews, this paper examines the differences in motives and cultures within Sino–U.S. strategic alliances and the impacts of the differences on control mechanisms. This paper not only contributes to a better understanding of cross-border strategic alliances in construction, but also facilitates the operation of the alliances.

Keywords: strategic alliance, Chinese construction industry, motives, cultural differences

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2265 The Role of Strategic Flexibility for Achieving Sustainable Competition Advantage and Its Effect on Business Performance

Authors: Kemalettin Eryesil, Osman Esmen, Aykut Beduk

Abstract:

In this study, it has been studied to determine the relationship between business performance and strategic flexibility, which is defined to be the strategic choice that provides the ability of rapidly responding the changes of the dynamic environment of the companies, for having competitive advantages. In this context a field study has been conducted over 56 companies, which are active in informatics and electronics sectors in TEKNOKENT. As a result of the study it has been determined that; strategic flexibility has an effect on business performance and there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between strategic flexibility and business performance.

Keywords: sustainable competition advantage, strategic flexibility, firm performance, TEKNOKENT

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2264 Proposing a Strategic Management Maturity Model for Continues Innovation

Authors: Ferhat Demir

Abstract:

Even if strategic management is highly critical for all types of organizations, only a few maturity models have been proposed in business literature for the area of strategic management activities. This paper updates previous studies and presents a new conceptual model for assessing the maturity of strategic management in any organization. Strategic management maturity model (S-3M) is basically composed of 6 maturity levels with 7 dimensions. The biggest contribution of S-3M is to put innovation into agenda of strategic management. The main objective of this study is to propose a model to align innovation with business strategies. This paper suggests that innovation (breakthrough new products/services and business models) is the only way of creating sustainable growth and strategy studies cannot ignore this aspect. Maturity models should embrace innovation to respond dynamic business environment and rapidly changing customer behaviours.

Keywords: strategic management, innovation, business model, maturity model

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2263 Measuring Strategic Management Maturity: An Empirical Study in Turkish Public and Private Sector Organizations

Authors: F. Demir

Abstract:

Strategic Management is highly critical for all types of organizations. This paper examines maturity level of strategic management practices of public and private sector organizations in Turkey, and presents a conceptual model for assessing the maturity of strategic management in any organization. This research focuses on R&D intensive organizations (RDO) because it is claimed that such organizations are more innovative and innovation is a critical part of the model. The Strategic management maturity model (S-3M) is basically composed of six maturity levels with five different dimensions. Based on 63 organizations, the findings reveal that the average maturity of all organizations in the sample group is three out of five. It corresponds to the stage of ‘performed’. Results simply show that the majority of organizations from various industries and sectors implement strategic management activities; however, they experience multiple challenges to optimize strategic management processes and integrate organizational components with business strategies. Briefly, they struggle to become an innovative organization.

Keywords: strategic management maturity, innovation, developing countries, research and development

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2262 The Role of Management Information Systems in the Strategic Management of Institutions of Higher Education

Authors: Szilvia Vincze, Zoltán Bács

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It has become increasingly important for institutions of higher education as well to use available resources as effectively as possible for the implementation of the institution’s strategic plans and, at the same time, to ensure a stable future. This is the responsibility of the management and administration of the institution. Having access to complete and comprehensive information is indispensable for making dynamic and well-founded decisions that consider the realization of objectives to be primary and that manage possibly emerging risks, etc. The present paper introduces the role of Management Information Systems (MIS) at the University of Debrecen, one of the largest institutions of higher education in Hungary, and also discusses the utilization of this and associated information systems in management functions.

Keywords: management information system (MIS), higher education, Hungary, strategy formulation

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2261 Strategic Planning Practice in a Global Perspective:the Case of Guangzhou, China

Authors: Shuyi Xie

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As the vital city in south China since the ancient time, Guangzhou has been losing its leading role among the rising neighboring cities, especially, Hong Kong and Shenzhen, since the late 1980s, with the overloaded infrastructure and deteriorating urban environment in its old inner city. Fortunately, with the new expansion of its administrative area in 2000, the local municipality considered it as a great opportunity to solve a series of alarming urban problems. Thus, for the first time, strategic planning was introduced to China for providing more convincing and scientific basis towards better urban future. Differed from traditional Chinese planning practices, which rigidly and dogmatically focused on future blueprints, the strategic planning of Guangzhou proceeded from analyzing practical challenges and opportunities towards establishing reasonable developing objectives and proposing corresponding strategies. Moreover, it was pioneering that the municipality invited five planning institutions for proposals, among which, the paper focuses on the one proposed by China Academy of Urban Planning & Design from its theoretical basis to problems’ defining and analyzing the process, as well as planning results. Since it was closer to the following municipal decisions and had a more far-reaching influence for other Chinese cities' following practices. In particular, it demonstrated an innovative exploration on the role played by urban developing rate on deciding urban growth patterns (‘Spillover-reverberation’ or ‘Leapfrog’). That ultimately established an unprecedented paradigm on deciding an appropriate urban spatial structure in future, including its specific location, function and scale. Besides the proposal itself, this article highlights the role of interactions, among actors, as well as proposals, subsequent discussions, summaries and municipal decisions, especially the establishment of the rolling dynamic evaluation system for periodical reviews on implementation situations, as the first attempt in China. Undoubtedly, strategic planning of Guangzhou has brought out considerable benefits, especially opening the strategic mind for plentiful Chinese cities in the following years through establishing a flexible and dynamic planning mechanism highlighted the interactions among multiple actors with innovative and effective tools, methodologies and perspectives on regional, objective-approach and comparative analysis. However, compared with some developed countries, the strategic planning in China just started and has been greatly relied on empirical studies rather than scientific analysis. Moreover, it still faced a bit of controversy, for instance, the certain gap among institutional proposals, final municipal decisions and implemented results, due to the lacking legal constraint. Also, how to improve the public involvement in China with an absolute up-down administrative system is another urgent task. In future, despite of irresistible and irretrievable weakness, some experiences and lessons from previous international practices, with the combination of specific Chinese situations and domestic practices, would enable to promote the further advance on strategic planning in China.

Keywords: evaluation system, global perspective, Guangzhou, interactions, strategic planning, urban growth patterns

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2260 Internationalization Using Strategic Alliances: A Comparative Study between Family and Non-Family Businesses

Authors: Guadalupe Fuentes-Lombardo, Manuel Carlos Vallejo-Martos, Rubén Fernández-Ortiz, Miriam Cano-Rubio

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The different ways in which companies enter foreign markets, exporting their products and direct investment and using strategic alliances or not, are influenced by a series of peculiarities specific to family businesses. In these companies, different systems, such as the family, property, and business overlap; giving them unique and specific characteristics which on occasions can enhance the development of cooperation agreements and in other situations can hinder them. Previous research has shown that these companies are more likely to enter into strategic alliances with certain specific features, and are more reluctant to take part in others in which some of the advantages of the family business are put at risk, such as control of ownership and decision-making over the company by the family, among others. These arguments show that there is a wide range of interesting aspects and peculiarities in the process of internationalization of the family business, although the research objectives of this paper focus on three in particular. Our first objective will be to discover why family businesses decide to establish or not strategic alliances in their internationalization processes in comparison with other companies that are not family owned. Secondly we will be identifying the idiosyncratic aspects of family businesses that favor or hinder the use of strategic alliances as a means of entering foreign markets. Our third and final objective will be to define the types of strategic alliance most commonly used by family businesses and the reasons why they choose these particular forms of alliance rather than others. We chose these research objectives for three main reasons. Firstly because research on this subject shows that alliances are the best way to begin the international expansion process, among other reasons because they provide the partners with different kinds of resources and capacity, so increasing the probability of successful internationalization. Secondly, because family and non-family businesses are often equipped with different types of resources and strategic alliances, offer them the chance to acquire resources less frequently found in family businesses. Thirdly, because the strengths and weaknesses of these companies could affect their decisions whether or not to use strategic alliances in their international expansion process and the success achieved in these alliances. As a result, these companies prefer to enter into cooperation agreements with conditions that do not put their specific status as family companies at risk.

Keywords: family business, internationalization, strategic alliances, olive-oil and wine industry

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2259 Paradox of Business Strategic toward Sustainable Business: A Case Study of Hijab Fashion in Bandung

Authors: Lisandy Arinta Suryana, Santi Novani, Utomo Sarjono

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Paradox of business strategic is associated with the contradictory practice. It becomes one of the critical way to survive and win in the dynamic competitive landscape – high level of uncertainty and rapid change in the business environment. Those characteristics are similar with the environment of hijab fashion business, especially in Indonesia. This paper aims to describe the success of paradoxical strategic based on historical data of hijab fashion business which have been validated by qualitative approach. This paper discusses two main aspects of paradoxical strategic such as paradox in human resource management, and logistic center management. Then, the detail effects from each practice are described in term of causal loop diagram. Moreover, the practice of paradoxical strategic depends on leadership that can make a brave and dynamic decision by capturing the main problems and opportunities in their business, and also build commitment to achieve a specific goal.

Keywords: paradox of business strategic, paradoxical strategic, causal loop diagram, sustainable business, hijab fashion business, business strategic

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2258 On the Differentiation of Strategic Spatial Planning Making Mechanisms in New Era: between Melbourne and Tianjin

Authors: Z. Liu, K. Cao

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Strategic spatial planning, which is taken as an effective and competitive way for the governors of the city to improve the development and management level of a city, has been blooming in recent years all over the world. In the context of globalization and informatization, strategic spatial planning must transfer its focus on three different levels: global, regional and urban. Internal and external changes in environmental conditions lead to new advances in strategic planning both theoretically and practically. However, such advances or changes respond differently to cities on account of different dynamic mechanisms. This article aims at two cities of Tianjin in China and Melbourne in Australia, through a comparative study on strategic planning, to explore the differentiation of mechanisms in urban planning making. By comparison and exploration, the purpose of this article is to exhibit two different planning worlds between western and Chinese in a new way nowadays.

Keywords: differentiation, Tianjin China, Melbourne Australia, strategic planning

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2257 Corporate Profitability through Effective Supply Chain Performance

Authors: Tareq N. Issa

Abstract:

The main pressuring challenges of global competition and high returns have forced businesses to shift their strategic competitive advantage from physical distribution management to integrated logistics management, finally moving into supply chain management. Conventionally, corporate profitability is a function of cost, capital employed, revenue and customer service. This article gives an insight into the effect of supply chain management on each of the above variables. It investigates the impact of the changing levels/ effects of these variables on corporate profitability and the means of measuring supply chain financial effectiveness. Information technology tools form the basis for supply chain optimal performance through alignment of supply chain systems in this ever increasing complexity in business decisions.

Keywords: corporate profitability, sypply chain systems, business decisions, competitive advanage

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2256 Geopolitical Architecture: The Strategic Complex in Indo Pacific Region

Authors: Muzammil Dar

Abstract:

The confluence of trans-national interests and divergent approaches followed by multiple actors has surrounded the Indo-Pacific region with myriad of strategic complexes- Geo-Political, Geo-economic, and security. This paper has thus made a humble attempt to understand the Indo-Pacific strategic predicament from Asia-Pacific perspective. The portmanteau of Indo-Pacific strategic gamble has multiple actors from global powers to regional actors. On the indo-pacific waters, not only flow trade relations, but the tides of conflicts and controversies are striking these actors against each other. The alliance formation and infrastructure building has built-in threat perceptions from rivals vice-versa. The assertiveness of China as a reality and India’s ideological doctrine of peace and friendship, as well as American rebalancing against China, could be seen as clear and bright on the Indo-Pacific strategic portmanteau. ASEAN and Japan, too, have oscillating posturing in the strategic dilemma. The aim and objective of the paper are to sketch out the prospectus and prejudices of Indo-pacific strategic complex.

Keywords: Indo Pacific, Asia Pacific, security and growth for all in the region, SAGAR, ASEAN China

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2255 Exploring the Implementation of Strategic Management Process in Egyptian Five-Star Hotels: Resorts versus Downtown Hotels

Authors: Jailan Mohamed El Demerdash

Abstract:

In consideration of the challenges and the fierce global competition that have emerged in today’s hotel industry, it was important to shed light on the subject of strategic management. In addition, five-star hotels play a crucial role in supporting the tourism industry and investment in Egypt. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the scope of implementing strategic management practices in five-star hotels in Egypt and examining the differences between resorts and downtown hotels regarding the implementation of a strategic management process. The impact of the difference in hotel types on the implementation of the strategic management process will be examined. Simple random sampling technique will be employed to select the sample from the target population, including hotels from Sharm El- Sheikh, Cairo, and Hurghada cities. The data collection instrument employed in the current study is an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Eventually, combining the results of the study with the literature review helped to present a number of recommendations that have to be directed to hotel managers in the area of strategic management practices.

Keywords: strategic management, strategic tools, five-star hotels, resorts, downtown hotels, Egypt

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2254 End to End Supply Chain Visibility – A Dynamic Capability View

Authors: Mohammad Reza Nafar

Abstract:

In order to get a better understanding of supply chain visibility for creating strategic value, this paper uses a dynamic capability lens to reveal the nature of supply chain visibility. This paper identifies the importance of supply chain visibility in driving supply chain reconfigurability and consequently improving supply chain strategic performance. Empirical evidence shows that visibility has a direct impact on supply chain strategic performance. It also supports that visibility is important for enhancing supply chain reconfigurability, thus creating strategic value in supply chains. Supply chain visibility, therefore, enables firms to reconfigure their supply chain resources for a better competitive advantage. From the perspective of practitioners, the results display several insights into how managers should create strategic value from supply chain visibility. Prominently, managers or decision-makers need to take advantage of supply chain visibility in order to use and recombine resources in a value creation manner.

Keywords: supply chain visibility, strategic performance, competitive advantage, resource mobilization, information system

Procedia PDF Downloads 122