Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1107

Search results for: Tianjin China

1107 Analysis of the CO2 Emissions of Public Passenger Transport in Tianjin City of China

Authors: Tao Zhao, Xianshuo Xu

Abstract:

Low-carbon public passenger transport is an important part of low carbon city. The CO2 emissions of public passenger transport in Tianjin from 1995 to 2010 are estimated with IPCC CO2 counting method, which shows that the total CO2 emissions of Tianjin public passenger transport have gradually become stable at 1,425.1 thousand tons. And then the CO2 emissions of the buses, taxies, and rail transits are calculated respectively. A CO2 emission of 829.9 thousand tons makes taxies become the largest CO2 emissions source among the public passenger transport in Tianjin. Combining with passenger volume, this paper analyzes the CO2 emissions proportion of the buses, taxies, and rail transits compare the passenger transport rate with the proportion of CO2 emissions, as well as the CO2 emissions change of per 10,000 people. The passenger volume proportion of bus among the three public means of transport is 72.62% which is much higher than its CO2 emissions proportion of 36.01%, with the minimum number of CO2 emissions per 10,000 people of 4.90 tons. The countermeasures to reduce CO2 emissions of public passenger transport in Tianjin are to develop rail transit, update vehicles and use alternative fuel vehicles.

Keywords: public passenger transport, carbon emissions, countermeasures, China

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1106 On the Differentiation of Strategic Spatial Planning Making Mechanisms in New Era: between Melbourne and Tianjin

Authors: Z. Liu, K. Cao

Abstract:

Strategic spatial planning, which is taken as an effective and competitive way for the governors of the city to improve the development and management level of a city, has been blooming in recent years all over the world. In the context of globalization and informatization, strategic spatial planning must transfer its focus on three different levels: global, regional and urban. Internal and external changes in environmental conditions lead to new advances in strategic planning both theoretically and practically. However, such advances or changes respond differently to cities on account of different dynamic mechanisms. This article aims at two cities of Tianjin in China and Melbourne in Australia, through a comparative study on strategic planning, to explore the differentiation of mechanisms in urban planning making. By comparison and exploration, the purpose of this article is to exhibit two different planning worlds between western and Chinese in a new way nowadays.

Keywords: differentiation, Tianjin China, Melbourne Australia, strategic planning

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1105 Research on Innovation Service based on Science and Technology Resources in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei

Authors: Runlian Miao, Wei Xie, Hong Zhang

Abstract:

In China, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is regarded as a strategically important region because itenjoys highest development in economic development, opening up, innovative capacity and andpopulation. Integrated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is increasingly emphasized by the government recently years. In 2014, it has ascended to one of the national great development strategies by Chinese central government. In 2015, Coordinated Development Planning Compendium for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region was approved. Such decisions signify Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region would lead innovation-driven economic development in China. As an essential factor to achieve national innovation-driven development and significant part of regional industry chain, the optimization of science and technology resources allocation will exert great influence to regional economic transformation and upgrading and innovation-driven development. However, unbalanced distribution, poor sharing of resources and existence of information isolated islands have contributed to different interior innovation capability, vitality and efficiency, which impeded innovation and growth of the whole region. Under such a background, to integrate and vitalize regional science and technology resources and then establish high-end, fast-responding and precise innovation service system basing on regional resources, would be of great significance for integrated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and even handling of unbalanced and insufficient development problem in China. This research uses the method of literature review and field investigation and applies related theories prevailing home and abroad, centering service path of science and technology resources for innovation. Based on the status quo and problems of regional development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, theoretically, the author proposed to combine regional economics and new economic geography to explore solution to problem of low resource allocation efficiency. Further, the author puts forward to applying digital map into resource management and building a platform for information co-building and sharing. At last, the author presents the thought to establish a specific service mode of ‘science and technology plus digital map plus intelligence research plus platform service’ and suggestion on co-building and sharing mechanism of 3 (Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei ) plus 11 (important cities in Hebei Province).

Keywords: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, science and technology resources, innovation service, digital platform

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1104 On the Differentiation of Strategic Spatial Planning Mechanisms in New Era: Between Melbourne and Tianjin

Authors: Zhao Liu, Kang Cao

Abstract:

Strategic spatial planning, which is taken as an effective and competitive way for the governors of the city to improve the development and management level of a city, has been blooming in recent years all over the world. In the context of globalization and informatization, strategic spatial planning must transfer its focus on three different levels: global, regional and urban. Internal and external changes in environmental conditions lead to new advances in strategic planning both theoretically and practically. However, such advances or changes respond differently to cities on account of different dynamic mechanisms. This article aims at two cities of Tianjin in China and Melbourne in Australia, through a comparative study on strategic planning, to explore the differentiation of mechanisms in urban planning. By comparison and exploration, the purpose of this article is to exhibit two different planning worlds, western and Chinese, in a new way. The article can be divided into four parts. The first part outlines strategic planning transformations in the new era on three levels, generally analysing the internal and external environmental factors of today. The second part indicates the concepts of strategic planning theoretically, demonstrating briefly its development background and process in western and China, respectively. The third part takes Tianjin and Melbourne urban strategic spatial planning as examples to mainly carry on the contrast research from the aspects of strategic planning mode, competitive mechanism, contents, strategy implementation and management. It is expected to summarize the differences and similarities of the two plans, meanwhile, to explore the inherent factors or mechanisms probably spatial, material, political and etc., which affect cities in the course of urban planning. The final part is a summary of general mechanisms of planning from the perspective of strategic spatial planning.

Keywords: differentiation, strategic planning, Melbourne, Australia, Tianjin, China

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1103 Encouraging Collaboration and Innovation: The New Engineering Oriented Educational Reform in Urban Planning, Tianjin University, China

Authors: Tianjie Zhang, Bingqian Cheng, Peng Zeng

Abstract:

Engineering science and technology progress and innovation have become an important engine to promote social development. The reform exploration of "new engineering" in China has drawn extensive attention around the world, with its connotation as "to cultivate future diversified, innovative and outstanding engineering talents by taking ‘fostering character and civic virtue’ as the guide, responding to changes and shaping the future as the construction concept, and inheritance and innovation, crossover and fusion, coordination and sharing as the principal approach". In this context, Tianjin University, as a traditional Chinese university with advantages in engineering, further launched the CCII (Coherent-Collaborative-Interdisciplinary-Innovation) program, raising the cultivation idea of integrating new liberal arts education, multidisciplinary engineering education and personalized professional education. As urban planning practice in China has undergone the evolution of "physical planning -- comprehensive strategic planning -- resource management-oriented planning", planning education has also experienced the transmutation process of "building foundation -- urban scientific foundation -- multi-disciplinary integration". As a characteristic and advantageous discipline of Tianjin University, the major of Urban and Rural Planning, in accordance with the "CCII Program of Tianjin University", aims to build China's top and world-class major, and implements the following educational reform measures: 1. Adding corresponding English courses, such as advanced course on GIS Analysis, courses on comparative studies in international planning involving ecological resources and the sociology of the humanities, etc. 2. Holding "Academician Forum", inviting international academicians to give lectures or seminars to track international frontier scientific research issues. 3. Organizing "International Joint Workshop" to provide students with international exchange and design practice platform. 4. Setting up a business practice base, so that students can find problems from practice and solve them in an innovative way. Through these measures, the Urban and Rural Planning major of Tianjin University has formed a talent training system with multi-disciplinary cross integration and orienting to the future science and technology.

Keywords: China, higher education reform, innovation, new engineering education, rural and urban planning, Tianjin University

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1102 Study on Science and Technology Resources Coordinated Development and Innovation of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

Authors: Hong Zhang, Runlian Miao, Min Zhang

Abstract:

Coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is of great importance and has been emphasized by the government in recent years. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region accumulates a large part of S&T resources of the whole country and boasts the most influential achievements. In order to improve innovation capability of the region, universities, research institutions and enterprises from Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei have cooperated in many forms, but technological innovation is not so satisfactory due to unbalanced allocation, poor sharing and low utilization efficiency of S&T resources. Therefore, it’s very necessary to promote resources sharing, optimize their overall layout, and enhance their innovation performance, which can further deepen coordination development of the region. This study focuses on S&T resources with the methods of documents research plus field investigation and qualitative research combing plus quantitive research. It starts from the macro background of promoting coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and arrives at improving regional innovation capability. Firstly, the author makes a literature review on coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and summarizes that coordinated development has been carried forward in the major fields which lay foundation for regional innovation; secondly, analyzes current S&T resources distribution and coordinated innovation by taking key industries as the examples; based on analysis of the status quo of resources sharing and innovation in the region, the author points out problems and obstacles that holdbacks coordinated innovation of the region and at last raises some suggestions to resources sharing and regional innovation. It reaches the conclusion that an efficient management mechanism, market laws, favorable environment, model innovation and incentive measures can help to accelerate resources sharing and regional innovation in the region.

Keywords: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, coordinated development, innovation, S&T resources

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1101 New Stratigraphy Profile of Classic Nihewan Basin Beds, Hebei, Northern China

Authors: Arya Farjand

Abstract:

The Nihewan Basin is a critical region in order to understand the Plio-Pleistocene paleoenvironment and its fauna in Northern China. The rich fossiliferous, fluvial-lacustrine sediments around the Nihewan Village hosted the specimens known as the Classic Nihewan Fauna. The primary excavations in the early 1920-30s produced more than 2000 specimens housed in Tianjin and Paris Museum. Nevertheless, the exact locality of excavations, fossil beds, and the reliable ages remained ambiguous until recent paleomagnetic studies and extensive work in conjunction sites. In this study, for the first time, we successfully relocated some of the original excavation sites. We reexamined more than 1500 specimens held in Tianjin Museum and cited their locality numbers and properties. During the field-season of 2017-2019, we visited the Xiashagou Valley. By reading the descriptions of the original site, utilization of satellite pictures, and comparing them with the current geomorphology of the area, we ensured the exact location of 26 of these sites and 17 fossil layers. Furthermore, by applying the latest technologies, such as GPS, Compass, digital barometers, laser measurer, and Abney level, we ensured the accuracy of the measurement. We surveyed 133-meter thickness of the deposits. Ultimately by applying the available Paleomagnetic data for this section, we estimated the ages of different horizons. The combination of our new data and previously published researches present a unique age control for the Classic Nihewan Fauna. These findings prove the hypothesis in which the Classic Nihewan Fauna belongs to different horizons, ranging from before Reunion up to after Olduvai earth geomagnetic field excursion (2.2-1.7 Mya).

Keywords: classic Nihewan basin fauna, Olduvai excursion, Pleistocene, stratigraphy

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1100 The Strategies to Develop Post-Disaster Multi-Mode Transportation System from the Perspective of Traffic Resilience

Authors: Yuxiao Jiang, Lingjun Meng, Mengyu Zhan, Lichunyi Zhang, Yingxia Yun

Abstract:

On August 8th of 2015, a serious explosion occurred in Binhai New Area of Tianjin. This explosion led to the suspension of Tianjin-Binhai Light Rail Line 9 which was an important transportation mean connecting the old and new urban areas and the suspension causes inconvenience to commuters traveling from Tianjin to Binhai or Binhai to Tianjin and residents living by Line 9. On this regard, this paper intends to give suggestions on how to develop multi-mode transportation system rapidly and effectively after a disaster and tackle with the problems in terms of transportation infrastructure facilities. The paper proposes the idea of traffic resilience which refers to the city’s ability to restore its transportation system and reduce risks when the transportation system is destroyed by a disaster. By doing questionnaire research, on the spot study and collecting data from the internet, a GIS model is established so as to analyze the alternative traffic means used by different types of residents and study the transportation supply and demand. The result shows that along the Line 9, there is a larger demand for alternative traffic means in the place which is nearer to the downtown area. Also, the distribution of bus stations is more reasonable in the place nearer to downtown area, however, the traffic speed in the area is slower. Based on traffic resilience, the paper raises strategies to develop post-disaster multi-mode transportation system such as establishing traffic management mechanism timely and effectively, building multi-mode traffic networks, improving intelligent traffic systems and so on.

Keywords: traffic resilience, multi-mode transportation system, public traffic, transportation demand

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1099 Study on the Characteristics of Chinese Urban Network Space from the Perspective of Innovative Collaboration

Authors: Wei Wang, Yilun Xu

Abstract:

With the development of knowledge economy era, deepening the mechanism of cooperation and adhering to sharing and win-win cooperation has become new direction of urban development nowadays. In recent years, innovative collaborations between cities are becoming more and more frequent, whose influence on urban network space has aroused many scholars' attention. Taking 46 cities in China as the research object, the paper builds the connectivity of innovative network between cities and the linkages of urban external innovation using patent cooperation data among cities, and explores urban network space in China by the application of GIS, which is a beneficial exploration to the study of social network space in China in the era of information network. The result shows that the urban innovative network space and geographical entity space exist differences, and the linkages of external innovation are not entirely related to the city innovative capacity and the level of economy development. However, urban innovative network space and geographical entity space are similar in hierarchical clustering. They have both formed Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta three metropolitan areas and Beijing-Shenzhen-Shanghai-Hangzhou four core cities, which lead the development of innovative network space in China.

Keywords: innovative collaboration, urban network space, the connectivity of innovative network, the linkages of external innovation

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1098 Revitalization Strategy of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Rural Areas Organized by Production-Living-Ecology Spatial Network at Township Level

Authors: Liuhui Zhu, Peng Zeng

Abstract:

The rural revitalization strategy means to take the country and the city on the same level, and achieve urban-rural integration and comprehensive development of rural areas. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei rural areas have always been the weak links in the region, with prominently uneven development between urban and rural areas. The rural areas need to join the overall regional synergy. Based on the analysis of the characteristics and problems of rural development in the region from the perspective of production-living-ecology space, the paper proposes the township as the basic unit for rural revitalization according to the overall requirements of the rural revitalization strategy. The basic unit helps to realize resource arrangement, functional organization, and collaborative governance organized by the production-living-ecology spatial network. The paper summarizes the planning strategies for the basic unit. Through spatial cognition and spatial reconstruction, the three space is networked through the base, nodes, and connections to improve the comprehensive value of rural areas and achieve the multiple goals of rural revitalization.

Keywords: rural revitalization, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, township level, production-living-ecology spatial network

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1097 Juvenile Justice in China: A Historical Approach

Authors: Xianlu Zeng

Abstract:

China has undergone rapid economic growth over the last three decades. During this time, China-focused study has become one of the most popular areas of research. However, even though China has one of the oldest legal traditions in the world, there is limited research available regarding the development and operation of China’s juvenile justice system. This article will provide general information about China’s juvenile justice tradition along with a review of its reformation in 2013. A discussion is presented that provides some thoughts about how successful these reforms have been and where China may need to head.

Keywords: China, history, juvenile justice, legal traditions

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1096 Multi-Level Air Quality Classification in China Using Information Gain and Support Vector Machine

Authors: Bingchun Liu, Pei-Chann Chang, Natasha Huang, Dun Li

Abstract:

Machine Learning and Data Mining are the two important tools for extracting useful information and knowledge from large datasets. In machine learning, classification is a wildly used technique to predict qualitative variables and is generally preferred over regression from an operational point of view. Due to the enormous increase in air pollution in various countries especially China, Air Quality Classification has become one of the most important topics in air quality research and modelling. This study aims at introducing a hybrid classification model based on information theory and Support Vector Machine (SVM) using the air quality data of four cities in China namely Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai and Tianjin from Jan 1, 2014 to April 30, 2016. China's Ministry of Environmental Protection has classified the daily air quality into 6 levels namely Serious Pollution, Severe Pollution, Moderate Pollution, Light Pollution, Good and Excellent based on their respective Air Quality Index (AQI) values. Using the information theory, information gain (IG) is calculated and feature selection is done for both categorical features and continuous numeric features. Then SVM Machine Learning algorithm is implemented on the selected features with cross-validation. The final evaluation reveals that the IG and SVM hybrid model performs better than SVM (alone), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) models in terms of accuracy as well as complexity.

Keywords: machine learning, air quality classification, air quality index, information gain, support vector machine, cross-validation

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1095 Analysis of Underground Logistics Transportation Technology and Planning Research: Based on Xiong'an New Area, China

Authors: Xia Luo, Cheng Zeng

Abstract:

Under the promotion of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council in 2017, Xiong'an New Area is the third crucial new area in China established after Shenzhen and Shanghai. Its constructions' significance lies in mitigating Beijing's non-capital functions and exploring a new mode of optimizing development in densely populated and economically intensive areas. For this purpose, developing underground logistics can assume the role of goods distribution in the capital, relieve the road transport pressure in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, adjust and optimize the urban layout and spatial structure of it. Firstly, the construction planning of Xiong'an New Area and underground logistics development are summarized, especially the development status abroad, the development trend, and bottlenecks of underground logistics in China. This paper explores the technicality, feasibility, and necessity of four modes of transportation. There are pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) technology, the CargoCap technology, cable hauled mule, and automatic guided vehicle (AGV). The above technical parameters and characteristics are introduced to relevant experts or scholars. Through establishing an indicator system, carrying out a questionnaire survey with the Delphi method, the final suggestion is obtained: China should develop logistics vehicles similar to CargoCap, adopting rail mode and driverless mode. Based on China's temporal and spatial logistics demand and the geographical pattern of Xiong'an New Area, the construction scale, technical parameters, node location, and other vital parameters of underground logistics are planned. In this way, we hope to speed up the new area's construction and the logistics industry's innovation.

Keywords: the Xiong'an new area, underground logistics, contrastive analysis, CargoCap, logistics planning

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1094 Dynamic Transmission Modes of Network Public Opinion on Subevents Clusters of an Emergent Event

Authors: Yuan Xu, Xun Liang, Meina Zhang

Abstract:

The rise and attenuation of the public opinion broadcast of an emergent accident, in the social network, has a close relationship with the dynamic development of its subevents cluster. In this article, we take Tianjin Port explosion's subevents as an example to research the dynamic propagation discipline of Internet public opinion in a sudden accident, and analyze the overall structure of dynamic propagation to propose four different routes for subevents clusters propagation. We also generate network diagrams for the dynamic public opinion propagation, analyze each propagation type specifically. Based on this, suggestions on the supervision and guidance of Internet public opinion broadcast can be made.

Keywords: network dynamic transmission modes, emergent subevents clusters, Tianjin Port explosion, public opinion supervision

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1093 Role of Renewable Energy in Foreign Policy of China

Authors: Alina Gilmanova

Abstract:

China’s dependency on coal for energy is causing pollution in China and abroad. To supply the increasing energy demand and being under the pressure from international society to reduce the emissions, China was pushed to develop renewable energy. The increasing subsidies in Renewable energy sources (RES) led not only to the price-cutting but also affecting the international trade in green technology sector. In order to evaluate the role of RES in foreign policy of China, I am going to give an (i) overview of RES development in China and examine the cooperation between China and (ii) developed, (ii) developing and emerging countries. The conclusive remarks are intended to address the question of how the present Chinese renewable energy development is impacting its foreign policy and international society.

Keywords: renewable energy, China, foreign affairs, brics, cooperation

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1092 “Protection” or “Destruction”: Taking the Cultural Heritage Protection of the Grand Canal in Huaxian and Xunxian Sections of Henan Province as Example

Authors: Yue Sun, Yuan Wang

Abstract:

The Grand Canal of China has been in use for more than two thousand years. It runs through the central and eastern regions of China and communicates with the five major river systems of Haihe River, Yellow River, Huaihe River, Yangtze River and Qiantang River from north to south. It is a complex, systematic and comprehensive water conservancy project in the period of agricultural civilization and includes the three parts of the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal, the Sui and Tang Dynasties Canal and the Eastern Zhejiang Canal. It covers eight provinces and cities including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Henan and Anhui. The Grand Canal is an important channel connecting the Central Plains and the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal, and it is also an important waterway trade channel. Nowadays, although the Grand Canal no longer bears the burden of communicating water transportation between the north and the south, the site of the Grand Canal is still a “historical museum” of the lifestyle of people who lived on the canal from the Ming and Qing Dynasties to the Republic of China. By means of literature reading and field investigation, this paper compares the different protection strategies of the Grand Canal in the region between the ancient villages of Huaxian and Xunxian, which witness the vicissitudes of canal water transport, to explore whether the protective renovation of historical and cultural routes is “protection” or “destruction”, and puts forward some protection suggestions.

Keywords: The Grand Canal, heritage conservation, cultural route, ancient villages, strategies

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1091 An Analysis of Public Environmental Investment on the Sustainable Development in China

Authors: K. Y. Chen, Y. N. Jia, H. Chua, C. W. Kan

Abstract:

As the largest developing country in the world, China is now facing the problem arising from the environment. Thus, China government increases the environmental investment yearly. In this study, we will analyse the effect of the public environmental investment on the sustainable development in China. Firstly, we will review the current situation of China's environmental issue. Secondly, we will collect the yearly environmental data as well as the information of public environmental investment. Finally, we will use the collected data to analyse and project the SWOT of public environmental investment in China. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide the relationship between public environmental investment and sustainable development in China. Based on the data collected, it was revealed that the public environmental investment had a positive impact on the sustainable development in China as well as the GDP growth. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: China, public environmental investment, sustainable development, analysis

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1090 Messiness and Strategies for Elite Interview: Multi-Sited Ethnographic Research in Mainland China

Authors: Yali Liu

Abstract:

The ethnographic research involved a multi-sited field trip study in China to compile in-depth data from Chinese multilingual academics of Korean, Japanese, and Russian. It aimed to create a culturally-informed portrait of their values and perceptions regarding their choice of language for academic publishing. Extended and lengthy fieldwork, or known as ‘deep hanging out’, enabled the author to gain a comprehensive understanding of the research context at the macro-level and the participants’ experiences at the micro-level. This research involved multiple fieldwork sites, which the author selected in acknowledgment of the diversity in China’s regions with respect to their geopolitical context, socio-economic development, cultural traditions, and administrative status. The 14 weeks of data collection took the author over-land to five regions in northern China: Hebei province, Tianjin, Jilin province, Gansu province, and Xinjiang. Responding to the fieldwork dynamics, the author positioned herself at different degrees of insiderness and outsiderness. This occurred at three levels: the regional level, the individual level, and the within-individual level. To enhance the ability to reflect on the authors’ researcher subjectivity, the author explored her understanding of the five ‘I’s, derived from the authors’ natural attributes. This helped the author to monitor her subjectivity, particularly during critical decision-making. The methodological challenges the author navigated were related to interviewing elites; this involved the initial approach, establishing a relationship, and negotiating the unequal power relationship during our contact. The author developed a number of strategies to strengthen her authority, and to gain the confidence of her envisaged participants and secure their collaboration, and the author negotiated a form of reciprocity that reflected their needs and expectations. The current ethnographic research has both theoretical and practical significance. It contributes to the methodological development regarding multi-sited ethnographic research. The messiness and strategies about positioning and interviewing elites will provide practical lessons for researchers who conduct ethnographic research, especially from power-‘less’ positions.

Keywords: multi-sited ethnographic research, elite interview, multilingual China, subjectivity, reciprocity

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1089 Journey to the East: The Story of Ghanaian Migrants in Guangzhou, China

Authors: Mark Kwaku Mensah Obeng

Abstract:

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had initially settled in the Middle East and other parts of south east Asia moved to Guangzhou in response to the 1997/8 Asian financial crisis in numbers never witnessed. They were later joined by many more as the Chinese economy improved and as the economic relationship between China and Africa improved. This paper tells the story of identifiable sets of Ghanaians in Guangzhou, China in the 21st century. It details out their respective characteristics and their activities in China, their migratory trajectories and the motivations for travelling to China. Also analyzed is how they are coping with life in the unknown destination. It finally attempt predicting the future of the Ghanaian community in China in terms of their level of community participation and integration.

Keywords: Africa in China, Ghana, motivation, Guangzhou

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1088 Zhou Enlai’s Impact to the Foreign Folicy of China

Authors: Nazira B. Boldurukova

Abstract:

The main aim of this article is to give the information about life and social and diplomatic work of Zhou Enlai, to prove his identity in his impact to the history of the world; to show his place in the organization of internal and foreign policy and in the peaceful international relationships of China with other countries.

Keywords: China, foreign policy of China, identity, politician, diplomacy, Zhou Enlai

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1087 Status Report of the Express Delivery Industry in China

Authors: Ying Bo Xie, Hisa Yuki Kurokawa

Abstract:

Due to the fast development, China's express delivery industry has involved in a dilemma that the service quality are keeping decreasing while the construction rate of delivery network cannot meet the customers’ demand. In order to get out of this dilemma and enjoy a succession development rate, it is necessary to understand the current situation of China's express delivery industry. Firstly, the evolution of China's express delivery industry was systematical presented. Secondly, according to the number of companies and the amount of parcels they has dealt each year, the merits and faults of tow kind of operating pattern was analyzed. Finally, based on the characteristics of these express companies, the problems of China's express delivery industry was divided into several types and the countermeasures were given out respectively.

Keywords: China, express delivery industry, status, problem

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1086 China's Middle East Policy and the Competition with the United States

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

This paper focuses on China’s policy in the Middle East and the rivalry with the U.S. The question is that what are the main factors on China’s Middle East policy and its competition with the U.S? The hypothesis regards to three effective factors: 'China’s energy dependency' on the Middle East, 'economy' and support for 'stability' in the Middle East. What is important in China’s competition with the U.S regarding to its Middle East policy is the substantial difference in ways of treating the countries of the region; China is committed to Westphalia model based on non-interference in internal affairs of the countries and respect the sovereignty of the governments. However, after 9/11, the U.S is seeking a balance between stability and change through intervention in the international affairs and in some cases is looking for a regime change. From the other hand, China, due to its dependency on the region’s energy welcomes America’s military presence in the region for providing stability. The authors by using a descriptive analytical method try to explain the situation of rivalry between China and the United States in Middle East. China is an 'emerging power' with high economic growth and in demand of more energy supply. The problem is that a rising power in the region is often a source of concern for hegemony.

Keywords: China's foreign policy, energy, hegemony, the Middle East

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1085 China Health Diplomacy in Africa

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic has caused great difficulties for South-South cooperation, but there are also opportunities. China’s health diplomacy has changed from dispatching medical teams, assisting in the construction of hospitals, and encouraging medical investment in the Africa health sector. This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s health diplomacy in Africa from 1963 to 2020. Findings suggested that China has a preference for aiding Africa health infrastructure and sending medical teams to African countries. China’s health diplomacy in Africa is a success and has established secure diplomatic relations with African countries, thanks to the medical and health assistance to Africa over 60 years. This research contributes to the literature of health diplomacy and foreign relations and indicates that China’s health aid has fostered cooperation at the medical and diplomatic levels.

Keywords: Africa, china’s health diplomacy, COVID-19, bilateral relations

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1084 Predicting Foreign Direct Investment of IC Design Firms from Taiwan to East and South China Using Lotka-Volterra Model

Authors: Bi-Huei Tsai

Abstract:

This work explores the inter-region investment behaviors of integrated circuit (IC) design industry from Taiwan to China using the amount of foreign direct investment (FDI). According to the mutual dependence among different IC design industrial locations, Lotka-Volterra model is utilized to explore the FDI interactions between South and East China. Effects of inter-regional collaborations on FDI flows into China are considered. Evolutions of FDIs into South China for IC design industry significantly inspire the subsequent FDIs into East China, while FDIs into East China for Taiwan’s IC design industry significantly hinder the subsequent FDIs into South China. The supply chain along IC industry includes IC design, manufacturing, packing and testing enterprises. I C manufacturing, packaging and testing industries depend on IC design industry to gain advanced business benefits. The FDI amount from Taiwan’s IC design industry into East China is the greatest among the four regions: North, East, Mid-West and South China. The FDI amount from Taiwan’s IC design industry into South China is the second largest. If IC design houses buy more equipment and bring more capitals in South China, those in East China will have pressure to undertake more FDIs into East China to maintain the leading position advantages of the supply chain in East China. On the other hand, as the FDIs in East China rise, the FDIs in South China will successively decline since capitals have concentrated in East China. Prediction of Lotka-Volterra model in FDI trends is accurate because the industrial interactions between the two regions are included. Finally, this work confirms that the FDI flows cannot reach a stable equilibrium point, so the FDI inflows into East and South China will expand in the future.

Keywords: Lotka-Volterra model, foreign direct investment, competitive, Equilibrium analysis

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1083 Ecotype Hybrids and Ecotype Mixture of Spantina alterniflora Loisel. in Coastal China

Authors: Lu Xia, Nasreen Jeelani, Shuqing An

Abstract:

Spartina alterniflora, a species native to the east coast of North America, is currently the focus of increasing management concern due to its rapid expansion in coastal China. A total of 60 individuals and hundreds of seeds of S. alterniflora collected from three states in the United States representing three ecotypes (F-, G- and N-), i. e., Tampa Bay of Florida, Altamaha estuary of Georgia and Morehead City of North Carolina, were introduced into China in 1979 for ecological engineering purposes. To better understand the plant traits associated with the success of invasion, we examined distribution of ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures of the species in China. We collected and analyzed 144 samples from seven populations throughout coastal China (21.6º-38.6ºN; 109.7º-121.8ºE) using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers. Results of assignment show that both ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures exist in coastal China, especially in southern populations. Therefore, the species’ success in coastal China may be attributable largely to the coexistence of various ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures.

Keywords: ecotype hybrids, ecotype mixtures, Spartina alterniflora, coastal China

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1082 The Restrictions of the Householder’s ‘Double Two-Thirds Principles’ in Decision-Making for Elevators Addition to Existing Condominium

Authors: Haifeng Shi, Kun Song, Yili Zhao

Abstract:

In China, with the extensive promotion of the ‘aging in place’ pension policy as the background, most of the elders will choose to remain in their current homes and communities, finding out of preference or necessity that they will need to remodel their homes to fit their changing needs. This generation elder born in the 1960s to 1970s almost live in the same form of housing-condominium built from 1982 to 2012. Based on the survey of existing multi-family housing, especially in Tianjin, it is found that the current ‘double two-thirds principles’ is becoming the threshold for modification to existing house, particularly in the project of elevators addition to existing condominium (built from 1982 to 2016 without elevators below 6 floors according to the previous building code). Firstly, this article concludes the local policies of elevator addition nationwide, most of which has determined the importance and necessity of the community-based self-organization principle in the operation of the elevator addition. Secondly, by comparing the three existing community management systems (owners' congress, property management system and community committee) in instances, find that the community-based ‘two-thirds’ principle is not conducive to implement for multi-owned property renovation in the community or common accessibility modification in the building. However, analysis the property and other community management related laws, pointing out the shortcomings of the existing community-based ‘two-thirds’ decision-making norms. The analyzation showed that the unit-based and ‘100% principle’ method is more capable of common accessibility in the condominium in China. Differing from existing laws, the unit-based principle will be effective for the process of decision-making and ‘100% principle’ will protect closely profit-related householders for condominium modification in the multi-owned area. These three aspects of the analysis suggest that the establishment of the unit-based self-organization mechanism is a preferred and inevitable method to solve the problem of elevators addition to the existing condominium in China.

Keywords: aging in place, condominium, modification, multi own

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1081 China’s Re-Education Camps: The Impact

Authors: Mary Ostaszewski

Abstract:

For many years China was riddled by poverty among many other issues and was far from a world power. However, today China has one of the largest GDPs of any country in the world and is a global powerhouse. Since China has accomplished so much, many would presume that this means China is moving away from being a “developing country” alongside countries such as India, Brazil, Israel, etc. into the category “developed country” with countries such as the U.S. Yet, this is not the case as, despite their economic strides, China still has ways to come, especially when it comes to human rights. China faces extreme criticism regarding how the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) handles human rights. China has an Orwellian-based society where technology is highly monitored, critics are quickly silenced, and freedoms are heavily restricted. One of their most recent human rights violations is attempting to repress Uyghur populations by placing them into “re-education camps,” where an already vulnerable population is being deprived of their freedoms through severe oppression. These violations create concerns as other developing countries with authoritarian governments follow the example of China. This is mainly because China has seen great success economically while simultaneously being able to maintain its authoritarian regime, thus, inspiring other countries to continue their human rights violations in hopes of gaining success similar to China’s. This idolization of China by other authoritarian regimes creates a concern especially regarding their “re-education” camps. This paper will argue that Chinese “re-education” camps are not only dangerous because they severely oppress and harm the Uyghur population. Yet they are also dangerous because other countries already impressed by China’s success may adopt similar camps in their countries to ensure their oppressive governments retain their tight grasp on power.

Keywords: China, re-education camps, developing countries, Africa, West

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1080 China’s Health Silk Road in the Middle East and Europe during COVID-19

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an opportune time for China to deploy its health diplomacy around the world. This paper focused on China’s health diplomacy along the path of its Health Silk Road, with particular emphasis on the Middle East and Europe amid COVID-19. This paper employed a retrospective literature review, analyzed China’s health diplomacy in such regions to cultivate bilateral and multilateral relationships. And findings argued that such health diplomacy is a success, and Beijing has assumed a leadership role in the world’s health governance. This research contributes to the literature in health diplomacy and suggests that amid the ever changing international order, China has exerted great effort in its health diplomacy and established itself as a responsible world power.

Keywords: china’s health silk road, COVID-19, europe, middle east

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1079 Comparison of Women’s Political Participation in Korea and China

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison of women’s political participation in Korea and China. Korean women are participated more in higher education. As the economic development and the women's social participation can enhance the possibility of women's political participation in advanced democratic countries, in Asian countries such as Korea and China in which Confucianism prohibited women to participate in public life and the process of nation building is different from western countries, the political power takes an initiative to implement policies for women's participation in politics and for women's consciousness.

Keywords: korea, china, women, political participation

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1078 Time Series Analysis the Case of China and USA Trade Examining during Covid-19 Trade Enormity of Abnormal Pricing with the Exchange rate

Authors: Md. Mahadi Hasan Sany, Mumenunnessa Keya, Sharun Khushbu, Sheikh Abujar

Abstract:

Since the beginning of China's economic reform, trade between the U.S. and China has grown rapidly, and has increased since China's accession to the World Trade Organization in 2001. The US imports more than it exports from China, reducing the trade war between China and the U.S. for the 2019 trade deficit, but in 2020, the opposite happens. In international and U.S. trade, Washington launched a full-scale trade war against China in March 2016, which occurred a catastrophic epidemic. The main goal of our study is to measure and predict trade relations between China and the U.S., before and after the arrival of the COVID epidemic. The ML model uses different data as input but has no time dimension that is present in the time series models and is only able to predict the future from previously observed data. The LSTM (a well-known Recurrent Neural Network) model is applied as the best time series model for trading forecasting. We have been able to create a sustainable forecasting system in trade between China and the US by closely monitoring a dataset published by the State Website NZ Tatauranga Aotearoa from January 1, 2015, to April 30, 2021. Throughout the survey, we provided a 180-day forecast that outlined what would happen to trade between China and the US during COVID-19. In addition, we have illustrated that the LSTM model provides outstanding outcome in time series data analysis rather than RFR and SVR (e.g., both ML models). The study looks at how the current Covid outbreak affects China-US trade. As a comparative study, RMSE transmission rate is calculated for LSTM, RFR and SVR. From our time series analysis, it can be said that the LSTM model has given very favorable thoughts in terms of China-US trade on the future export situation.

Keywords: RFR, China-U.S. trade war, SVR, LSTM, deep learning, Covid-19, export value, forecasting, time series analysis

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