Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7194

Search results for: network theory

7194 Intrusion Detection In MANET Using Game Theory

Authors: S. B. Kumbalavati, J. D. Mallapur, K. Y. Bendigeri


A mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is a multihop wireless network where nodes communicate each other without any pre-deployed infrastructure. There is no central administrating unit. Hence, MANET is generally prone to many of the attacks. These attacks may alter, release or deny data. These attacks are nothing but intrusions. Intrusion is a set of actions that attempts to compromise integrity, confidentiality and availability of resources. A major issue in the design and operation of ad-hoc network is sharing the common spectrum or common channel bandwidth among all the nodes. We are performing intrusion detection using game theory approach. Game theory is a mathematical tool for analysing problems of competition and negotiation among the players in any field like marketing, e-commerce and networking. In this paper mathematical model is developed using game theory approach and intruders are detected and removed. Bandwidth utilization is estimated and comparison is made between bandwidth utilization with intrusion detection technique and without intrusion detection technique. Percentage of intruders and efficiency of the network is analysed.

Keywords: ad-hoc network, IDS, game theory, sensor networks

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7193 The Use of Network Theory in Heritage Cities

Authors: J. L. Oliver, T. Agryzkov, L. Tortosa, J. Vicent, J. Santacruz


This paper aims to demonstrate how the use of Network Theory can be applied to a very interesting and complex urban situation: The parts of a city which may have some patrimonial value, but because of their lack of relevant architectural elements, they are not considered to be historic in a conventional sense. In this paper, we use the suburb of La Villaflora in the city of Quito, Ecuador as our case study. We first propose a system of indicators as a tool to characterize and quantify the historic value of a geographic area. Then, we apply these indicators to the suburb of La Villaflora and use Network Theory to understand and propose actions.

Keywords: graphs, mathematics, networks, urban studies

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7192 On the Inequality between Queue Length and Virtual Waiting Time in Open Queueing Networks under Conditions of Heavy Traffic

Authors: Saulius Minkevicius, Edvinas Greicius


The paper is devoted to the analysis of queueing systems in the context of the network and communications theory. We investigate the inequality in an open queueing network and its applications to the theorems in heavy traffic conditions (fluid approximation, functional limit theorem, and law of the iterated logarithm) for a queue of customers in an open queueing network.

Keywords: fluid approximation, heavy traffic, models of information systems, open queueing network, queue length of customers, queueing theory

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7191 Air Cargo Network Structure Characteristics and Robustness Analysis under the Belt and Road Area

Authors: Feng-jie Xie, Jian-hong Yan


Based on the complex network theory, we construct the air cargo network of the Belt and Road area, analyze its regional distribution and structural characteristics, measure the robustness of the network. The regional distribution results show that Southeast Asia and China have the most prominent development in the air cargo network of the Belt and Road area, Central Asia is the least developed. The structure characteristics found that the air cargo network has obvious small-world characteristics; the degree distribution has single-scale property; it shows a significant rich-club phenomenon simultaneously. The network robustness is measured by two attack strategies of degree and betweenness, but the betweenness of network nodes has a greater impact on network connectivity. And identified 24 key cities that have a large impact on the robustness of the network under the two attack strategies. Based on these results, recommendations are given to maintain the air cargo network connectivity in the Belt and Road area.

Keywords: air cargo, complex network, robustness, structure properties, The Belt and Road

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7190 Development of Algorithms for the Study of the Image in Digital Form for Satellite Applications: Extraction of a Road Network and Its Nodes

Authors: Zineb Nougrara


In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for extracting a road network and its nodes from satellite images of Algeria country. This developed technique is a progress of our previous research works. It is founded on the information theory and the mathematical morphology; the information theory and the mathematical morphology are combined together to extract and link the road segments to form a road network and its nodes. We, therefore, have to define objects as sets of pixels and to study the shape of these objects and the relations that exist between them. In this approach, geometric and radiometric features of roads are integrated by a cost function and a set of selected points of a crossing road. Its performances were tested on satellite images of Algeria country.

Keywords: satellite image, road network, nodes, image analysis and processing

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7189 Gender Effects in EEG-Based Functional Brain Networks

Authors: Mahdi Jalili


Functional connectivity in the human brain can be represented as a network using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Network representation of EEG time series can be an efficient vehicle to understand the underlying mechanisms of brain function. Brain functional networks – whose nodes are brain regions and edges correspond to functional links between them – are characterized by neurobiologically meaningful graph theory metrics. This study investigates the degree to which graph theory metrics are sex dependent. To this end, EEGs from 24 healthy female subjects and 21 healthy male subjects were recorded in eyes-closed resting state conditions. The connectivity matrices were extracted using correlation analysis and were further binarized to obtain binary functional networks. Global and local efficiency measures – as graph theory metrics– were computed for the extracted networks. We found that male brains have a significantly greater global efficiency (i.e., global communicability of the network) across all frequency bands for a wide range of cost values in both hemispheres. Furthermore, for a range of cost values, female brains showed significantly greater right-hemispheric local efficiency (i.e., local connectivity) than male brains.

Keywords: EEG, brain, functional networks, network science, graph theory

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7188 Internal and External Influences on the Firm Objective

Authors: A. Briseno, A, Zorrilla


Firms are increasingly responding to social and environmental claims from society. Practices oriented to attend issues such as poverty, work equality, or renewable energy, are being implemented more frequently by firms to address impacts on sustainability. However, questions remain on how the responses of firms vary across industries and regions between the social and the economic objectives. Using concepts from organizational theory and social network theory, this paper aims to create a theoretical framework that explains the internal and external influences that make a firm establish its objective. The framework explains why firms might have a different objective orientation in terms of its economic and social prioritization.

Keywords: organizational identity, social network theory, firm objective, value maximization, social responsibility

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7187 A Study on Game Theory Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: M. Shoukath Ali, Rajendra Prasad Singh


Game Theory approaches and their application in improving the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are discussed in this paper. The mathematical modeling and analysis of WSNs may have low success rate due to the complexity of topology, modeling, link quality, etc. However, Game Theory is a field, which can efficiently use to analyze the WSNs. Game Theory is related to applied mathematics that describes and analyzes interactive decision situations. Game theory has the ability to model independent, individual decision makers whose actions affect the surrounding decision makers. The outcome of complex interactions among rational entities can be predicted by a set of analytical tools. However, the rationality demands a stringent observance to a strategy based on measured of perceived results. Researchers are adopting game theory approaches to model and analyze leading wireless communication networking issues, which includes QoS, power control, resource sharing, etc.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, game theory, cooperative game theory, non-cooperative game theory

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7186 Generalization of Clustering Coefficient on Lattice Networks Applied to Criminal Networks

Authors: Christian H. Sanabria-Montaña, Rodrigo Huerta-Quintanilla


A lattice network is a special type of network in which all nodes have the same number of links, and its boundary conditions are periodic. The most basic lattice network is the ring, a one-dimensional network with periodic border conditions. In contrast, the Cartesian product of d rings forms a d-dimensional lattice network. An analytical expression currently exists for the clustering coefficient in this type of network, but the theoretical value is valid only up to certain connectivity value; in other words, the analytical expression is incomplete. Here we obtain analytically the clustering coefficient expression in d-dimensional lattice networks for any link density. Our analytical results show that the clustering coefficient for a lattice network with density of links that tend to 1, leads to the value of the clustering coefficient of a fully connected network. We developed a model on criminology in which the generalized clustering coefficient expression is applied. The model states that delinquents learn the know-how of crime business by sharing knowledge, directly or indirectly, with their friends of the gang. This generalization shed light on the network properties, which is important to develop new models in different fields where network structure plays an important role in the system dynamic, such as criminology, evolutionary game theory, econophysics, among others.

Keywords: clustering coefficient, criminology, generalized, regular network d-dimensional

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7185 The Coauthorship Network Analysis of the Norwegian School of Economics

Authors: Ivan Belik, Kurt Jornsten


We construct the coauthorship network based on the scientific collaboration between the faculty members at the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) and based on their international academic publication experience. The network structure is based on the NHH faculties’ publications recognized by the ISI Web of Science for the period 1950 – Spring, 2014. The given network covers the publication activities of the NHH faculty members (over six departments) based on the information retrieved from the ISI Web of Science in Spring, 2014. In this paper we analyse the constructed coauthorship network in different aspects of the theory of social networks analysis.

Keywords: coauthorship networks, social networks analysis, Norwegian School of Economics, ISI

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7184 Examining Social Connectivity through Email Network Analysis: Study of Librarians' Emailing Groups in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Arif Khan, Haroon Idrees, Imran Aziz, Sidra Mushtaq


Social platforms like online discussion and mailing groups are well aligned with academic as well as professional learning spaces. Professional communities are increasingly moving to online forums for sharing and capturing the intellectual abilities. This study investigated dynamics of social connectivity of yahoo mailing groups of Pakistani Library and Information Science (LIS) professionals using Graph Theory technique. Design/Methodology: Social Network Analysis is the increasingly concerned domain for scientists in identifying whether people grow together through online social interaction or, whether they just reflect connectivity. We have conducted a longitudinal study using Network Graph Theory technique to analyze the large data-set of email communication. The data was collected from three yahoo mailing groups using network analysis software over a period of six months i.e. January to June 2016. Findings of the network analysis were reviewed through focus group discussion with LIS experts and selected respondents of the study. Data were analyzed in Microsoft Excel and network diagrams were visualized using NodeXL and ORA-Net Scene package. Findings: Findings demonstrate that professionals and students exhibit intellectual growth the more they get tied within a network by interacting and participating in communication through online forums. The study reports on dynamics of the large network by visualizing the email correspondence among group members in a network consisting vertices (members) and edges (randomized correspondence). The model pair wise relationship between group members was illustrated to show characteristics, reasons, and strength of ties. Connectivity of nodes illustrated the frequency of communication among group members through examining node coupling, diffusion of networks, and node clustering has been demonstrated in-depth. Network analysis was found to be a useful technique in investigating the dynamics of the large network.

Keywords: emailing networks, network graph theory, online social platforms, yahoo mailing groups

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7183 Research Networks and Knowledge Sharing: An Exploratory Study of Aquaculture in Europe

Authors: Zeta Dooly, Aidan Duane


The collaborative European funded research and development landscape provides prime environmental conditions for multi-disciplinary teams to learn and enhance their knowledge beyond the capability of training and learning within their own organisation cocoons. Whilst the emergence of the academic entrepreneur has changed the focus of educational institutions to that of quasi-businesses, the training and professional development of lecturers and academic staff are often not formalised to the same level as industry. This research focuses on industry and academic collaborative research funded by the European Commission. The impact of research is scalable if an optimum research network is created and managed effectively. This paper investigates network embeddedness, the nature of relationships, links, and nodes within a research network, and the enhancement of the network’s knowledge. The contribution of this paper extends our understanding of establishing and maintaining effective collaborative research networks. The effects of network embeddedness are recognized in the literature as pertinent to innovation and the economy. Network theory literature claims that networks are essential to innovative clusters such as Silicon valley and innovation in high tech industries. This research provides evidence to support the impact collaborative research has on the disparate individuals toward their innovative contributions to their organisations and their own professional development. This study adopts a qualitative approach and uncovers some of the challenges of multi-disciplinary research through case study insights. The contribution of this paper recommends the establishment of scaffolding to accommodate cooperation in research networks, role appointment, and addressing contextual complexities early to avoid problem cultivation. Furthermore, it suggests recommendations in relation to network formation, intra-network challenges in relation to open data, competition, friendships, and competency enhancement. The network capability is enhanced by the adoption of the relevant theories; network theory, open innovation, and social exchange, with the understanding that the network structure has an impact on innovation and social exchange in research networks. The research concludes that there is an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the impact of network reuse and network hoping that provides scaffolding for the network members to enhance and build upon their knowledge using a progressive approach.

Keywords: research networks, competency building, network theory, case study

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7182 A Global Organizational Theory for the 21st Century

Authors: Troy A. Tyre


Organizational behavior and organizational change are elements of the ever-changing global business environment. Leadership and organizational behavior are 21st century disciplines. Network marketing organizations need to understand the ever-changing nature of global business and be ready and willing to adapt to the environment. Network marketing organizations have a challenge keeping up with a rapid escalation in global growth. Network marketing growth has been steady and global. Network marketing organizations have been slow to develop a 21st century global strategy to manage the rapid escalation of growth degrading organizational behavior, job satisfaction, increasing attrition, and degrading customer service. Development of an organizational behavior and leadership theory for the 21st century to help network marketing develops a global business strategy to manage the rapid escalation in growth that affects organizational behavior. Managing growth means organizational leadership must develop and adapt to the organizational environment. Growth comes with an open mind and one’s departure from the comfort zone. Leadership growth operates in the tacit dimension. Systems thinking and adaptation of mental models can help shift organizational behavior. Shifting the organizational behavior requires organizational learning. Organizational learning occurs through single-loop, double-loop, and triple-loop learning. Triple-loop learning is the most difficult, but the most rewarding. Tools such as theory U can aid in developing a landscape for organizational behavioral development. Additionally, awareness to espoused and portrayed actions is imperatives. Theories of motivation, cross-cultural diversity, and communications are instrumental in founding an organizational behavior suited for the 21st century.

Keywords: global, leadership, network marketing, organizational behavior

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7181 Internet of Things: Route Search Optimization Applying Ant Colony Algorithm and Theory of Computer Science

Authors: Tushar Bhardwaj


Internet of Things (IoT) possesses a dynamic network where the network nodes (mobile devices) are added and removed constantly and randomly, hence the traffic distribution in the network is quite variable and irregular. The basic but very important part in any network is route searching. We have many conventional route searching algorithms like link-state, and distance vector algorithms but they are restricted to the static point to point network topology. In this paper we propose a model that uses the Ant Colony Algorithm for route searching. It is dynamic in nature and has positive feedback mechanism that conforms to the route searching. We have also embedded the concept of Non-Deterministic Finite Automata [NDFA] minimization to reduce the network to increase the performance. Results show that Ant Colony Algorithm gives the shortest path from the source to destination node and NDFA minimization reduces the broadcasting storm effectively.

Keywords: routing, ant colony algorithm, NDFA, IoT

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7180 Identifying Network Subgraph-Associated Essential Genes in Molecular Networks

Authors: Efendi Zaenudin, Chien-Hung Huang, Ka-Lok Ng


Essential genes play an important role in the survival of an organism. It has been shown that cancer-associated essential genes are genes necessary for cancer cell proliferation, where these genes are potential therapeutic targets. Also, it was demonstrated that mutations of the cancer-associated essential genes give rise to the resistance of immunotherapy for patients with tumors. In the present study, we focus on studying the biological effects of the essential genes from a network perspective. We hypothesize that one can analyze a biological molecular network by decomposing it into both three-node and four-node digraphs (subgraphs). These network subgraphs encode the regulatory interaction information among the network’s genetic elements. In this study, the frequency of occurrence of the subgraph-associated essential genes in a molecular network was quantified by using the statistical parameter, odds ratio. Biological effects of subgraph-associated essential genes are discussed. In summary, the subgraph approach provides a systematic method for analyzing molecular networks and it can capture useful biological information for biomedical research.

Keywords: biological molecular networks, essential genes, graph theory, network subgraphs

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7179 Value Chain Network: A Social Network Analysis of the Value Chain Actors of Recycled Polymer Products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Olamide Shittu, Olayinka Akanle


Value Chain Analysis is a common method of examining the stages involved in the production of a product, mostly agricultural produce, from the input to the consumption stage including the actors involved in each stage. However, the Functional Institutional Analysis is the most common method in literature employed to analyze the value chain of products. Apart from studying the relatively neglected phenomenon of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, this paper adopted the use of social network analysis to attempt a grounded theory of the nature of social network that exists among the value chain actors of the subject matter. The study adopted a grounded theory approach by conducting in-depth interviews, administering questionnaires and conducting observations among the identified value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. The thematic analysis of the collected data gave the researchers the needed background to formulate a truly representative network of the social relationships among the value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis. The paper introduced concepts such as Transient and Perennial Social Ties to explain the observed social relations among the actors. Some actors have more social capital than others as a result of the structural holes that exist in their triad network. Households and resource recoverers are at disadvantaged position in the network as they have high constraints in their relationships with other actors. The study attempted to provide a new perspective in the study of the environmental value chain by analyzing the network of actors to bring about policy action points and improve recycling in Nigeria. Government and social entrepreneurs can exploit the structural holes that exist in the network for the socio-economic and sustainable development of the state.

Keywords: recycled polymer products, social network analysis, social ties, value chain analysis

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7178 Network Security Attacks and Defences

Authors: Ranbir Singh, Deepinder Kaur


Network security is an important aspect in every field like government offices, Educational Institute and any business organization. Network security consists of the policies adopted to prevent and monitor forbidden access, misuse, modification, or denial of a computer network. Network security is very complicated subject and deal by only well trained and experienced people. However, as more and more people become wired, an increasing number of people need to understand the basics of security in a networked world. The history of the network security included an introduction to the TCP/IP and interworking. Network security starts with authenticating, commonly with a username and a password. In this paper, we study about various types of attacks on network security and how to handle or prevent this attack.

Keywords: network security, attacks, denial, authenticating

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7177 Altered Network Organization in Mild Alzheimer's Disease Compared to Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Resting-State EEG

Authors: Chia-Feng Lu, Yuh-Jen Wang, Shin Teng, Yu-Te Wu, Sui-Hing Yan


Brain functional networks based on resting-state EEG data were compared between patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (mAD) and matched patients with amnestic subtype of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions and the network analysis based on graph theory to further investigate the alterations of functional networks in mAD compared with aMCI group. We aimed at investigating the changes of network integrity, local clustering, information processing efficiency, and fault tolerance in mAD brain networks for different frequency bands based on several topological properties, including degree, strength, clustering coefficient, shortest path length, and efficiency. Results showed that the disruptions of network integrity and reductions of network efficiency in mAD characterized by lower degree, decreased clustering coefficient, higher shortest path length, and reduced global and local efficiencies in the delta, theta, beta2, and gamma bands were evident. The significant changes in network organization can be used in assisting discrimination of mAD from aMCI in clinical.

Keywords: EEG, functional connectivity, graph theory, TFCMI

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7176 Capitalizing on Differential Network Ties: Unpacking Individual Creativity from Social Capital Perspective

Authors: Yuanyuan Wang, Chun Hui


Drawing on social capital theory, this article discusses how individuals may utilize network ties to come up with creativity. Social capital theory elaborates how network ties enhances individual creativity from three dimensions: structural access, and relational and cognitive mechanisms. We categorize network ties into strong and weak in terms of tie strength. With less structural constraints, weak ties allow diverse and heterogeneous knowledge to prosper, further facilitating individuals to build up connections among diverse even distant ideas. On the other hand, strong ties with the relational mechanism of cooperation and trust may benefit the accumulation of psychological capital, ultimately to motivate and sustain creativity. We suggest that differential ties play different roles for individual creativity: Weak ties deliver informational benefit directly rifling individual creativity from informational resource aspect; strong ties offer solidarity benefits to reinforce psychological capital, which further inspires individual creativity engagement from a psychological viewpoint. Social capital embedded in network ties influence individuals’ informational acquisition, motivation, as well as cognitive ability to be creative. Besides, we also consider the moderating effects constraining the relatedness between network ties and creativity, such as knowledge articulability. We hypothesize that when the extent of knowledge articulability is low, that is, with low knowledge codifiability, and high dependency and ambiguity, weak ties previous serving as knowledge reservoir will not become ineffective on individual creativity. Two-wave survey will be employed in Mainland China to empirically test mentioned propositions.

Keywords: network ties, social capital, psychological capital, knowledge articulability, individual creativity

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7175 Sampling Effects on Secondary Voltage Control of Microgrids Based on Network of Multiagent

Authors: M. J. Park, S. H. Lee, C. H. Lee, O. M. Kwon


This paper studies a secondary voltage control framework of the microgrids based on the consensus for a communication network of multiagent. The proposed control is designed by the communication network with one-way links. The communication network is modeled by a directed graph. At this time, the concept of sampling is considered as the communication constraint among each distributed generator in the microgrids. To analyze the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids, by using Lyapunov theory and some mathematical techniques, the sufficient condition for such problem will be established regarding linear matrix inequality (LMI). Finally, some simulation results are given to illustrate the necessity of the consideration of the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids.

Keywords: microgrids, secondary control, multiagent, sampling, LMI

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7174 An Application of Graph Theory to The Electrical Circuit Using Matrix Method

Authors: Samai'la Abdullahi


A graph is a pair of two set and so that a graph is a pictorial representation of a system using two basic element nodes and edges. A node is represented by a circle (either hallo shade) and edge is represented by a line segment connecting two nodes together. In this paper, we present a circuit network in the concept of graph theory application and also circuit models of graph are represented in logical connection method were we formulate matrix method of adjacency and incidence of matrix and application of truth table.

Keywords: euler circuit and path, graph representation of circuit networks, representation of graph models, representation of circuit network using logical truth table

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7173 Comparison between Continuous Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization for Distribution Network Reconfiguration

Authors: Linh Nguyen Tung, Anh Truong Viet, Nghien Nguyen Ba, Chuong Trinh Trong


This paper proposes a reconfiguration methodology based on a continuous genetic algorithm (CGA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for minimizing active power loss and minimizing voltage deviation. Both algorithms are adapted using graph theory to generate feasible individuals, and the modified crossover is used for continuous variable of CGA. To demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed methods, a comparative analysis of CGA with PSO for network reconfiguration, on 33-node and 119-bus radial distribution system is presented. The simulation results have shown that both CGA and PSO can be used in the distribution network reconfiguration and CGA outperformed PSO with significant success rate in finding optimal distribution network configuration.

Keywords: distribution network reconfiguration, particle swarm optimization, continuous genetic algorithm, power loss reduction, voltage deviation

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7172 Measurement and Analysis of Building Penetration Loss for Mobile Networks in Tripoli Area

Authors: Tammam A. Benmusa, Mohamed A. Shlibek, Rawad M. Swesi


The investigation of Buildings Penetration Loss (BPL) of radio signal is getting more and more important. It plays an important role in calculating the indoor coverage for wireless communication networks. In this paper, the theory behind BPL and its mechanisms have been reviewed. The operating frequency, coverage area type, climate condition, time of measurement, and other factors affecting the values of BPL have been discussed. The practical part of this work was conducting 4000 measurements of BPL in different areas in the Libyan capital, Tripoli, to get empirical model for this loss. The measurements were taken for 2 different types of wireless communication networks; mobile telephone network (for Almadar company), which operates at 900 MHz and WiMAX network (LTT company) which operates at 2500 MHz. The results for each network were summarized and presented in several graphs. The graphs are showing how the BPL affected by: time of measurement, morphology (type of area), and climatic environment.

Keywords: building penetration loss, wireless network, mobile network, link budget, indoor network performance

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7171 A Topological Study of an Urban Street Network and Its Use in Heritage Areas

Authors: Jose L. Oliver, Taras Agryzkov, Leandro Tortosa, Jose F. Vicent, Javier Santacruz


This paper aims to demonstrate how a topological study of an urban street network can be used as a tool to be applied to some heritage conservation areas in a city. In the last decades, we find different kinds of approaches in the discipline of Architecture and Urbanism based in the so-called Sciences of Complexity. In this context, this paper uses mathematics from the Network Theory. Hence, it proposes a methodology based in obtaining information from a graph, which is created from a network of urban streets. Then, it is used an algorithm that establishes a ranking of importance of the nodes of that network, from its topological point of view. The results are applied to a heritage area in a particular city, confronting the data obtained from the mathematical model, with the ones from the field work in the case study. As a result of this process, we may conclude the necessity of implementing some actions in the area, and where those actions would be more effective for the whole heritage site.

Keywords: graphs, heritage cities, spatial analysis, urban networks

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7170 Enhancing the Network Security with Gray Code

Authors: Thomas Adi Purnomo Sidhi


Nowadays, network is an essential need in almost every part of human daily activities. People now can seamlessly connect to others through the Internet. With advanced technology, our personal data now can be more easily accessed. One of many components we are concerned for delivering the best network is a security issue. This paper is proposing a method that provides more options for security. This research aims to improve network security by focusing on the physical layer which is the first layer of the OSI model. The layer consists of the basic networking hardware transmission technologies of a network. With the use of observation method, the research produces a schematic design for enhancing the network security through the gray code converter.

Keywords: network, network security, grey code, physical layer

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7169 Ordinary Differentiation Equations (ODE) Reconstruction of High-Dimensional Genetic Networks through Game Theory with Application to Dissecting Tree Salt Tolerance

Authors: Libo Jiang, Huan Li, Rongling Wu


Ordinary differentiation equations (ODE) have proven to be powerful for reconstructing precise and informative gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from dynamic gene expression data. However, joint modeling and analysis of all genes, essential for the systematical characterization of genetic interactions, are challenging due to high dimensionality and a complex pattern of genetic regulation including activation, repression, and antitermination. Here, we address these challenges by unifying variable selection and game theory through ODE. Each gene within a GRN is co-expressed with its partner genes in a way like a game of multiple players, each of which tends to choose an optimal strategy to maximize its “fitness” across the whole network. Based on this unifying theory, we designed and conducted a real experiment to infer salt tolerance-related GRNs for Euphrates poplar, a hero tree that can grow in the saline desert. The pattern and magnitude of interactions between several hub genes within these GRNs were found to determine the capacity of Euphrates poplar to resist to saline stress.

Keywords: gene regulatory network, ordinary differential equation, game theory, LASSO, saline resistance

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7168 Network Functions Virtualization-Based Virtual Routing Function Deployment under Network Delay Constraints

Authors: Kenichiro Hida, Shin-Ichi Kuribayashi


NFV-based network implements a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers, and this allows the network operator to select any capabilities and locations of network functions without any physical constraints. In this paper, we evaluate the influence of the maximum tolerable network delay on the virtual routing function deployment guidelines which the authors proposed previously. Our evaluation results have revealed the following: (1) the more the maximum tolerable network delay condition becomes severe, the more the number of areas where the route selection function is installed increases and the total network cost increases, (2) the higher the routing function cost relative to the circuit bandwidth cost, the increase ratio of total network cost becomes larger according to the maximum tolerable network delay condition.

Keywords: NFV (Network Functions Virtualization), resource allocation, virtual routing function, minimum total network cost

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7167 Visualizing the Commercial Activity of a City by Analyzing the Data Information in Layers

Authors: Taras Agryzkov, Jose L. Oliver, Leandro Tortosa, Jose Vicent


This paper aims to demonstrate how network models can be used to understand and to deal with some aspects of urban complexity. As it is well known, the Theory of Architecture and Urbanism has been using for decades’ intellectual tools based on the ‘sciences of complexity’ as a strategy to propose theoretical approaches about cities and about architecture. In this sense, it is possible to find a vast literature in which for instance network theory is used as an instrument to understand very diverse questions about cities: from their commercial activity to their heritage condition. The contribution of this research consists in adding one step of complexity to this process: instead of working with one single primal graph as it is usually done, we will show how new network models arise from the consideration of two different primal graphs interacting in two layers. When we model an urban network through a mathematical structure like a graph, the city is usually represented by a set of nodes and edges that reproduce its topology, with the data generated or extracted from the city embedded in it. All this information is normally displayed in a single layer. Here, we propose to separate the information in two layers so that we can evaluate the interaction between them. Besides, both layers may be composed of structures that do not have to coincide: from this bi-layer system, groups of interactions emerge, suggesting reflections and in consequence, possible actions.

Keywords: graphs, mathematics, networks, urban studies

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7166 Towards Update a Road Map Solution: Use of Information Obtained by the Extraction of Road Network and Its Nodes from a Satellite Image

Authors: Z. Nougrara, J. Meunier


In this paper, we present a new approach for extracting roads, there road network and its nodes from satellite image representing regions in Algeria. Our approach is related to our previous research work. It is founded on the information theory and the mathematical morphology. We therefore have to define objects as sets of pixels and to study the shape of these objects and the relations that exist between them. The main interest of this study is to solve the problem of the automatic mapping from satellite images. This study is thus applied for that the geographical representation of the images is as near as possible to the reality.

Keywords: nodes, road network, satellite image, updating a road map

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7165 Strategic Planning in South African Higher Education

Authors: Noxolo Mafu


This study presents an overview of strategic planning in South African higher education institutions by tracing its trends and mystique in order to identify its impact. Over the democratic decades, strategic planning has become integral to institutional survival. It has been used as a potent tool by several institutions to catch up and surpass counterparts. While planning has always been part of higher education, strategic planning should be considered different. Strategic planning is primarily about development and maintenance of a strategic fitting between an institution and its dynamic opportunities. This presupposes existence of sets of stages that institutions pursue of which, can be regarded for assessment of the impact of strategic planning in an institution. The network theory serves guides the study in demystifying apparent organisational networks in strategic planning processes.

Keywords: network theory, strategy, planning, strategic planning, assessment, impact

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