Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: Endalkachew Abebe Kebede

39 Comparing Remote Sensing and in Situ Analyses of Test Wheat Plants as Means for Optimizing Data Collection in Precision Agriculture

Authors: Endalkachew Abebe Kebede, Bojin Bojinov, Andon Vasilev Andonov, Orhan Dengiz


Remote sensing has a potential application in assessing and monitoring the plants' biophysical properties using the spectral responses of plants and soils within the electromagnetic spectrum. However, only a few reports compare the performance of different remote sensing sensors against in-situ field spectral measurement. The current study assessed the potential applications of open data source satellite images (Sentinel 2 and Landsat 9) in estimating the biophysical properties of the wheat crop on a study farm found in the village of OvchaMogila. A Landsat 9 (30 m resolution) and Sentinel-2 (10 m resolution) satellite images with less than 10% cloud cover have been extracted from the open data sources for the period of December 2021 to April 2022. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been used to capture the spectral response of plant leaves. In addition, SpectraVue 710s Leaf Spectrometer was used to measure the spectral response of the crop in April at five different locations within the same field. The ten most common vegetation indices have been selected and calculated based on the reflectance wavelength range of remote sensing tools used. The soil samples have been collected in eight different locations within the farm plot. The different physicochemical properties of the soil (pH, texture, N, P₂O₅, and K₂O) have been analyzed in the laboratory. The finer resolution images from the UAV and the Leaf Spectrometer have been used to validate the satellite images. The performance of different sensors has been compared based on the measured leaf spectral response and the extracted vegetation indices using the five sampling points. A scatter plot with the coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the correlation (r) matrix prepared using the corr and heatmap python libraries have been used for comparing the performance of Sentinel 2 and Landsat 9 VIs compared to the drone and SpectraVue 710s spectrophotometer. The soil analysis revealed the study farm plot is slightly alkaline (8.4 to 8.52). The soil texture of the study farm is dominantly Clay and Clay Loam.The vegetation indices (VIs) increased linearly with the growth of the plant. Both the scatter plot and the correlation matrix showed that Sentinel 2 vegetation indices have a relatively better correlation with the vegetation indices of the Buteo dronecompared to the Landsat 9. The Landsat 9 vegetation indices somewhat align better with the leaf spectrometer. Generally, the Sentinel 2 showed a better performance than the Landsat 9. Further study with enough field spectral sampling and repeated UAV imaging is required to improve the quality of the current study.

Keywords: landsat 9, leaf spectrometer, sentinel 2, UAV

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38 Establishment of Reference Interval for Serum Protein Electrophoresis of Apparently Healthy Adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Demiraw Bikila, Tadesse Lejisa, Yosef Tolcha, Chala Bashea, Mehari Meles Tigist Getahun Genet Ashebir, Wossene Habtu, Feyissa Challa, Ousman Mohammed, Melkitu Kassaw, Adisu Kebede, Letebrhan G. Egzeabher, Endalkachew Befekadu, Mistire Wolde, Aster Tsegaye


Background: Even though several factors affect reference intervals (RIs), the company-derived values are currently in use in many laboratories worldwide. However, little or no data is available regarding serum protein RIs, mainly in resource-limited setting countries like Ethiopia. Objective: To establish a reference interval for serum protein electrophoresis of apparently healthy adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 297 apparently healthy adults from April-October 2019 in four selected sub-cities (Akaki, Kirkos, Arada, Yeka) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Laboratory analysis of collected samples was performed using Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing analyzer, while statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23 and med-cal software. Mann-Whitney test was used to check Partitions. Non-parametric method of reference range establishment was performed as per CLSI guideline EP28A3C. Result: The established RIs were: Albumin 53.83-64.59%, 52.24-63.55%; Alpha-1 globulin 3.04-5.40%, 3.44-5.60%; Alpha-2 globulin 8.0-12.67%, 8.44-12.87%; and Beta-1 globulin 5.01-7.38%, 5.14-7.86%. Moreover, Albumin to globulin ratio was 1.16-1.8, 1.09-1.74 for males and females, respectively. The combined RIs for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin were 2.54-4.90% and 12.40-21.66%, respectively. Conclusion: The established reference interval for serum protein fractions revealed gender-specific differences except for Beta-2 globulin and Gamma globulin.

Keywords: serum protein electrophoresis, reference interval, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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37 Innovative In-Service Training Approach to Strengthen Health Care Human Resources and Scale-Up Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Tsegahun Manyazewal, Francesco Marinucci, Getachew Belay, Abraham Tesfaye, Gonfa Ayana, Amaha Kebede, Tsegahun Manyazewal, Francesco Marinucci, Getachew Belay, Abraham Tesfaye, Gonfa Ayana, Amaha Kebede, Yewondwossen Tadesse, Susan Lehman, Zelalem Temesgen


In-service health trainings in Sub-Saharan Africa are mostly content-centered with higher disconnection with the real practice in the facility. This study intended to evaluate in-service training approach aimed to strengthen health care human resources. A combined web-based and face-to-face training was designed and piloted in Ethiopia with the diagnosis of tuberculosis. During the first part, which lasted 43 days, trainees accessed web-based material and read without leaving their work; while the second part comprised a one-day hands-on evaluation. Trainee’s competency was measured using multiple-choice questions, written-assignments, exercises and hands-on evaluation. Of 108 participants invited, 81 (75%) attended the course and 71 (88%) of them successfully completed. Of those completed, 73 (90%) scored a grade from A to C. The approach was effective to transfer knowledge and turn it into practical skills. In-service health training should transform from a passive one-time-event to a continuous behavioral change of participants and improvements on their actual work.

Keywords: Ethiopia, health care, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
36 Discrimination between Defective and Non-Defective Coffee Beans Using a Laser Prism Spectrometer

Authors: A. Belay, B. Kebede


The concentration- and temperature-dependent refractive indices of solutions extracted from defective and non-defective coffee beans have been investigated using a He–Ne laser. The refractive index has a linear relationship with the presumed concentration of the coffee solutions in the range of 0.5–3%. Higher and lower values of refractive index were obtained for immature and non-defective coffee beans, respectively. The Refractive index of bean extracts can be successfully used to separate defective from non-defective beans.

Keywords: coffee extract, refractive index, temperature dependence

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35 A Safety-Door for Earthquake Disaster Prevention - Part II

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


The safety of door has not given much attention. The main problem of doors during and after earthquake is that they are unable to be opened because deviation from its original position by the lateral load. The aim of this research is to develop and evaluate a safety door that keeps the door frame in its original position or keeps its edge angles perpendicular during and post-earthquake. Nonlinear finite element analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the structural performance and behavior of the proposed door under both monotonic and cyclic loading.

Keywords: safety-door, earthquake disaster, low yield point steel, passive energy dissipating device, FE analysis

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34 Development and Evaluation of Removable Shear Link with Perforated Web

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


The objective of this paper is to investigate, through an analytical study, the behavior of both stiffened and un-stiffened removable shear link with perforated web considering different number and size of web openings. Removable shear link with perforated web is a novel shear link beam proposed to be used in eccentrically braced frame (EBF). The proposed link overcomes the difficulties during construction slab due to less cross-sectional areas of the link to control the plastic deformation on the conventional EBF with removable shear link. Finite element analyses were conducted under both cyclic and monotonic loading and from the results obtained design equations are developed.

Keywords: eccentrically braced frame, removable shear link, perforated web, non-linear FE analysis

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33 Area Exclosure as a Government Strategy to Restore Woody Plant Species Diversity: Case Study in Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Tsegaw Abebe, Temesgen Abebe


Land degradation is one of a serious environmental challenge in Ethiopia and is one of the major underlying causes for declining agricultural productivity. The Ethiopia government realized the significance of environmental restoration specifically on deforested and degraded land after the 1973 and 1984/85 major famines that struck the country. Among the various conservation strategies, the establishment of area exclosures have been regarded as an effective response to halt and reverse the problems of land degradation. There are limited studies in Ethiopia dealing how the conversion of free grazing lands and degraded lands by closures increase biomass accumulation. However, these studies are not sufficient to conclude about the strength of area closures to restore degraded vegetations at the diverse agro-ecological condition. The overall objective of this study was, therefore, to assess and evaluate the usefulness of area closure technique in enhancing rehabilitation of degraded ecosystem and thereby increase the natural capital in the study site (southern Ethiopia). Woody plant species were collected from area exclosure for eight year and adjacent degraded land with similar landscape positions using systematic sampling plot design technique. Woody species diversity was determined by Shannon diversity. Comparative assessment result of woody plant species analysis showed that the density of woody species in the exclosure and degraded site were 778 and 222 individuals per hectare, respectively. A total of 16 woody species, representing 12 families were recorded in the study site. Out of the 12 families, all were recorded in the exclosure while 5 were recorded in the degraded site. Out of the 16 species, 15 were recorded in the exclosure while six were in the degraded site. A total of 10 species were recorded in the exclosure, which were absent in the degraded site. Similarly, one species was recorded in the degraded site which was not present in the exclosure. The results showed that protecting of degraded site from human and animal disturbances promotes woody plant species regenerations and productivity Apart from increasing woody plant species, the local communities have benefited from the exclosure in the form of both products (grass harvesting) and services (ecological). Due to this reason the local communities have positive attitudes and contribute a lot for the success of enclosures in the study site. The present study clearly showed that area closure interventions should be oriented towards managing and improving the productivity of the degraded land, in such a way that both the need for conservation of biodiversity and environmental sustainability, and the demands of the local people for biomass resources can be achieved.

Keywords: degraded land, exclosure, land restoration, woody vegetation

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32 A New Type Safety-Door for Earthquake Disaster Prevention: Part I

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


From the past earthquake events, many people get hurt at the exit while they are trying to go out of the buildings because of the exit doors are unable to be opened. The door is not opened because it deviates from its the original position. The aim of this research is to develop and evaluate a new type safety door that keeps the door frame in its original position or keeps its edge angles perpendicular during and post-earthquake. The proposed door is composed of three components: outer frame joined to the wall, inner frame (door frame) and circular hollow section connected to the inner and outer frame which is used as seismic energy dissipating device.

Keywords: safety-door, earthquake disaster, low yield point steel, passive energy dissipating device, FE analysis

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31 A Framework for Green Use and Disposal of Information Communication Technology Devices

Authors: Frezer Alem Kebede


The notion of viewing ICT as merely support for the business process has shifted towards viewing ICT as a critical business enabler. As such, the need for ICT devices has increased, contributing to high electronic equipment acquisition and disposal. Hence, its use and disposal must be seen in light of environmental sustainability, i.e., in terms of green use and disposal. However, there are limited studies on green Use and Disposal framework to be used as guiding lens by organizations in developing countries. And this study endeavors to address that need taking one of the largest multinational ICT intensive company in the country. The design and development of this framework passed through several stages, initially factors affecting green use and disposal were identified after quantitative and qualitative data analysis then there were multiple brainstorming sessions for the design enhancement as participative modelling was employed. Given the difference in scope and magnitude of the challenges identified, the proposed framework approaches green use and disposal in four imperatives; strategically, tactically, operationally and through continuous improvement.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green disposal, green ICT, green use, green use and disposal framework, sustainability

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30 Analytical Evaluation on Structural Performance and Optimum Section of CHS Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jeonghyun Jang, Jaehyouk Choi


This study aims to evaluate the effective size, section and structural characteristics of circular hollow steel (CHS) damper. CHS damper is among steel dampers which are used widely for seismic energy dissipation because they are easy to install, maintain and are inexpensive. CHS damper dissipates seismic energy through metallic deformation due to the geometrical elasticity of circular shape and fatigue resistance around connection part. After calculating the effective size, which is found to be height to diameter ratio of √("3"), nonlinear FE analyses were carried out to evaluate the structural characteristics and effective section (diameter-to-ratio).

Keywords: circular hollow steel damper, structural characteristics, effective size, effective section, large deformation, FE analysis

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29 Passive Seismic Energy Dissipation Mechanisms for Smart Green Structural System (SGSS)

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


The design philosophy of building structure has been changing over time. The reason behind this is an increase in human interest regarding the improvements in building materials and technology that will affect how we live, the aim to speed up construction period, and the environmental effect which includes earthquakes and other natural disasters. One technique which takes into account the above case is using a prefabricable structural system, in which each and every structural element is designed and prefabricated and assembled on a site so that the construction speed is increased and the environmental impact is also enhanced. This system has immense advantages such as reduced construction cost, reusability, recyclability, faster construction period and less enviromental effect. In this study, some of the developed and evaluated structural elements of building structures are presented.

Keywords: eccentrically braced frame, natural disaster, prefabricable structural system, removable link, SGSS

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28 Evaluation on Effective Size and Hysteresis Characteristics of CHS Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


This study aims to evaluate the effective size and hysteresis characteristics of Circular Hollow Steel (CHS) damper. CHS damper is among steel dampers which are used widely for seismic energy dissipation because they are easy to install, maintain and are low cost. CHS damper dissipates seismic energy through metallic deformation due to the geometrical elasticity of circular shape and fatigue resistance around connection part. After calculating the effective size, which is found to be height to diameter ratio of √ ("3”), nonlinear FE analyses were conducted to evaluate the hysteresis characteristics. To verify the analysis simulation quasi static loading was carried out and the result was compared and satisfactory result was obtained.

Keywords: SS400 steel, circular hollow steel damper, effective size, quasi static loading, FE analysis

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27 Information Exchange Process Analysis between Authoring Design Tools and Lighting Simulation Tools

Authors: Rudan Xue, Annika Moscati, Rehel Zeleke Kebede, Peter Johansson


Successful buildings’ simulation and analysis inevitably require information exchange between multiple building information modeling (BIM) software. The BIM infor-mation exchange based on IFC is widely used. However, Industry Foundation Classifi-cation (IFC) files are not always reliable and information can get lost when using dif-ferent software for modeling and simulations. In this research, interviews with lighting simulation experts and a case study provided by a company producing lighting devices have been the research methods used to identify the necessary steps and data for suc-cessful information exchange between lighting simulation tools and authoring design tools. Model creation, information exchange, and model simulation have been identi-fied as key aspects for the success of information exchange. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved information exchange and more reliable simulations that take all the needed parameters into consideration.

Keywords: BIM, data exchange, interoperability issues, lighting simulations

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26 Analytical Investigation of Replaceable Links with Reduced Web Section for Link-to-Column Connections in Eccentrically Braced Frames

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Sijeong Jeong, Jaehyouk Choi


The use of eccentrically braced frame (EBF) is increasing day by day as EBF possesses high elastic stiffness, stable inelastic response under cyclic lateral loading, and excellent ductility and energy dissipation capacity. The ductility and energy dissipation capacity of EBF depends on the active link beams. Recently, there are two types EBFs; these are conventional EBFs and EBFs with replaceable links. The conventional EBF has a disadvantage during maintenance in post-earthquake. The concept of removable active link beam in EBF is developed to overcome the limitation of the conventional EBF in post-earthquake. In this study, a replaceable link with reduced web section is introduced and design equations are suggested. In addition, nonlinear finite element analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the proposed links.

Keywords: EBFs, replaceable link, earthquake disaster, reduced section

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25 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie


In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

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24 Development and Structural Performance Evaluation on Slit Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of slit circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. The main parameters considered are: diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio and slit length-to-width ratio (l/w). Depending on these parameters three different buckling modes and hysteretic behaviors were found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation, and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. The susceptible location at which the possible crack is initiated is also identified for selected specimens using rupture index.

Keywords: slit circular shear panel damper, hysteresis characteristics, slip length-to-width ratio, D/t ratio, FE analysis

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23 Design of Reduced Links for Link-to-Column Connections in Eccentrically Braced Frames

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


Link-to-column connection in eccentrically braced frames (EBF) has been a critical problem since the link flange connected to the column fractured prior to the required link rotation. Even though the problem in link-to-column connection still exist, the use of an eccentrically braced frame (EBF) is increasing day by day as EBF have high elastic stiffness, stable inelastic response under repeated lateral loading, and excellent ductility and energy dissipation capacity. In order to address this problem, a reduced web and flange link section is proposed and evaluated in this study. Reducing the web with holes makes the link to control the failure at the edge of holes introduced. Reducing the flange allows the link to control the location at which the plastic hinge is formed. Thus, the failure supposed to occur in the link flange connected at the connection move to the web and to the reduced link flange. Nonlinear FE analysis and experimental investigations have been done on the developed links, and the result shows that the link satisfies the plastic rotation limit recommended in AICS-360-10. Design equations that define the behavior of the proposed link have been recommended, and the equations were verified through the experimental and FE analysis results.

Keywords: EBFs, earthquake disaster, link-to-column connection, reduced link section

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
22 Analytical Evaluation on Hysteresis Performance of Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


The idea of adding metallic energy dissipaters to a structure to absorb a large part of the seismic energy began four decades ago. There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of both stiffened and non stiffened circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. Diameter-to-thickness ratio is employed as main parameter to investigate the hysteresis performance of stiffened and unstiffened circular shear panel. Depending on these parameters three different buckling mode and hysteretic behavior was found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. Hence, the hysteresis behavior is identified, specimens which deform without strength degradation so it will be used as passive energy dissipating device in civil engineering structures.

Keywords: circular shear panel damper, FE analysis, hysteretic behavior, large deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
21 DLCCDP: A Deep Learning Approach for the Classification of Car Damage Parts

Authors: Michael Abebe Berwo, Yong Fang, Jabar Mahmood


Car damaged parts classification is an important discipline with a wide range of computer applications that classifies car parts based on input images. However, the success of the car’s damaged parts evaluation is dependent on the technician’s ability and knowledge to carry out the inspection. Automatic classification utilizing Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) can help improve the speed with which these damaged parts are repaired. Transfer learning of DCNN pre-trained models such as DenseNet-121, DenseNet-161, DenseNet-169, DenseNet-201, ResNet-50, and ResNet-101 was performed using various measures: fine-tuning (FT) with learned parameters and generated images, and FT with learned parameters and generated images. The FT with data augmentation achieved great outcomes in pre-trained networks. The ResNet-50 outstanding-performing neural network was chosen for car damage part classification, with an AUC, accuracy, recall, F-Score, and precision of 98.97%, 99.31%, 98.16%, 98.15%, and 98.18%, respectively, for the test dataset, which was independently preserved. A deep model-based transfer learning architecture can assist car insurance and rental companies, as well as professionals, in inspecting parts related to damage in car images. So, this quick method can help save time and money and cut down on delays in processing claims.

Keywords: car damage part classification, data augmentation, deep learning, pre-trained models, transfer learning

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20 Magnetized Cellulose Nanofiber Extracted from Natural Resources for the Application of Hexavalent Chromium Removal Using the Adsorption Method

Authors: Kebede Gamo Sebehanie, Olu Emmanuel Femi, Alberto Velázquez Del Rosario, Abubeker Yimam Ali, Gudeta Jafo Muleta


Water pollution is one of the most serious worldwide issues today. Among water pollution, heavy metals are becoming a concern to the environment and human health due to their non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation. In this study, a magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite derived from renewable resources is employed for hexavalent chromium elimination by adsorption. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized directly from iron ore using solvent extraction and co-precipitation technique. Cellulose nanofiber was extracted from sugarcane bagasse using the alkaline treatment and acid hydrolysis method. Before and after the adsorption process, the MNPs-CNF composites were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Vibrator sample magnetometer (VSM), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The impacts of several parameters such as pH, contact time, initial pollutant concentration, and adsorbent dose on adsorption efficiency and capacity were examined. The kinetic and isotherm adsorption of Cr (VI) was also studied. The highest removal was obtained at pH 3, and it took 80 minutes to establish adsorption equilibrium. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used, and the experimental data fit well with the Langmuir model, which has a maximum adsorption capacity of 8.27 mg/g. The kinetic study of the adsorption process using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations revealed that the pseudo-second-order equation was more suited for representing the adsorption kinetic data. Based on the findings, pure MNPs and MNPs-CNF nanocomposites could be used as effective adsorbents for the removal of Cr (VI) from wastewater.

Keywords: magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite, hexavalent chromium, adsorption, sugarcane bagasse

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19 The Endocrinology of Obesity and Dejenerative Joint Disease

Authors: Kebret Kebede, Anthony Scinta


Obesity is the most prevalent global problem that continues to rise at alarming rates both in the industrialized and developing countries. Adipose tissue is an endocrine tissue that secretes numerous chemical signals, hormones, lipids, cytokines and coagulation factors as well as prompting insulin resistance which is a primary contributor to Type II Diabetes- one of its most common adverse effects on health. Other hormones whose levels are linked to obesity and nutritional state are leptin, IGF-1, and adiponectin. Several studies indicate that obesity is the leading cause of high levels of cholesterol that leads to fatty liver disease, gallstones, hypertension, increased risk for cancer and degenerative joint disease that primarily affects the weight bearing joints of the lower extremities. The activation of inflammatory pathways promotes synovial pathology that results in accelerated degeneration of the joints. The study examines the prevalence of obesity in the US female population in comparison to that of the developing world and its emergence as a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in degenerative disease of the hip and knee joints that has resulted in staggering healthcare cost. Studies have shown that as the prevalence of obesity rises, we continue to see a rise in degenerative joint disease. The percentage of arthritis cases linked directly to obesity has risen from 3 percent in 1971 to 18 percent in 2002. A person with obesity is around 60 percent more likely to develop arthritis than someone of normal body weight. In women, obesity is associated with increased mortality from breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer that may accompany debilitating joint diseases and restricted mobility.

Keywords: obesity, endocrine, degenerative, mortality, joint diseases, cancer, debilitating, mobility

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18 Multi-Point Dieless Forming Product Defect Reduction Using Reliability-Based Robust Process Optimization

Authors: Misganaw Abebe Baye, Ji-Woo Park, Beom-Soo Kang


The product quality of multi-point dieless forming (MDF) is identified to be dependent on the process parameters. Moreover, a certain variation of friction and material properties may have a substantially worse influence on the final product quality. This study proposed on how to compensate the MDF product defects by minimizing the sensitivity of noise parameter variations. This can be attained by reliability-based robust optimization (RRO) technique to obtain the optimal process setting of the controllable parameters. Initially two MDF Finite Element (FE) simulations of AA3003-H14 saddle shape showed a substantial amount of dimpling, wrinkling, and shape error. FE analyses are consequently applied on ABAQUS commercial software to obtain the correlation between the control process setting and noise variation with regard to the product defects. The best prediction models are chosen from the family of metamodels to swap the computational expensive FE simulation. Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to determine the optimal process settings of the control parameters. Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is executed to determine how the noise parameter variation affects the final product quality. Finally, the RRO FE simulation and the experimental result show that the amendment of the control parameters in the final forming process leads to a considerably better-quality product.

Keywords: dimpling, multi-point dieless forming, reliability-based robust optimization, shape error, variation, wrinkling

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17 Effect of Li-excess on Electrochemical Performance of Ni-rich LiNi₀.₉Co₀.₀₉Mn₀.₀₉O₂ Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

Authors: Eyob Belew Abebe


Nickel-rich layered oxide cathode materials having a Ni content of ≥ 90% have great potential for use in next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to their high energy densities and relatively low cost. They suffer, however, from poor cycling performance and rate capability, significantly hampering their widespread applicability. In this study we synthesized a Ni-rich precursor through a co-precipitation method and added different amounts of Li-excess on the precursors using a solid-state method to obtain sintered Li1+x(Ni0.9Co0.05Mn0.05)1–xO2 (denoted as L1+x-NCM; x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08) transition metal (TM) oxide cathode materials. The L1+x-NCM cathode having a Li-excess of 4% exhibited a discharge capacity of ca. 216.17 mAh g–1 at 2.7–4.3 V, 0.1C and retained 95.7% of its initial discharge capacity (ca. 181.39 mAh g–1) after 100 cycles of 1C charge/discharge which is the best performance as compared with stoichiometric Li1+x(Ni0.9Co0.05Mn0.05)1-xO2 (i.e. x=0, Li:TM = 1:1). Furthermore, a high-rate capability of ca. 162.92 mAh g–1 at a rate of 10C, led to the 4% Li-excess optimizing the electrochemical performance, relative to the other Li-excess samples. Ex/in-situ X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the 4% Li-excess in the Ni-rich NCM90 cathode material: (i). decreased the Li+/Ni2+ disorder by increasing the content of Ni3+ in the TM slab, (ii). increased the crystallinity, and (iii). accelerated Li+ ion transport by widening the Li-slab. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the appropriate Li-excess lowered the electrochemical impedance and improved the reversibility of the electrochemical reaction. Therefore, our results revealed that NCM90 cathode materials featuring an optimal Li-excess are potential candidates for use in next-generation Li-ion batteries.

Keywords: LiNi₀.₉Co₀.₀₉Mn₀.₀₉O₂, li-excess, cation mixing, structure change, cycle stability, electrochemical properties

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16 Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Pelleted or Non-Pelleted Diets, Containing Graded Levels of Raw Full-Fat Soybean

Authors: G. Berhane, F. Kebede


A feeding trial was conducted to enhance the utilization of locally produced full-fat soybean by the broiler industry. The study had three phases such as starter (1-14d), grower (15–28d), and finisher (29–49d) phases. A completely randomized design (CRD) was used in the starter phase with three treatments (commercial soybean meal (SBM) was replaced by raw full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 0, 10, or 20%), and each was replicated eight times. A total of 408 unsexed one-day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to replicates. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was used in both second (grower) and third (finisher) phase trials, which had six experimental diets. These six treatments were formed by dividing the original three diets (containing 0, 10, or 20% of RFSB into two and then by pelleting anyone from each respective group and leaving the other as mash. Every treatment had four replications and 17 birds in each. Chemical compositions of feed ingredients were analyzed, and data on the initial body weight of chicks, feed offered, feed leftover, body weight (BW) of chickens, and mortality were collected. At the end of the experiment, two birds (one male and one female) per replicate were randomly selected and humanly slaughtered. Weights of dressed, eviscerated, cut parts of the carcass and visceral organs were weighed and recorded. Results indicated that feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), BW, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers were not significantly affected (P=0.05) by supplementation of a leveled RFSB on diets at starter, grower, and finisher phases. The FI at the finisher stage was also significantly (P=0.05) influenced by the feed forms. However, weights of dressed, eviscerated, cut parts of the carcass and visceral organs were not significantly (P=0.05) affected by both RFSB supplementation, up to 20%, and feed forms. It is concluded that commercial SBM can be replaced by locally produced RFSB up to 20% without pelleting the diets.

Keywords: broilers, carcass characteristics, raw full-fat soybean, weight gain

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15 [Keynote Talk]: Caught in the Tractorbeam of Larger Influences: The Filtration of Innovation in Education Technology Design

Authors: Justin D. Olmanson, Fitsum Abebe, Valerie Jones, Eric Kyle, Xianquan Liu, Katherine Robbins, Guieswende Rouamba


The history of education technology--and designing, adapting, and adopting technologies for use in educational spaces--is nuanced, complex, and dynamic. Yet, despite a range of continually emerging technologies, the design and development process often yields results that appear quite similar in terms of affordances and interactions. Through this study we (1) verify the extent to which designs have been constrained, (2) consider what might account for it, and (3) offer a way forward in terms of how we might identify and strategically sidestep these influences--thereby increasing the diversity of our designs with a given technology or within a particular learning domain. We begin our inquiry from the perspective that a host of co-influencing elements, fields, and meta narratives converge on the education technology design process to exert a tangible, often homogenizing effect on the resultant designs. We identify several elements that influence design in often implicit or unquestioned ways (e.g. curriculum, learning theory, economics, learning context, pedagogy), we describe our methodology for identifying the elemental positionality embedded in a design, we direct our analysis to a particular subset of technologies in the field of literacy, and unpack our findings. Our early analysis suggests that the majority of education technologies designed for use/used in US public schools are heavily influenced by a handful of mainstream theories and meta narratives. These findings have implications for how we approach the education technology design process--which we use to suggest alternative methods for designing/ developing with emerging technologies. Our analytical process and re conceptualized design process hold the potential to diversify the ways emerging and established technologies get incorporated into our designs.

Keywords: curriculum, design, innovation, meta narratives

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14 Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Children Aged 6-59 Months at Hidabu Abote District, North Shewa, Oromia Regional State

Authors: Kebede Mengistu, Kassahun Alemu, Bikes Destaw


Introduction: Malnutrition continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries. It is the most important risk factor for the burden of diseases. It causes about 300, 000 deaths per year and responsible for more than half of all deaths in children. In Ethiopia, child malnutrition rate is one of the most serious public health problem and the highest in the world. High malnutrition rates in the country pose a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. Objective: To assess prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months at Hidabu Abote district, North shewa, Oromia. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted on 820 children aged 6-59 months from September 8-23, 2012 at Hidabu Abote district. Multistage sampling method was used to select households. Children were selected from each kebeles by simple random sampling. Anthropometric measurements and structured questioners were used. Data was processed using EPi-info soft ware and exported to SPSS for analysis. Then after, sex, age, months, height, and weight transferred with HHs number to ENA for SMART 2007software to convert nutritional data into Z-scores of the indices; H/A, W/H and W/A. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors of malnutrition. Results: The analysis this study revealed that, 47.6%, 30.9% and 16.7% of children were stunted, underweight and wasted, respectively. The main associated factors of stunting were found to be child age, family monthly income, children were received butter as pre-lacteal feeding and family planning. Underweight was associated with number of children HHs and children were received butter as per-lacteal feeding but un treatment of water in HHs only associated with wasting. Conclusion and recommendation: From the findings of this study, it is concluded that malnutrition is still an important problem among children aged 6-59 months. Therefore, especial attention should be given on intervention of malnutrition.

Keywords: children, Hidabu Abote district, malnutrition, public health

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13 A Systematic Categorization of Arguments against the Vision Zero Goal: A Literature Review

Authors: Henok Girma Abebe


The Vision Zero is a long-term goal of preventing all road traffic fatalities and serious injuries which was first adopted in Sweden in 1997. It is based on the assumption that death and serious injury in the road system is morally unacceptable. In order to approach this end, vision zero has put in place strategies that are radically different from the traditional safety work. The vision zero, for instance, promoted the adoption of the best available technology to promote safety, and placed the ultimate responsibility for traffic safety on system designers. Despite Vision Zero’s moral appeal and its expansion to different safety areas and also parts of the world, important philosophical concerns related to the adoption and implementation of the vision zero remain to be addressed. Moreover, the vision zero goal has been criticized on different grounds. The aim of this paper is to identify and systematically categorize criticisms that have been put forward against vision zero. The findings of the paper are solely based on a critical analysis of secondary sources and snowball method is employed to identify the relevant philosophical and empirical literatures. Two general categories of criticisms on the vision zero goal are identified. The first category consists of criticisms that target the setting of vision zero as a ‘goal’ and some of the basic assumptions upon which the goal is based. Among others, the goal of achieving zero fatalities and serious injuries, together with vision zero’s lexicographical prioritization of safety has been criticized as unrealistic. The second category consists of criticisms that target the strategies put in place to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries. For instance, Vision zero’s responsibility ascription for road safety and its rejection of cost-benefit analysis in the formulation and adoption of safety measures has both been criticized as counterproductive. In this category also falls the criticism that Vision Zero safety measures tend to be too paternalistic. Significant improvements have been recorded in road safety work since the adoption of vision zero, however, for the vision zero to even succeed more, it is important that issues and criticisms of philosophical nature associated with it are identified and critically dealt with.

Keywords: criticisms, systems approach, traffic safety, vision zero

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12 Adsorption of Phosphate from Aqueous Solution Using Filter Cake for Urban Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Girmaye Abebe, Brook Lemma


Adsorption of phosphorus (P as PO43-) in filter cake was studied to assess the media's capability in removing phosphorous from wastewaters. The composition of the filter cake that was generated from alum manufacturing process as waste residue has high amount of silicate from the complete silicate analysis of the experiment. Series of batches adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate parameters that influence the adsorption capacity of PO43-. The factors studied include the effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, thermal pretreatment of the adsorbent, neutralization of the adsorbent, initial PO43- concentration, pH of the solution and effect of co-existing anions. Results showed that adsorption of PO43- is fairly rapid in first 5 min and after that it increases slowly to reach the equilibrium in about 1 h. The treatment efficiency of PO43- was increased with adsorbent extent. About 90% removal efficiency was increased within 1 h at an optimum adsorbent dose of 10 g/L for initial PO43- concentration of 10 mg/L. The amount of PO43- adsorbed increased with increasing initial PO43- concentration. Heat treatment and surface neutralization of the adsorbent did not improve the PO43- removal capacity and efficiency. The percentage of PO43- removal remains nearly constant within the pH range of 3-8. The adsorption data at ambient pH were well fitted to the Langmuir Isotherm and Dubinin–Radushkevick (D–R) isotherm model with a capacity of 25.84 and 157.55 mg/g of the adsorbent respectively. The adsorption kinetic was found to follow a pseudo-second-order rate equation with an average rate constant of 3.76 g.min−−1. The presence of bicarbonate or carbonate at higher concentrations (10–1000 mg/L) decreased the PO43- removal efficiency slightly while other anions (Cl-, SO42-, and NO3-) have no significant effect within the concentration range tested. The overall result shows that the filter cake is an efficient PO43- removing adsorbent against many parameters.

Keywords: wastewater, filter cake, adsorption capacity, phosphate (PO43-)

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11 Assessment of the Effects of Water Harvesting Technology on Downstream Water Availability Using SWAT Model

Authors: Ayalkibet Mekonnen, Adane Abebe


In hydrological cycle there are many water-related human interventions that modify the natural systems. Rainwater harvesting is one such intervention that involves harnessing of water in the upstream. Water harvesting used in upstream prevents water runoff on downstream mainly disturbance on biodiversity and ecosystems. The main objectives of the study are to assess the effects of water harvesting technologies on downstream water availability in the Woreda. To address the above problem, SWAT model, cost-benefit ratio and optimal control approach was used to analyse the hydrological and socioeconomic impact and tradeoffs on water availability of the community, respectively. The downstream impacts of increasing water consumption in the upstream rain-fed areas of the Bilate and Shala Catchment are simulated using the semi-distributed SWAT model. The two land use scenarios tested at sub basin levels (1) conventional land use represents the current land use practice (Agri-CON) and (2) in-field rainwater harvesting (IRWH), improving soil water availability through rainwater harvesting land use scenario. The simulated water balance results showed that the highest peak mean monthly direct flow obtained from Agri-CON land use (127.1 m3/ha), followed by Agri-IRWH land use (11.5 mm) and LULC 2005 (90.1 m3/ha). The Agri-IRWH scenario reduced direct flow by 10% compared to Agri-CON and more groundwater flow contributed by Agri-IRWH (190 m3/ha) than Agri-CON (125 m3/ha). The overall result suggests that the water yield of the Woreda may not be negatively affected by the Agri-IRWH land use scenario. The technology in the Woreda benefited positively having an average benefit cost ratio of 4.2. Water harvesting for domestic use was not optimal that the value of the water per demand harvested was less than the amount of water needed. Storage tanks, series of check dams, gravel filled dams are an alternative solutions for water harvesting.

Keywords: water harvesting, SWAT model, land use scenario, Agri-CON, Agri-IRWH, trade off, benefit cost ratio

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10 Extreme Heat and Workforce Health in Southern Nevada

Authors: Erick R. Bandala, Kebret Kebede, Nicole Johnson, Rebecca Murray, Destiny Green, John Mejia, Polioptro Martinez-Austria


Summertemperature data from Clark County was collected and used to estimate two different heat-related indexes: the heat index (HI) and excess heat factor (EHF). These two indexes were used jointly with data of health-related deaths in Clark County to assess the effect of extreme heat on the exposed population. The trends of the heat indexes were then analyzed for the 2007-2016 decadeandthe correlation between heat wave episodes and the number of heat-related deaths in the area was estimated. The HI showed that this value has increased significantly in June, July, and August over the last ten years. The same trend was found for the EHF, which showed a clear increase in the severity and number of these events per year. The number of heat wave episodes increased from 1.4 per year during the 1980-2016 period to 1.66 per yearduring the 2007-2016 period. However, a different trend was found for heat-wave-event duration, which decreasedfrom an average of 20.4 days during the trans-decadal period (1980-2016) to 18.1 days during the most recent decade(2007-2016). The number of heat-related deaths was also found to increase from 2007 to 2016, with 2016 with the highest number of heat-related deaths. Both HI and the number of deaths showeda normal-like distribution for June, July, and August, with the peak values reached in late July and early August. The average maximum HI values better correlated with the number of deaths registered in Clark County than the EHF, probably because HI uses the maximum temperature and humidity in its estimation,whereas EHF uses the average medium temperature. However, it is worth testing the EHF of the study zone because it was reported to fit properly in the case of heat-related morbidity. For the overall period, 437 heat-related deaths were registered in Clark County, with 20% of the deaths occurring in June, 52% occurring in July, 18% occurring in August,and the remaining 10% occurring in the other months of the year. The most vulnerable subpopulation was people over 50 years old, for which 76% of the heat-related deaths were registered.Most of the cases were associated with heart disease preconditions. The second most vulnerable subpopulation was young adults (20-50), which accounted for 23% of the heat-related deaths. These deathswere associated with alcoholic/illegal drug intoxication.

Keywords: heat, health, hazards, workforce

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