Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Lichen Sun

12 Distribution of Epiphytic Lichen Biodiversity and Comparision with Their Preferred Tree Species around the Şeker Canyon, Karabük, Turkey

Authors: Hatice Esra Akgül, Celaleddin Öztürk

Abstract:

Lichen biodiversity in forests is controlled by environmental conditions. Epiphytic lichens have some degree of substrate specificity. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens are affected by humidity, light, altitude, temperature, bark pH of the trees.This study describes the epiphytic lichen communities with comparing their preferred tree species. 34 epiphytic lichen taxa are reported on Pinus sp. L., Quercus sp. L., Fagus sp. L., Carpinus sp. L., Abies sp. Mill., Fraxinus sp. Tourn. ex L. from different altitudes around the Şeker Canyon (Karabük, Turkey). 11 of these taxa are growing on Quercus sp., 10 of them are growing on Fagus sp., 7 of them are growing on Pinus sp., 4 of them are on Carpinus sp., 2 of them are on Abies sp. and one of them is on Fraxinus sp. Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. is growing on both of Fagus sp. and Quercus sp. Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach. is growing on both of Abies sp. and Quercus sp.

Keywords: biodiversity, epiphytic lichen, forest, Turkey

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11 Oral Lichen Planus a Manifestation of Grinspan's Syndrome or a Lichenoid Reaction to Medication

Authors: Sahar Iqrar, Malik Adeel Anwar, Zain Akram, Maria Noor

Abstract:

Introduction: Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory condition of unknown etiology. Oral lichen planus may be related with several other diseases. Grinspan's Syndrome is characterized by a triad of oral lichen planus, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Other associations reported in the literature are with chronic liver disease and, with dyslipidemia. The nature of these associations is still not fully understood. Material and methods: Study was conducted in Department of Oral Medicine, Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan. A total of n=89 clinically diagnosed patients of oral lichen planus of both gender and all age groups were recruited and detailed history were recorded in the designed performs. Results: A total of n=89 patients were taken with male to female ratio of 3:8 in which 24 were male and 65 females. Mean age was 48.8 ± 13.8 years. Age range of 10-74 years was seen. Among these patients suffering from oral lichen planus, 41.6% (n=37) had a positive history for hypertension with 59.5% (n=22) of these patients were taking different medication for their condition. Whereas Diabetes Mellitus was found in 24.7% (n=22) patients with 72.7% (n=16) of these patients using the hypoglycemic drug (oral or injectable) to control their blood glucose levels. Out of these n=89 lichen planus patients 21.3% had both hypertension and diabetes mellitus (fulfilling the criteria for Grinspan's Syndrome). Out of this Grinspan's Syndrome pool 94.7% (n=19) were taking drug atleast for one of the two conditions. Conclusion: As noticed form the medical history of the patients, most of them were using hypoglycemic drugs for diabetes mellitus and beta blockers, diuretics and calcium channel blockers for hypertension. These drugs are known for lichenoid reaction. Therefore, it should be ruled out at histopathological/ immunological and molecular level whether these patients are suffering from lichen planus or lichenoid drug reaction to truly declare them as patients with Grinspan’s Syndrome.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, grinspan's syndrome, lichenoid drug reaction, oral lichen planus

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10 Unexplored Anti-HCV Potential of Lichen rangiferinus: An in Vitro Study over Virus Cultures

Authors: Ila Shukla, Lubna Azmi, Shyam Sunder Gupta, C. V. Rao

Abstract:

Treatments against Hepatitis-C virus (HCV) are already available, but the current high cost of such treatments limit them to wealthy patients only. Hence our current study is aimed at the rectification of HCV infection by using Lichen rangiferinus (LRE) extract in in vitro cultures. Anti-HCV activity of the given extract was evaluated using the virus grown in cell culture (HCVcc). Two control inhibitors, erlotinib and telaprevir, were systematically included in each experiment. At the end of the incubation period, we evaluated cell viability and viral replication. The LRE inhibited the growth of HCV in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: Erlotinib, Hepatitis C, Lichen rangiferinus, Telaprevir

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9 TNF-α, TNF-β and IL-10 Gene Polymorphism and Association with Oral Lichen Planus Risk in Saudi Patients

Authors: Maha Ali Al-Mohaya, Lubna Majed Al-Otaibi, Ebtissam Nassir Al-Bakr, Abdulrahman Al-Asmari

Abstract:

Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease. Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of OLP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF-β and interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphisms with the OLP risk. Material and Methods: Forty-two unrelated patients with OLP and 211 healthy volunteers were genotyped for TNF-α (-308 G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G), IL-10 (-1082G/A), IL-10 (-819C/T), and IL-10 (-592C/A) polymorphisms. Results: The frequencies of allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) were significantly higher while allele G and GG genotypes were lower in OLP patients as compared to the controls (P < 0.001). The frequency of GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) was significantly higher in patients than in controls while the AA genotype was completely absent in OLP patients. These results indicated that allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) as well as the GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms are associated with OLP risk. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of -1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A polymorphisms in IL-10 gene did not differ significantly between OLP patients and controls (P > 0.05). However, haplotype ATA extracted from 1082G/A, -819C/T, -592C/A polymorphisms of IL-10 were more prevalent in OLP patients when compared to controls indicating its possible association with OLP susceptibility. Conclusion: It is concluded that TNF-α (-308G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G) and IL-10 (-1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A) polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility of OLP, thus giving additional support for the genetic basis of this disease. Further studies are required using a larger sample size to confirm this association and determine the prognostic values of these findings.

Keywords: oral lichen planus, cytokines, polymorphism, genetic

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8 Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Fruticose Lichen Roccella montagnei, and It’s in Silico Docking Study against CDK-10

Authors: Tripti Mishra, Shipra Shukla, Sanjeev Meena, , Ruchi Singh, Mahesh Pal, D. K. Upreti, Dipak Datta

Abstract:

Roccella montagnei belongs to lichen family Roccelleceae growing luxuriantly along the coastal regions of India. As Roccella has been shown to be bioactive, we prepared methanolic extract and assessed its anticancer potential. The methanolic extract showed significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines such as Colon (DLD-1, SW-620), Breast (MCF-7), Head and Neck (FaDu). This prompted us to isolate bioactive compounds through column chromatography. Two compounds Roccellic acid and Everninic acid have been isolated, out of which Everninic acid is reported for the first time. Both the compounds have been tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity in which Roccellic acid showed strong anticancer activity as compared to the Everninic acid. CDK-10 (Cyclin-dependent kinase) contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. These kinases, therefore, constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmacological targets for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Therefore both the isolated compounds were tested for in silico molecular docking study against CDK-10 isomer enzyme to support the cytotoxic activity.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, everninic acid, roccellic acid, R. montagnei

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7 Meld of Lactobacillus and Rangiferinus for Emendation of Endotoxemia in Alcoholic Liver Damage in Rats

Authors: Shukla Ila, Azmi Lubna, S. S. Gupta, Ch. V. Rao

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Oxidative stress has been increasingly associated with the induction and progression of liver damage. The current study was conducted to record the effect of combination of Lactobacillus and Lichen rangiferinus extract (LRE + Lac) on the severity of injury in experimental alcoholic liver disease and how it affects plasma levels of prostaglandin E2, endotoxin, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4. Male Wistar rats were grouped into five comprising six animals in each group. Group 1 served as negative control. Groups 2-5 were administered 10% ethanol for six weeks. Group 3 was administered with extract (200 mg/kg), group 4 received the diet containing 10% ethanol plus a bolus of lactobacilli GG (1010 CFU), and group 5 animals were given silymarin along with alcohol and it served as positive control. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein content, γ-glutamyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase, oxidative stress markers, glutathione, malondialdehyde and glutathione reductase were determined using standard diagnostic kits. Histopathological analysis of liver tissue was also made. A positive relation was found between plasma endotoxin levels and degree of liver injury. The pathology records were also related positively with leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2. But a negative correlation was obtained with PgE2 levels. This study led us to hypothesize that the increased endotoxin levels modulate liver metabolism of eicosanoid, which gradually leads to liver injury. Endotoxemia increases leukotriene and thromboxane levels in plasma.

Keywords: lactobacillus, Lichen rangiferinus, endotoxemia, silymarin

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6 Distribution and Diversity of Pyrenocarpous Lichens in India with Special Reference to Forest Health

Authors: Gaurav Kumar Mishra, Sanjeeva Nayaka, Dalip Kumar Upreti

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Our nature exhibited presence of a number of unique plants which can be used as indicator of environmental condition of particular place. Lichens are unique plant which has an ability to absorb not only organic, inorganic and metaloties but also absorb radioactive nuclide substances present in the environment. In the present study pyrenocarpous lichens will used as indicator of good forest health in a particular place. The Pyrenocarpous lichens are simple crust forming with black dot like perithecia have few characters for their taxonomical segregation as compared to their foliose and fruticose brethrean. The thallus colour and nature, presence and absence of hypothallus are only few characters of thallus are used to segregate the pyrenocarpous taxa. The fruiting bodies of pyrenolichens i.e. ascocarps are perithecia. The perithecia and the contents found within them posses many important criteria for the segregation of pyrenocarpous lichen taxa. The ascocarp morphology, ascocarp arrangement, the perithecial wall, ascocarp shape and colour, ostiole shape and position, ostiole colour, ascocarp anatomy including type of paraphyses, asci shape and size, ascospores septation, ascospores wall and periphyses are the valuable charcters used for segregation of different pyrenocarpous lichen taxa. India is represented by the occurrence of the 350 species of 44 genera and eleven families. Among the different genera Pyrenula is dominant with 82 species followed by the Porina with 70 species. Recently, systematic of the pyrenocarpous lichens have been revised by American and European lichenologists using phylogenetic methods. Still the taxonomy of pyrenocarpous lichens is in flux and information generated after the completion of this study will play vital role in settlement of the taxonomy of this peculiar group of lichens worldwide. The Indian Himalayan region exhibit rich diversity of pyrenocarpous lichens in India. The western Himalayan region has luxuriance of pyrenocarpous lichens due to its unique topography and climate condition. However, the eastern Himalayan region has rich diversity of pyrenocarpous lichens due to its warmer and moist climate condition. The rich moist and warmer climate in eastern Himalayan region supports forest with dominance of evergreen tree vegetation. The pyrenocarpous lichens communities are good indicator of young and regenerated forest type. The rich diversity of lichens clearly indicates that moist of the forest within the eastern Himalayan region has good health of forest. Due to fast pace of urbanization and other developmental activities will defiantly have adverse effects on the diversity and distribution of pyrenocarpous lichens in different forest type and the present distribution pattern will act as baseline data for carried out future biomonitoring studies in the area.

Keywords: lichen diversity, indicator species, environmental factors, pyrenocarpous

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5 A Study of Structural Damage Detection for Spacecraft In-Orbit Based on Acoustic Sensor Array

Authors: Lei Qi, Rongxin Yan, Lichen Sun

Abstract:

With the increasing of human space activities, the number of space debris has increased dramatically, and the possibility that spacecrafts on orbit are impacted by space debris is growing. A method is of the vital significance to real-time detect and assess spacecraft damage, determine of gas leak accurately, guarantee the life safety of the astronaut effectively. In this paper, acoustic sensor array is used to detect the acoustic signal which emits from the damage of the spacecraft on orbit. Then, we apply the time difference of arrival and beam forming algorithm to locate the damage and leakage. Finally, the extent of the spacecraft damage is evaluated according to the nonlinear ultrasonic method. The result shows that this method can detect the debris impact and the structural damage, locate the damage position, and identify the damage degree effectively. This method can meet the needs of structural damage detection for the spacecraft in-orbit.

Keywords: acoustic sensor array, spacecraft, damage assessment, leakage location

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4 Charging-Vacuum Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection Technology in the Application of Space Products Leak Testing and Error Control

Authors: Jijun Shi, Lichen Sun, Jianchao Zhao, Lizhi Sun, Enjun Liu, Chongwu Guo

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Because of the consistency of pressure direction, more short cycle, and high sensitivity, Charging-Vacuum helium mass spectrometer leak testing technology is the most popular leak testing technology for the seal testing of the spacecraft parts, especially the small and medium size ones. Usually, auxiliary pump was used, and the minimum detectable leak rate could reach 5E-9Pa•m3/s, even better on certain occasions. Relative error is more important when evaluating the results. How to choose the reference leak, the background level of helium, and record formats would affect the leak rate tested. In the linearity range of leak testing system, it would reduce 10% relative error if the reference leak with larger leak rate was used, and the relative error would reduce obviously if the background of helium was low efficiently, the record format of decimal was used, and the more stable data were recorded.

Keywords: leak testing, spacecraft parts, relative error, error control

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3 Feeding Ecology and Habitat Preference of Red Panda in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Nepal

Authors: Saroj Panthi

Abstract:

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is distributed throughout the Himalayas and is found in both protected and unprotected areas of Nepal. Loss and fragmentation of habitat threaten red panda population throughout its range, and as a consequence, it is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Despite this pressing situation, data on the ecology of the red panda in western Nepal are lacking. Our aim in the current study was to determine the distribution, associated habitats, and summer diet of the red panda in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR), Nepal. Evidence of red pandas was found in all 7 blocks of the reserve, spanning an area of 345.8 km2, between elevations of 2800 m and 4000 m and predominantly (> 75%) in forests comprising plant communities dominated by Abies spectabilis, Acer caesium, Tsuga domusa, and Betula utilis, with ground cover of Arundinaria spp. The dominant plant found in scat of the red panda was Arundinaria spp. (81.7%), with Acer spp., B. utilis, and lichen also frequently present. Livestock grazing and human activities were significantly higher in habitats where signs of pandas were recorded than in areas where they were absent. This habitat overlap between the red panda and livestock potentially poses a major threat to the panda’s survival in the DHR, a fact that should be taken into account in devising management strategies for this threatened species.

Keywords: red panda, Dhorpatan hunting reserve, diet, habitat preference

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2 Treatment of Premalignant Lesions: Curcumin a Promising Non-Surgical Option

Authors: Heba A. Hazzah, Ragwa M. Farid, Maha M. A. Nasra, Mennatallah Zakria, Magda A. El Massik, Ossama Y. Abdallah

Abstract:

Introduction: Curcumin (Cur) is a polyphenol derived from the herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric. It possesses diverse anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties following oral or topical administration. The buccal delivery of curcumin can be useful for both systemic and local disease treatments such as gingivitis, periodontal diseases, oral carcinomas, and precancerous oral lesions. Despite of its high activity, it suffers a limited application due to its low oral bioavailability, poor aqueous solubility, and instability. Aim: Preparation and characterization of curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles with a high loading capacity into a mucoadhesive gel for buccal application. Methodology: Curcumin was formulated as nanoparticles using different lipids, namely Gelucire 39/01, Gelucire 50/13, Precirol, Compritol, and Polaxomer 407 as a surfactant. The SLN were dispersed in a mucoadhesive gel matrix to be applied to the buccal mucosa. All formulations were evaluated for their content, entrapment efficiency, particle size, in vitro drug dialysis, ex vivo mucoadhesion test, and ex vivo permeation study using chicken buccal mucosa. Clinical evaluation was conducted on 15 cases suffering oral erythroplakia and erosive lichen planus. Results: The results showed high entrapment efficiency reaching almost 90 % using Gelucire 50, the loaded gel with Cur-SLN showed good adhesion property and 25 minutes in vivo residence time. In addition to stability enhancement for the Cur powder. All formulae did not show any drug permeated however, a significant amount of Cur was retained within the mucosal tissue. Pain and lesion sizes were significantly reduced upon topical treatment. Complete healing was observed after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: These results open a room for the pharmaceutical technology to optimize the use of this golden magical powder to get the best out of it. In addition, the lack of local anti-inflammatory compounds with reduced side effects intensifies the importance of studying natural products for this purpose.

Keywords: curcumin, erythroplakia, mucoadhesive, pain, solid lipid nanoparticles

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1 De-Pigmentary Effect of Ayurvedic Treatment on Hyper-Pigmentation of Skin Due to Chloroquine: A Case Report

Authors: Sunil Kumar, Rajesh Sharma

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Toxic epidermal necrolysis, pruritis, rashes, lichen planus like eruption, hyper pigmentation of skin are rare toxic effects of choloroquine used over a long time. Skin and mucus membrane hyper pigmentation is generally of a bluish black or grayish color and irreversible after discontinuation of the drug. According to Ayurveda, Dushivisha is the name given to any poisonous substance which is not fully endowed with the qualities of poison by nature (i.e. it acts as an impoverished or weak poison) and because of its mild potency, it remains in the body for many years causing various symptoms, one among them being discoloration of skin.The objective of this case report is to investigate the effect of Ayurvedic management of chloroquine induced hyper-pigmentation on the line of treatment of Dushivisha. Case Report: A 26-year-old female was suffering from hyper-pigmentation of the skin over the neck, forehead, temporo-mandibular joints, upper back and posterior aspect of both the arms since 8 years had history of taking Chloroquine came to Out Patient Department of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, India in Jan. 2015. The routine investigations (CBC, ESR, Eosinophil count) were within normal limits. Punch biopsy skin studied for histopathology under hematoxylin and eosin staining showed epidermis with hyper-pigmentation of the basal layer. In the papillary dermis as well as deep dermis there were scattered melanophages along with infiltration by mononuclear cells. There was no deposition of amyloid-like substances. These histopathological findings were suggestive of Chloroquine induced hyper-pigmentation. The case was treated on the line of treatment of Dushivisha and was given Vamana and Virechana (therapeutic emesis and purgation) every six months followed by Snehana karma (oleation therapy) with Panchatikta Ghrit and Swedana (sudation). Arogyavardhini Vati -1 g, Dushivishari Vati 500 mg, Mahamanjisthadi Quath 20 ml were given twelve hourly and Aragwadhadi Quath 25 ml at bed time orally. The patient started showing lightening of the pigments after six months and almost complete remission after 12 months of the treatment. Conclusion: This patient presented with the Dushivisha effect of Chloroquineandwas administered two relevant procedures from Panchakarma viz. Vamana and Virechana. Both Vamana and Virechanakarma here referred to Shodhana karma (purification procedures) eliminates accumulated toxins from the body. In this process, oleation dislodge the toxins from the tissues and sudation helps to bring them to the alimentary tract. The line of treatment did not target direct hypo pigmentary effects; rather aimed to eliminate the Dushivisha. This gave promising results in this condition.

Keywords: Ayurveda, chloroquine, Dushivisha, hyper-pigmentation

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