Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3524

Search results for: radio frequency

3524 Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio

Authors: O. S. Omorogiuwa, E. J. Omozusi


The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses secondary frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilised. The design was done by analysing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5-108 MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.

Keywords: spectrum, interference, telecommunication, cognitive radio, frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
3523 Simple Multipath Compensation for Frequency Modulated Signals: A Case of Radio Frequency vs. Quadrature Baseband

Authors: Lusungu Ndovi


Radio propagation from point-to-point is affected by the physical channel in many ways. A signal arriving at a destination travels through a number of different paths which are referred to as multi-paths. Research in this area of wireless communications has progressed well over the years with the research taking different angles of focus. By this is meant that some researchers focus on ways of reducing or eluding Multipath effects whilst others focus on ways of mitigating the effects of Multipath through compensation schemes. Baseband processing is seen as one field of signal processing that is cardinal to the advancement of software-defined radio technology. This has led to wide research into the carrying out certain algorithms at baseband. This paper considers compensating for Multipath for Frequency Modulated signals. The compensation process is carried out at Radio frequency (RF) and at Quadrature baseband (QBB) and the results are compared. Simulations are carried out using MatLab so as to show the benefits of working at lower QBB frequencies than at RF.

Keywords: quadrature baseband, qadio frequency, qultipath compensation, frequency qodulation, signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
3522 BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi


Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy. Besides, it is a lot of generic as receivers does not like any information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz, FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz. The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210 (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) values.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, GNU Radio, OFDM, SDR, WiMAX

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
3521 Green Sustainability Using Radio Frequency Identification: Technology-Organization-Environment Perspective Using Two Case Studies

Authors: Rebecca Angeles


This qualitative case study seeks to understand and explain the deployment of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems in two countries (i.e. in Taiwan for the adoption of electric scooters and in Finland for supporting glass bottle recycling) using the 'Technology-Organization-Environment' theoretical framework. This study also seeks to highlight the relevance and importance of pursuing environmental sustainability in firms and in society in general due to the social urgency of the issues involved.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, radio frequency identification, technology-organization-environment framework, RFID system implementation, case study, content analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
3520 UWB Open Spectrum Access for a Smart Software Radio

Authors: Hemalatha Rallapalli, K. Lal Kishore


In comparison to systems that are typically designed to provide capabilities over a narrow frequency range through hardware elements, the next generation cognitive radios are intended to implement a broader range of capabilities through efficient spectrum exploitation. This offers the user the promise of greater flexibility, seamless roaming possible on different networks, countries, frequencies, etc. It requires true paradigm shift i.e., liberalization over a wide band of spectrum as well as a growth path to more and greater capability. This work contributes towards the design and implementation of an open spectrum access (OSA) feature to unlicensed users thus offering a frequency agile radio platform that is capable of performing spectrum sensing over a wideband. Thus, an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio, which has the intelligence of spectrum sensing only, unlike the cognitive radio with complete intelligence, is named as a Smart Software Radio (SSR). The spectrum sensing mechanism is implemented based on energy detection. Simulation results show the accuracy and validity of this method.

Keywords: cognitive radio, energy detection, software radio, spectrum sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
3519 Radio Frequency Identification System and Its Effect on Retailing Sector

Authors: Ayşe Çoban, Orhan Çoban, Murat Birekul


In this study, the effects of radio frequency identification system on the retailing sector were theoretically analysed. The technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a method enabling to identify the objects individually and automatically, using radio frequency. RFID generally consists of a tag and reader. RFID tags can be programmed to receive, store, and send the information of object such as Electronic Product Code (EPC). Having read the tags placed on product by the reader, the information associated with the management of supply chain can be automatically recorded and replaced. Recently, RFID technology used in many areas has particularly important effects on the businesses that are active in the retailing sector. The most important disadvantage of this technology is that the cost of installation and operation is higher compared to its alternatives. However, it provides important advantages to the business enterprises in the application process. At present, it is especially adopted by the large sized enterprises and with chain stores in the international areas. The application results point out that RFID technology provides business enterprises with the important competitive advantage.

Keywords: RFID, retailing sector, RFID technologies, electronic product code

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
3518 Improving the Frequency Response of a Circular Dual-Mode Resonator with a Reconfigurable Bandwidth

Authors: Muhammad Haitham Albahnassi, Adnan Malki, Shokri Almekdad


In this paper, a method for reconfiguring bandwidth in a circular dual-mode resonator is presented. The method concerns the optimized geometry of a structure that may be used to host the tuning elements, which are typically RF (Radio Frequency) switches. The tuning elements themselves, and their performance during tuning, are not the focus of this paper. The designed resonator is able to reconfigure its fractional bandwidth by adjusting the inter-coupling level between the degenerate modes, while at the same time improving its response by adjusting the external-coupling level and keeping the center frequency fixed. The inter-coupling level has been adjusted by changing the dimensions of the perturbation element, while the external-coupling level has been adjusted by changing one of the feeder dimensions. The design was arrived at via optimization. Agreeing simulation and measurement results of the designed and implemented filters showed good improvements in return loss values and the stability of the center frequency.

Keywords: dual-mode resonators, perturbation theory, reconfigurable filters, software defined radio, cognitine radio

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
3517 A Supply Chain Traceability Improvement Using RFID

Authors: Yaser Miaji, Mohammad Sabbagh


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which shares a similar concept with bar code. With RFID, the electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the RF portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used to transmit signals. Supply chain management is aimed to keep going long-term performance of individual companies and the overall supply chain by maximizing customer satisfaction with minimum costs. One of the major issues in the supply chain management is product loss or shrinkage. In order to overcome this problem, this system which uses Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology will be able to RFID track and identify where losses are occurring and enable effective traceability. RFID brings a new dimension to supply chain management by providing a more efficient way of being able to identify and track items at the various stages throughout the supply chain. This system has been developed and tested to prove that RFID technology can be used to improve traceability in supply chain at low cost. Due to its simplicity in interface program and database management system using Visual Basic and MS Excel or MS Access the system can be more affordable and implemented even by small and medium scale industries.

Keywords: supply chain, RFID, tractability, radio frequency identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
3516 Hybrid Approach for the Min-Interference Frequency Assignment

Authors: F. Debbat, F. T. Bendimerad


The efficient frequency assignment for radio communications becomes more and more crucial when developing new information technologies and their applications. It is consists in defining an assignment of frequencies to radio links, to be established between base stations and mobile transmitters. Separation of the frequencies assigned is necessary to avoid interference. However, unnecessary separation causes an excess requirement for spectrum, the cost of which may be very high. This problem is NP-hard problem which cannot be solved by conventional optimization algorithms. It is therefore necessary to use metaheuristic methods to solve it. This paper proposes Hybrid approach based on simulated annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS) methods to solve this problem. Computational results, obtained on a number of standard problem instances, testify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: cellular mobile communication, frequency assignment problem, optimization, tabu search, simulated annealing

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
3515 Influence of Radio Frequency Identification Technology at Cost of Supply Chain as a Driver for the Generation of Competitive Advantage

Authors: Mona Baniahmadi, Saied Haghanifar


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is regarded as a promising technology for the optimization of supply chain processes since it improves manufacturing and retail operations from forecasting demand for planning, managing inventory, and distribution. This study precisely aims at learning to know the RFID technology and at explaining how it can concretely be used for supply chain management and how it can help improving it in the case of Hejrat Company which is located in Iran and works on the distribution of medical drugs and cosmetics. This study uses some statistical analysis to calculate the expected benefits of an integrated RFID system on supply chain obtained through competitive advantages increases with decreasing cost factor. The study investigates how the cost of storage process, labor cost, the cost of missing goods, inventory management optimization, on-time delivery, order cost, lost sales and supply process optimization affect the performance of the integrated RFID supply chain regarding cost factors and provides a competitive advantage.

Keywords: cost, competitive advantage, radio frequency identification, supply chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
3514 Design of a Remote Radiation Sensing Module Based on Portable Gamma Spectrometer

Authors: Young Gil Kim, Hye Min Park, Chan Jong Park, Koan Sik Joo


A personal gamma spectrometer has to be sensitive, pocket-sized, and carriable on the users. To serve these requirements, we developed the SiPM-based portable radiation detectors. The prototype uses a Ce:GAGG scintillator coupled to a silicon photomultiplier and a radio frequency(RF) module to measure gamma-ray, and can be accessed wirelessly or remotely by mobile equipment. The prototype device consumes roughly 4.4W, weighs about 180g (including battery), and measures 5.0 7.0. It is able to achieve 5.8% FWHM energy resolution at 662keV.

Keywords: Ce:GAGG, gamma-ray, radio frequency, silicon photomultiplier

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
3513 Enhancement of Primary User Detection in Cognitive Radio by Scattering Transform

Authors: A. Moawad, K. C. Yao, A. Mansour, R. Gautier


The detecting of an occupied frequency band is a major issue in cognitive radio systems. The detection process becomes difficult if the signal occupying the band of interest has faded amplitude due to multipath effects. These effects make it hard for an occupying user to be detected. This work mitigates the missed-detection problem in the context of cognitive radio in frequency-selective fading channel by proposing blind channel estimation method that is based on scattering transform. By initially applying conventional energy detection, the missed-detection probability is evaluated, and if it is greater than or equal to 50%, channel estimation is applied on the received signal followed by channel equalization to reduce the channel effects. In the proposed channel estimator, we modify the Morlet wavelet by using its first derivative for better frequency resolution. A mathematical description of the modified function and its frequency resolution is formulated in this work. The improved frequency resolution is required to follow the spectral variation of the channel. The channel estimation error is evaluated in the mean-square sense for different channel settings, and energy detection is applied to the equalized received signal. The simulation results show improvement in reducing the missed-detection probability as compared to the detection based on principal component analysis. This improvement is achieved at the expense of increased estimator complexity, which depends on the number of wavelet filters as related to the channel taps. Also, the detection performance shows an improvement in detection probability for low signal-to-noise scenarios over principal component analysis- based energy detection.

Keywords: channel estimation, cognitive radio, scattering transform, spectrum sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
3512 An Energy Detection-Based Algorithm for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Rayleigh Fading Channel

Authors: H. Bakhshi, E. Khayyamian


Cognitive radios have been recognized as one of the most promising technologies dealing with the scarcity of the radio spectrum. In cognitive radio systems, secondary users are allowed to utilize the frequency bands of primary users when the bands are idle. Hence, how to accurately detect the idle frequency bands has attracted many researchers’ interest. Detection performance is sensitive toward noise power and gain fluctuation. Since signal to noise ratio (SNR) between primary user and secondary users are not the same and change over the time, SNR and noise power estimation is essential. In this paper, we present a cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm using SNR estimation to improve detection performance in the real situation.

Keywords: cognitive radio, cooperative spectrum sensing, energy detection, SNR estimation, spectrum sensing, rayleigh fading channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3511 Radio Frequency Identification Chips in Colour Preference Tracking

Authors: A. Ballard


The ability to track goods and products en route in the delivery system, in the warehouse, and on the top floor is a huge advantage to shippers and retailers. Recently the emergence of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has enabled this better than ever before. However, a significant problem exists in that RFID technology depends on the quality of the information stored for each tagged product. Because of the profusion of names for colours, it is very difficult to ascertain that stored values are recognised by all users who view the product visually. This paper reports the findings of a study in which 50 consumers and 50 logistics workers were shown colour swatches and asked to choose the name of the colour from a multiple choice list. They were then asked to match consumer products, including toasters, jumpers, and toothbrushes, with the identifying inventory information available for each one. The findings show that the ability to match colours was significantly stronger with the color swatches than with the consumer products and that while logistics professionals made more frequent correct identification than the consumers, their results were still unsatisfactorily low. Based on these findings, a proposed universal model of colour identification numbers has been developed.

Keywords: consumer preferences, supply chain logistics, radio frequency identification, RFID, colour preference

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3510 Kuehne + Nagel's PharmaChain: IoT-Enabled Product Monitoring Using Radio Frequency Identification

Authors: Rebecca Angeles


This case study features the Kuehne + Nagel PharmaChain solution for ‘cold chain’ pharmaceutical and biologic product shipments with IOT-enabled features for shipment temperature and location tracking. Using the case study method and content analysis, this research project investigates the application of the structurational model of technology theory introduced by Orlikowski in order to interpret the firm’s entry and participation in the IOT-impelled marketplace.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IOT), radio frequency identification (RFID), structurational model of technology (Orlikowski), supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
3509 Radio Frequency Identification Encryption via Modified Two Dimensional Logistic Map

Authors: Hongmin Deng, Qionghua Wang


A modified two dimensional (2D) logistic map based on cross feedback control is proposed. This 2D map exhibits more random chaotic dynamical properties than the classic one dimensional (1D) logistic map in the statistical characteristics analysis. So it is utilized as the pseudo-random (PN) sequence generator, where the obtained real-valued PN sequence is quantized at first, then applied to radio frequency identification (RFID) communication system in this paper. This system is experimentally validated on a cortex-M0 development board, which shows the effectiveness in key generation, the size of key space and security. At last, further cryptanalysis is studied through the test suite in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Keywords: chaos encryption, logistic map, pseudo-random sequence, RFID

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
3508 Power Allocation Algorithm for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Based Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Bircan Demiral


Cognitive radio (CR) is the promising technology that addresses the spectrum scarcity problem for future wireless communications. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technology provides more power band ratios for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). While CR is a solution to the spectrum scarcity, it also brings up the capacity problem. In this paper, a novel power allocation algorithm that aims at maximizing the sum capacity in the OFDM based cognitive radio networks is proposed. Proposed allocation algorithm is based on the previously developed water-filling algorithm. To reduce the computational complexity calculating in water filling algorithm, proposed algorithm allocates the total power according to each subcarrier. The power allocated to the subcarriers increases sum capacity. To see this increase, Matlab program was used, and the proposed power allocation was compared with average power allocation, water filling and general power allocation algorithms. The water filling algorithm performed worse than the proposed algorithm while it performed better than the other two algorithms. The proposed algorithm is better than other algorithms in terms of capacity increase. In addition the effect of the change in the number of subcarriers on capacity was discussed. Simulation results show that the increase in the number of subcarrier increases the capacity.

Keywords: cognitive radio network, OFDM, power allocation, water filling

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
3507 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd


The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
3506 Bias Optimization of Mach-Zehnder Modulator Considering RF Gain on OFDM Radio-Over-Fiber System

Authors: Ghazi Al Sukkar, Yazid Khattabi, Shifen Zhong


Most of the recent wireless LANs, broadband access networks, and digital broadcasting use Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing techniques. In addition, the increasing demand of Data and Internet makes fiber optics an important technology, as fiber optics has many characteristics that make it the best solution for transferring huge frames of Data from a point to another. Radio over fiber is the place where high quality RF is converted to optical signals over single mode fiber. Optimum values for the bias level and the switching voltage for Mach-Zehnder modulator are important for the performance of radio over fiber links. In this paper, we propose a method to optimize the two parameters simultaneously; the bias and the switching voltage point of the external modulator of a radio over fiber system considering RF gain. Simulation results show the optimum gain value under these two parameters.

Keywords: OFDM, Mach Zehnder bias voltage, switching voltage, radio-over-fiber, RF gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
3505 Channel Sounding and PAPR Reduction in OFDM for WiMAX Using Software Defined Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi


WiMAX is a high speed broadband wireless access technology that adopted OFDM/OFDMA techniques to supply higher data rates with high spectral efficiency. However, OFDM suffers in view of high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) and high affect to synchronization errors. In this paper, the high PAPR problem is solved by using phase modulation to get Constant Envelop Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (CE-OFDM). The synchronization failures are brought down by employing a frequency lock loop, Poly phase clock synchronizer, Costas loop and blind equalizers such as Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) equalizer and Sign Kurtosis Maximization Adaptive Algorithm (SKMAA) equalizers. The WiMAX physical layer is executed on Software Defined Radio (SDR) prototype by utilizing USRP N210 as hardware and GNU Radio as software plat-forms. A SNR estimation is performed on the signal received through USRP N210. To empathize wireless propagation in specific environments, a sliding correlator wireless channel sounding system is designed by using SDR testbed.

Keywords: BER, CMA equalizer, Kurtosis equalizer, GNU Radio, OFDM/OFDMA, USRP N210

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
3504 RF Plasma Discharge Equipment for Conservation Treatments of Paper Supports

Authors: Emil Ghiocel Ioanid, Viorica Frunză, Dorina Rusu, Ana Maria Vlad, Catalin Tanase, Simona Dunca


The application of cold radio-frequency (RF) plasma in the conservation of cultural heritage became important in the last decades due to the positive results obtained in decontamination treatments. This paper presents an equipment especially designed for RF cold plasma application on paper documents, developed within a research project. The equipment allows the application of decontamination and cleaning treatments on any type of paper support, as well as the coating with a protective polymer. The equipment consists in a Pyrex vessel, inside which are placed two plane-parallel electrodes, capacitively coupled to a radio-frequency generator. The operating parameters of the equipment are: 1.2 MHz frequency, 50V/cm electric field intensity, current intensity in the discharge 100 mA, 40 W power in the discharge, the pressure varying from 5∙10-1 mbar to 5.5∙10-1 mbar, depending on the fragility of the material, operating in gaseous nitrogen. In order to optimize the equipment treatments in nitrogen plasma have been performed on samples infested with microorganisms, then the decontamination and the changes in surface properties (color, pH) were assessed. The analyses results presented in the table revealed only minor modifications of surface pH the colorimetric analysis showing a slight change to yellow. The equipment offers the possibility of performing decontamination, cleaning and protective coating of paper-based documents in successive stages, thus avoiding the recontamination with harmful biological agents.

Keywords: nitrogen plasma, cultural heritage, paper support, radio-frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
3503 Influence of Thickness on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering Technique

Authors: S. Abdullahi, M. Momoh, K. U. Isah


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of 75.5 nm and 130.5 nm were deposited at room temperature onto chemically and ultrasonically cleaned corning glass substrate by radio frequency technique and annealed at 150°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 60 minutes. The optical properties of the films were ascertained by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. Influence of the thickness of the films on the optical properties was studied keeping other deposition parameters constant. The optical transmittance spectra reveal a maximum transmittance of 81.49% and 84.26% respectively. The band gap of the films is found to be direct allowed transition and decreases with the increase in thickness of the films. The band gap energy (Eg) is in the range of 3.28 eV to 3.31 eV, respectively. These thin films are suitable for solar cell applications.

Keywords: optical constants, RF sputtering, Urbach energy, zinc oxide thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
3502 Impact of Radio on Rural Development: A Study of Ipokia Local Government Area, Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Shola Adeosun, Adeoye Odedeji


This paper examines the impact of radio on rural development. The researcher employed survey method to gather primary data. The objectives and questions were used from and hypotheses were formulated were raised from the statement of the problem. Cultivation theory was used as the theoretical study. The populations of the study were the inhabitant of Ipokia Local Government. Questionnaires were administered on the 400 respondents. Data gathered were analyzed, interpreted and hypotheses of the study were tested. The finding revealed that; radio has impacted on the rural dwellers and there is a significant relationship between radio and rural dwellers. Also, radio has brought socio-economic development on rural dwellers. The study recommended that radio messages should be designed in line with the pre-existing attitudes of the rural dwellers. It was also discovered that radio stations should endeavour to use local dialects especially when the radio programme is aimed at the rural dwellers that effective communication that can increase active participation of government and the public. Finally, the study recommends that radio stations should be well funded to produce programmes that would serve the purpose of educating and informing the public on issues relevant to them and there is need to establish community radio stations that will be closer to rural dwellers.

Keywords: impact, radio, rural, development

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
3501 Optimization of a Hand-Fan Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna by Means of Orthogonal Design Method of Design of Experiments for L-Band and S-Band Applications

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Nitika, Navneet Kaur, Rajesh Khanna


A hand-fan shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) for L-band and S-band applications is designed, and its characteristics have been reconnoitered. The proposed microstrip patch antenna with double U-slot defected ground structure (DGS) is fabricated on an FR4 substrate which is a very readily available and inexpensive material. The suggested antenna is optimized using Orthogonal Design Method (ODM) of Design of Experiments (DOE) to cover the frequency range from 0.91-2.82 GHz for L-band and S-band applications. The L-band covers the frequency range of 1-2 GHz, which is allocated to telemetry, aeronautical, and military systems for passive satellite sensors, weather radars, radio astronomy, and mobile communication. The S-band covers the frequency range of 2-3 GHz, which is used by weather radars, surface ship radars and communication satellites and is also reserved for various wireless applications such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wi-MAX), super high frequency radio frequency identification (SHF RFID), industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM), Bluetooth, wireless broadband (Wi-Bro) and wireless local area network (WLAN). The proposed method of optimization is very time efficient and accurate as compared to the conventional evolutionary algorithms due to its statistical strategy. Moreover, the antenna is tested, followed by the comparison of simulated and measured results.

Keywords: design of experiments, hand fan shaped MPA, L-Band, orthogonal design method, S-Band

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
3500 DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced in Drosophila melanogaster Exposed to Different Duration of 2400 MHz Radio Frequency-Electromagnetic Fields Radiation

Authors: Neha Singh, Anuj Ranjan, Tanu Jindal


Over the last decade, the exponential growth of mobile communication has been accompanied by a parallel increase in density of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The continued expansion of mobile phone usage raises important questions as EMF, especially radio frequency (RF), have long been suspected of having biological effects. In the present experiments, we studied the effects of RF-EMF on cell death (apoptosis) and DNA damage of a well- tested biological model, Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 2400 MHz frequency for different time duration i.e. 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs,8 hrs, 10 hrs, and 12 hrs each day for five continuous days in ambient temperature and humidity conditions inside an exposure chamber. The flies were grouped into control, sham-exposed, and exposed with 100 flies in each group. In this study, well-known techniques like Comet Assay and TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) Assay were used to detect DNA damage and for apoptosis studies, respectively. Experiments results showed DNA damage in the brain cells of Drosophila which increases as the duration of exposure increases when observed under the observed when we compared results of control, sham-exposed, and exposed group which indicates that EMF radiation-induced stress in the organism that leads to DNA damage and cell death. The process of apoptosis and mutation follows similar pathway for all eukaryotic cells; therefore, studying apoptosis and genotoxicity in Drosophila makes similar relevance for human beings as well.

Keywords: cell death, apoptosis, Comet Assay, DNA damage, Drosophila, electromagnetic fields, EMF, radio frequency, RF, TUNEL assay

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
3499 Smart Unmanned Parking System Based on Radio Frequency Identification Technology

Authors: Yu Qin


In order to tackle the ever-growing problem of the lack of parking space, this paper presents the design and implementation of a smart unmanned parking system that is based on RFID (radio frequency identification) technology and Wireless communication technology. This system uses RFID technology to achieve the identification function (transmitted by 2.4 G wireless module) and is equipped with an STM32L053 micro controller as the main control chip of the smart vehicle. This chip can accomplish automatic parking (in/out), charging and other functions. On this basis, it can also help users easily query the information that is stored in the database through the Internet. Experimental tests have shown that the system has the features of low power consumption and stable operation, among others. It can effectively improve the level of automation control of the parking lot management system and has enormous application prospects.

Keywords: RFID, embedded system, unmanned, parking management

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
3498 Multichannel Scheme under Fairness Environment for Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Hans Marquez Ramos, Cesar Hernandez, Ingrid Páez


This paper develops a multiple channel assignment model, which allows to take advantage in most efficient way, spectrum opportunities in cognitive radio networks. Developed scheme allows make several available and frequency adjacent channel assignments, which require a bigger wide band, under an equality environment. The hybrid assignment model it is made by to algorithms, one who makes the ranking and select available frequency channels and the other one in charge of establishing an equality criteria, in order to not restrict spectrum opportunities for all other secondary users who wish to make transmissions. Measurements made were done for average bandwidth, average delay, as well fairness computation for several channel assignment. Reached results were evaluated with experimental spectrum occupational data from GSM frequency band captured. Developed model, shows evidence of improvement in spectrum opportunity use and a wider average transmit bandwidth for each secondary user, maintaining equality criteria in channel assignment.

Keywords: bandwidth, fairness, multichannel, secondary users

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
3497 Design and Implementation of Active Radio Frequency Identification on Wireless Sensor Network-Based System

Authors: Che Z. Zulkifli, Nursyahida M. Noor, Siti N. Semunab, Shafawati A. Malek


Wireless sensors, also known as wireless sensor nodes, have been making a significant impact on human daily life. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are two complementary technologies; hence, an integrated implementation of these technologies expands the overall functionality in obtaining long-range and real-time information on the location and properties of objects and people. An approach for integrating ZigBee and RFID networks is proposed in this paper, to create an energy-efficient network improved by the benefits of combining ZigBee and RFID architecture. Furthermore, the compatibility and requirements of the ZigBee device and communication links in the typical RFID system which is presented with the real world experiment on the capabilities of the proposed RFID system.

Keywords: mesh network, RFID, wireless sensor network, zigbee

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
3496 Enhanced Cell Adhesion on PMMA by Radio Frequency Oxygen Plasma Treatment

Authors: Fatemeh Rezaei, Babak Shokri


In this study, PMMA films are modified by oxygen plasma treatment for biomedical applications. The plasma generator is capacitively coupled radio frequency (13.56 MHz) power source. The oxygen pressure and gas flow rate are kept constant at 40 mTorr and 30 sccm, respectively and samples are treated for 2 minutes. Hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of PMMA films are studied before and after treatments in different applied powers (10-80 W). In order to monitor the plasma process, the optical emission spectroscopy is used. The wettability and cellular response of samples are investigated by water contact angle (WCA) analysis and MTT assay, respectively. Also, surface free energy (SFE) variations are studied based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids. It is found that RF oxygen plasma treatment enhances the biocompatibility and also hydrophilicity of PMMA films.

Keywords: cellular response, hydrophilicity, MTT assay, PMMA, RF plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 596
3495 Radio Regulation Development and Radio Spectrum Analysis of Earth Station in Motion Service

Authors: Fei Peng, Jun Yuan, Chen Fan, Fan Jiang, Qian Sun, Yudi Liu


Although Earth Station in Motion (ESIM) services are widely used and there is a huge market demand around the world, International Telecommunication Union (ITU) does not have unified conclusion for the use of ESIM yet. ESIM are Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) due to its mobile-based attributes, while multiple administrations want to use ESIM in Fixed Satellite Service (FSS). However, Radio Regulations (RR) have strict distinction between MSS and FSS. In this case, ITU has been very controversial because this kind of application will violate the RR Article and the conflict will bring risks to the global deployment. Thus, this paper illustrates the development of rules, regulations, standards concerning ESIM and the radio spectrum usage of ESIM in different regions around the world. Firstly, the basic rules, standard and definition of ITU’s Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is introduced. Secondly, the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) agenda item on radio spectrum allocation for ESIM, e.g. in C/Ku/Ka band, is introduced and multi-view on the radio spectrum allocation is elaborated, especially on 19.7-20.2 GHz & 29.5-30.0 GHz. Then, some ITU-R Recommendations and Reports are analyzed on the specific technique to enable these ESIM to communicate with Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite (GSO) space stations in the FSS without causing interference at levels in excess of that caused by conventional FSS earth stations. Meanwhile, the opposite opinion on not allocating EISM service in FSS frequency band is also elaborated. Finally, based on the ESIM’s future application, the ITU-R standards development trend is forecasted. In conclusion, using radio spectrum resource in an equitable, rational and efficient manner is the basic guideline of ITU. Although it is not a good approach to obstruct the revise of RR when there is a large demand for radio spectrum resource in satellite industry, still the propulsion and global demand of the whole industry may face difficulties on the unclear application in modify rules of RR.

Keywords: earth station in motion, ITU standards, radio regulations, radio spectrum, satellite communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 212