Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7076

Search results for: human agency

7076 Agency Beyond Metaphysics of Subjectivity

Authors: Erik Kuravsky

Abstract:

One of the problems with a post-structuralist account of agency is that it appears to reject the freedom of an acting subject, thus seeming to deny the very phenomenon of agency. However, this is only a problem if we think that human beings can be agents exclusively in terms of being subjects, that is, if we think agency subjectively. Indeed, we tend to understand traditional theories of human freedom (e.g., Plato’s or Kant’s) in terms of a peculiar ability of the subject. The paper suggests to de-subjectivize agency with the help of Heidegger’s later thought. To do it, ir argues that classical theories of agency may indeed be interpreted as subject-oriented (sometimes even by their authors), but do not have to be read as such. Namely, the claim is that what makes agency what it is, what is essential in agency, is not its belonginess to a subject, but its ontological configuration. We may say that agency “happens,” and that there is a very specific ontological characteristics to this happening. The argument of the paper is that we can find these characteristic in the classical accounts of agency and that these characteristics are sufficient to distinguish human freedom from other natural phenomena. In particular, it offers to think agency not as one of human characteristics, but as an ontological event in which human beings take part. Namely, agency is a (non-human) characteristic of the different modes in which the experienceable existence of beings is determined by Being. To be an agent then is to participate in such ontological determination. What enables this participation is the ways human beings non-thematically understand the ontological difference. For example, for Plato, one acts freely only if one is led by an idea of the good, while for Kant the imperative for free action is categorial. The agency of an agent is thus dependent on the differentiation between ideas/categories and beings met in experience – one is “free” from contingent sensibility in terms of what is different from it ontologically. In this light, modern dependence on subjectivity is evident in the fact that the ontological difference is thought as belonging to one’s thinking, consciousness etc. That is, it is taken subjectively. A non-subjective account of agency, on the other hand, requires thinking this difference as belonging to Being itself, and thinking human beings as a medium within which occurs the non-human force of ontological differentiation.

Keywords: Heidegger, freedom, agency, poststructuralism

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7075 Meeting the Parents on Facebook : A Case Study of the Swedish Social Insurance Agency’s Social Media Use

Authors: Cecilia Teljas

Abstract:

Many government agencies use social media to supplement their traditional communication channels. Government agencies are typically risk-averse, which makes social media practices problematic. However, this case study of the social media use of the Swedish social insurance agency shows considerable bi-directional communication between the agency and the public. On one hand, the agency’s aims, strategies, ways of working and experiences related to its social media communication practice are analyzed. On the other hand, the communication by both the agency and the public is studied on one of the agency’s Facebook pages. The results showed that it is possible for an agency to provide relevant and accurate information in real-time in social media if identifying and addressing different segments separately. Furthermore, as a result of context adaption this communication was rather informal and the practice can be considered to manifest positive democratic effects due to the increased availability and inclusion.

Keywords: e-government, social media, case study, discourse analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
7074 Analyzing Corporate Governance Disclosures in Type II Agency Problems in Indonesia

Authors: Martin S. Mulyadi

Abstract:

This research investigates the corporate governance disclosure behavior of Indonesian corporations with type II agency problems. The primary cause of the 1990s Asian financial crisis has been attributed to poor corporate governance practices in Indonesia. Most importantly, these poor practices were commonly found in family-owned and government-owned corporations. There are a lot of publicly listed family-owned and government-owned corporations in Indonesia. Agency theory refers to these corporations as corporations with type II agency problems. This research employs agency theory to analyzes corporate governance practice and disclosures in such settings and found that government-owned corporations perform better than family-owned corporations.

Keywords: corporate governance, corporate disclosures, agency theory, type II agency problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
7073 Agency Cost, Firm Performance, Corporate Governance: Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Arnold Sanda Layuk

Abstract:

Fraud in the disclosure of financial statements by management shows that agency conflict is an important issue in the company. The conflict has consequences for the agency costs that must be borne and has an impact on the firm's performance. The effect of agency costs on firm performance is investigated in this study, as well as whether several variables such as corporate governance mechanisms can positively moderate the agency cost and firm performance relationship. The agency cost is measured by the asset utilization ratio and discretionary expenditure ratio. The firm's performance is represented by the return on equity. Data was collected from the manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2015 to 2019, then regressed on the panel data using the panel corrected standard error model (PCSE). According to the findings, agency costs are negatively related to firm performance, which supports previous empirical research findings. It also found that the agency cost and firm performance relationship is significantly moderated by board size and ownership concentration as the representatives of corporate governance mechanisms. It suggests that corporate governance can become tools to reduce agency costs and increase firm performance as well. The empirical evidence adds to previous research on agency conflict, particularly in emerging markets. These findings are expected to supplement previous research and provide additional information to shareholders in order to control opportunistic management decisions that affect their investments and discretionary operational expenses.

Keywords: agency cost, corporate governance, asset utilization ratio, firm performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
7072 Migration, Agency and Subjectivity in Helon Habila's Travellers

Authors: Bankole Wright

Abstract:

The late 20th to the early 21st century has been predominantly characterized by the movement of individuals from one country to another country or countries. The chief reasons for migration have always been premised on socio-cultural, socio-political and socio-economic factors, with influences of migration finding expression through various ways. Indeed, migration experiences have formed points of subjectivity which functions as agencies that propel migrants to strongly quest for migrating from their home space to other socio-cultural space that performs the role of escape for them. This paper interrogates the discourse of migration, agency and subjectivity in Helon Habila’s Travellers. The essay explores the interconnectedness between migration which is the physical [as deployed in this paper] movement from one location to another, agency as seen in the ability to act based on various ideological frameworks within which the action is taken, and subjectivity which identifies with the predominant factors that influence human actions; and how these connections are responsible for defining the diaspora individual. The discourse of what makes migrants desire to move from their various spaces is as critical as the experiences they face in their various host land. Hence, this paper demonstrates, through the analysis of an African diasporic novel, that the quest for migration is mostly determined by certain agencies in the diaspora home space, which characters have been subjects of and desire to escape. Traveller is a novel which chronicles the various experiences of migrants who journey from their various home space to another land as a result of different agencies that precipitated their migration. This paper engages these agencies as impediments to human survival.

Keywords: migration, agency, subjectivity, Helon Habila, diaspora, home, space

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
7071 Language Teachers Exercising Agency Amid Educational Constraints: An Overview of the Literature

Authors: Anna Sanczyk

Abstract:

Teacher agency plays a crucial role in effective teaching, supporting diverse students, and providing an enriching learning environment; therefore, it is significant to gain a deeper understanding of language teachers’ sense of agency in teaching linguistically and culturally diverse students. This paper presents an overview of qualitative research on how language teachers exercise their agency in diverse classrooms. The analysis of the literature reveals that language teachers strive for addressing students’ needs and challenging educational inequalities, but experience educational constraints in enacting their agency. The examination of the research on language teacher agency identifies four major areas where language teachers experience challenges in enacting their agency: (1) implementing curriculum; (2) adopting school reforms and policies; (3) engaging in professional learning; (4) and negotiating various identities as professionals. The practical contribution of this literature review is that it provides a much-needed compilation of the studies on how language teachers exercise agency amid educational constraints. The discussion of the overview points to the importance of teacher identity, learner advocacy, and continuous professional learning and the critical need of promoting empowerment, activism, and transformation in language teacher education. The findings of the overview indicate that language teacher education programs should prepare teachers to be active advocates for English language learners and guide teachers to become more conscious of complexities of teaching in constrained educational settings so that they can become agentic professionals. This literature overview illustrates agency work in English language teaching contexts and contributes to understanding of the important link between experiencing educational constraints and development of teacher agency.

Keywords: advocacy, educational constraints, language teacher agency, language teacher education

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7070 The Effectiveness of Executive Order in the Implementation of Human Security Policies: The Violent Case of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad and Youths in Nigeria

Authors: Cita Ayeni

Abstract:

Amidst numerous arguments on reasons for low Human Development (low HDI) in Nigeria ranging from corruption, incompetence of the government and its agencies, mismanagement of funds, terrorism, violence, and crime in the country, just to mention a few. There have been several actions by agencies of the government that for years has threatened the security and development of the citizens, and the country in a broader sense. This paper analyses the activities of SARS (Special Anti-Robbery Squad) as a government agency with a mandate to tackling the high rate of crime in the country but instead have been marred with allegations of violence, killings, extortion, harsh treatment, and terror of the Nigerian citizenry, predominantly the youths. This paper establishes the effect of these actions of the agency on human development in Nigeria, hindering the capacity of the Nigerian youths to earn a decent living due to constant terrorism, extortion, and extrajudicial activities, which in numerous cases resulted in maiming and death, thus instigating fear in the vast majority. This research further analyses the executive order by the then Acting President of Nigeria (Vice-President) that overhauled the agency following many years of continuous public outcry, complaint, grievance, and protest. This work establishes that this order carried out in the absence of the President was to a large extent enough to stop these violations, thereby resulting in little or no recorded complaint or grievance by the public, as many of the officials involved in the gruesome activities were said to have been put away. This would pave way and give freedom to the youths to realize their potentials free from intimidation, violence, and fear from the agencies created to protect them, and on the other hand refocus the new agency FSARS (Federal Special Anti-Robbery Squad) on its real mandate in collaboration with independent organizations acting as a check to its actions. This work thus depicts how direct executive orders on policies pertaining to individual insecurities, on youths in this case, in a country can be a potential drive to increased human development.

Keywords: special anti-robbery squad, Nigerian youths, overhaul, insecurities, human development

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7069 Linking Business Owners’ Choice of Organizational Form to Appraisers’ Determination of Value: An Agency Theory Perspective

Authors: Majdi Anwar Quttainah, William Paczkowski, Ali Muhammad

Abstract:

Determining the value of a privately held firms confound those in academia as well as practitioners in the fields of appraisal, forensic accounting, and law. Divergent parties to the transfer look to apply the valuation technique to serve their own best interests. This paper seeks to explore how agency theory induces owners to choose the form of their businesses at inception and how this choice will affect the appraisers’ valuation of the firm at the transfer of ownership.

Keywords: organizational form, agency theory, value

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
7068 The Regulation on Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields for Brazilian Power System

Authors: Hugo Manoel Olivera Da Silva, Ricardo Silva Thé Pontes

Abstract:

In this work, is presented an analysis of the Brazilian regulation on human exposure to electromagnetic fields, which provides limits to electric fields, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. The regulations for the electricity sector was in charge of the Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica-ANEEL, the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency, that made it through the Normative Resolution Nº 398/2010, resulting in a series of obligations for the agents of the electricity sector, especially in the areas of generation, transmission, and distribution.

Keywords: adverse effects, electric energy, electric and magnetic fields, human health, regulation

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7067 Teacher Agency in Localizing Textbooks for International Chinese Language Teaching: A Case of Minsk State Linguistic University

Authors: Min Bao

Abstract:

The teacher is at the core of the three fundamental factors in international Chinese language teaching, the other two being the textbook and the method. Professional development of the teacher comprises a self-renewing process that is characterized by knowledge impartment and self-reflection, in which individual agency plays a significant role. Agency makes a positive contribution to teachers’ teaching practice and their life-long learning. This study, taking Chinese teaching and learning in Minsk State Linguistic University of Belarus as an example, attempts to understand agency by investigating the teacher’s strategic adaptation of textbooks to meet local needs. Firstly, through in-depth interviews, teachers’ comments on textbooks are collected and analyzed to disclose their strategies of adapting and localizing textbooks. Then, drawing on the theory of 'The chordal triad of agency', the paper reveals the process in which teacher agency is exercised as well as its rationale. The results verify the theory, that is, given its temporal relationality, teacher agency is constructed through a combination of experiences, purposes and aims, and context, i.e., projectivity, iteration and practice-evaluation as mentioned in the theory. Evidence also suggests that the three dimensions effect differently; It is usually one or two dimensions that are of greater effects on the construction of teacher agency. Finally, the paper provides four specific insights to teacher development in international Chinese language teaching: 1) when recruiting teachers, priority be given on candidates majoring in Chinese language or international Chinese language teaching; 2) measures be taken to assure educational quality of the two said majors at various levels; 3) pre-service teacher training program be tailored for improved quality, and 4) management of overseas Confucius Institutions be enhanced.

Keywords: international Chinese language teaching, teacher agency, textbooks, localization

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7066 Effects of Service Quality Management Capability and Business Alliance Effectiveness on Performance of Tourist Agency Business in Thailand: The Moderating Role of Organizational Climate

Authors: Chanthima Phromket, Jakret Mettathamrong, Parnisara Prajudtasri

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between effects of service quality management capability and business alliance effectiveness on the performance of tourist agency business in Thailand: The moderating role of organizational climate. A survey was used as a research instrument and was given to the owner/managers of tourist agency business in Thailand. The model is tested using the data collected from 400 tourist agency business in Thailand. The results indicate that service quality management capability have the positive influence on business alliance effectiveness and performance. Trust, commitment, and cooperation are the antecedents that have a positive effect on the performance, and the results show non-significant when it is moderated by Organizational climate. Thus, contributions and suggestions are also provided for further research.

Keywords: service quality management capability, business alliance effectiveness, organizational climate, tourist agency

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7065 What Hikers Wants? Evaluation by Travel Agents Perspective

Authors: G. Çetinkaya, M. Yıldız, P. Çetinkaya

Abstract:

Tourism is one of the world’s largest industries and its total contribution to the global economy in 2014 was US$7.6 trillion, which equates to 9.8% of total economy GDP in 2014. Mountains are important regions for tourism industry and its second most popular tourist destinations after coastal regions. Hiking and trekking are most popular activity in mountains region and it is estimated that more than 50 million people visit mountains each year. So that hiking was come out to individual activity and it’s to be a massive event. Nowadays hiking is commercialized and mostly it’s become organized by travel agency and tour operators. Travel agency which is offering hiking activities to know the demands of the individuals involved in these activities and is required to submit to it for services. The aim of this study to determined hiking participant expectation from hiking by travel agency perspective. 34 travel agency officials participated in the study. Data were collected by questionnaire developed by the researchers. Results show that according to travel agency officials “visual quality” is the most important expectation factor for hikers. And other expectation factors are “safety”, “accessibility”, “unspoiled local service”, “walking grade”, “expert guidance service”, “popularity of trail”, “uncrowded trail”, “substructure facilities”, “relevant cost”, “guidebook” and “suitable climatic conditions”.

Keywords: expectation, hikers, travel agency, mountain tourism

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7064 A Book Review of Inside the Battle of Algiers, by Zohra Drif: A Thematic Analysis on Women’s Agency

Authors: W. Zekri

Abstract:

This paper explores Zohra Drif’s memoir, Inside the Battle of Algiers, which narrates her desires as a student to become a revolutionary activist. She exemplified, in her narrative, the different roles, she and her fellows performed as combatants in the Casbah during the Algerian Revolution 1954-1962. This book review aims to evaluate the concept of women’s agency through education and language learning, and its impact on empowering women’s desires. Close-reading method and thematic analysis are used to explore the text. The analysis identified themes that refine the meaning of agency which are social and cultural supports, education, and language proficiency. These themes aim to contribute to the representation in Inside the Battle of Algiers of a woman guerrilla who engaged herself to perform national acts of resistance.

Keywords: agency, education, learning, women

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7063 Mentees’ Agency in Practicum: A Qualitative Study of Two Teacher Education Programs in Vietnam

Authors: Tien Nguyen

Abstract:

The relationship between mentors and mentees in teaching practicum has received the attention of researchers and been widely investigated. Mentors’ authority and power have captured a large and growing body of the literature in the field of teaching practicum. This article revisits mentor-mentee relationship and shifts the focus to mentees’ agency in planning and delivering lessons, an area which has been under-researched. Drawing on Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development and Harré’s Positioning Theory, this qualitative study examines how mentees responded to mentors’ instructions in practicum. Interviews and classroom observations were conducted with 20 participants including both mentors and mentees across two English language teacher education programs in two different geographical locations in Vietnam. The result indicates that regardless of the similarities and/or differences of the programs, mentees’ agency varied in accordance with their identities in specific contexts. Specifically, mentees follow or resist to mentors’ feedback and instruction in revising their lesson plans and delivery these lessons, depending on their professional identities and institutional conditions. This study contributes to the importance of supporting the agency of mentees in teacher education.

Keywords: mentors, mentees, relationship, agency, professional identity, teacher education

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7062 An Inspection of Two Layer Model of Agency: An fMRI Study

Authors: Keyvan Kashkouli Nejad, Motoaki Sugiura, Atsushi Sato, Takayuki Nozawa, Hyeonjeong Jeong, Sugiko Hanawa , Yuka Kotozaki, Ryuta Kawashima

Abstract:

The perception of agency/control is altered with presence of discrepancies in the environment or mismatch of predictions (of possible results) and actual results the sense of agency might become altered. Synofzik et al. proposed a two layer model of agency: In the first layer, the Feeling of Agency (FoA) is not directly available to awareness; a slight mismatch in the environment/outcome might cause alterations in FoA, while the agent still feels in control. If the discrepancy passes a threshold, it becomes available to consciousness and alters Judgment of Agency (JoA), which is directly available in the person’s awareness. Most experiments so far only investigate subjects rather conscious JoA, while FoA has been neglected. In this experiment we target FoA by using subliminal discrepancies that can not be consciously detectable by the subjects. Here, we explore whether we can detect this two level model in the subjects behavior and then try to map this in their brain activity. To do this, in a fMRI study, we incorporated both consciously detectable mismatching between action and result and also subliminal discrepancies in the environment. Also, unlike previous experiments where subjective questions from the participants mainly trigger the rather conscious JoA, we also tried to measure the rather implicit FoA by asking participants to rate their performance. We compared behavioral results and also brain activation when there were conscious discrepancies and when there were subliminal discrepancies against trials with no discrepancies and against each other. In line with our expectations, conditions with consciously detectable incongruencies triggered lower JoA ratings than conditions without. Also, conditions with any type of discrepancies had lower FoA ratings compared to conditions without. Additionally, we found out that TPJ and angular gyrus in particular to have a role in coding of JoA and also FoA.

Keywords: agency, fMRI, TPJ, two layer model

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7061 Human Security and Human Trafficking Related Corruption

Authors: Ekin D. Horzum

Abstract:

The aim of the proposal is to examine the relationship between human trafficking related corruption and human security. The proposal suggests that the human trafficking related corruption is about willingness of the states to turn a blind eye to the human trafficking cases. Therefore, it is important to approach human trafficking related corruption in terms of human security and human rights violation to find an effective way to fight against human trafficking. In this context, the purpose of this proposal is to examine the human trafficking related corruption as a safe haven in which trafficking thrives for perpetrators.

Keywords: human trafficking, human security, human rights, corruption, organized crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
7060 Dialogue, Agency and Appropriation in Peer Interactions

Authors: Mohammad Naseh Nasrollahi Shahri

Abstract:

The article draws on Michael Bakhtin’s theory of language to examine peer interactions. It represents an analysis of other-repetition in student interactions. Several recent studies have explored various aspects of repetition in multiple contexts. However, other-repetition in peer interactions has not received enough attention. Building on previous studies, this study examines patterns of other-repetition or appropriation in the context of discussion activities performed by EFL learners. The analysis highlights the meaningfulness of other-repetition in a way that distinguishes them from rote-repetition. It is suggested that instances of repetition constitute third spaces between the self and other which provide ideal settings for language learning and demonstrate student agency and engagement.

Keywords: repetition, agency, Bakhtin, dialogue

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7059 Affinity between Sociology and Islamic Economy: An Inquiry into the Possibilities of Social Constructivism

Authors: Hideki Kitamura

Abstract:

Since Islamic banking has broadly started in the late 1970s, Islamic economy has been paid much attention by both academia and the business world. However, despite abundant studies, descriptive exploration of practices of Islamic economy from a sociological/anthropological perspective is underrepresented, and most are basically designed for evaluating current practice or proposing ideal types of Islamic economy in accordance with their religious conviction. Overall, their interest is not paid to actors of Islamic economy such as practitioner’s decision-making and thought, while sociological/anthropological studies on Muslim’s religious life can be observed well. Herein, the paper aims to look into the possibilities of sociology/anthropology for exploration of the role of actors of Islamic economy, by revisiting the benefit of sociological/anthropological studies on the religion of Islam and its adaptability to the research on Islamic economy. The paper suggests that practices of Islamic economy can be assumed as results of practitioner’s dilemma between Islamic ideals and market realities in each society, by applying the perspective of social constructivism. The paper then proposes focusing on the human agency of practitioners in translating Islamic principles into economic behavior, thereby enabling a more descriptive inquiry into how Islamic economy is produced and operated.

Keywords: Islamic economy, economic sociology/anthropology, human agency, social constructivism

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7058 Institutional Design for Managing Irrigation Problems: A Case Study of Farmers'- and Agency-Managed Irrigation Systems of Nepal

Authors: Tirtha Raj Dhakal, Brian Davidson, Bob Farquharson

Abstract:

Institutional design is an important aspect in efficient water resource management. In Nepal, the water supply in both farmers’- and agency-managed irrigation systems has become sub-standard because of the weak institutional framework. This study characterizes both forms of the schemes and links existing institution and governance of the schemes with its performance with reference to cost recovery, maintenance of the schemes and water distribution throughout the schemes. For this, two types of surveys were conducted. A management survey of ten farmers’-managed and five agency-managed schemes of Chitwan valley and its periphery was done. Also, a farm survey comprising 25 farmers from each of head, middle and tail regions of both schemes; Narayani Lift Irrigation Project (agency-managed) and Khageri Irrigation System (farmers’-managed) of Chitwan Valley as a case study was conducted. The results showed that cost recovery of agency-managed schemes in 2015 was less than two percent whereas service fee collection rate in farmers’-managed schemes was nearly 2/3rd that triggered poor maintenance of the schemes and unequal distribution of water throughout the schemes. Also, the institution on practice is unable to create any incentives for farmers for economical use of water as well as willingness to pay for its use. This, thus, compels the need of refined institutional framework which has been suggested in this paper aiming to improve the cost recovery and better water distribution throughout the irrigation schemes.

Keywords: cost recovery, governance, institution, schemes' performance

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7057 Fossil Health: Causes and Consequences of Hegemonic Health Paradigms

Authors: Laila Vivas

Abstract:

Fossil Health is proposed as a value-concept to describe the hegemonic health paradigms that underpin health enactment. Such representation is justified by Foucaldian and related ideas on biopower and biosocialities, calling for the politicization of health and signalling the importance of narratives. This approach, hence, enables contemplating health paradigms as reflexive or co-constitutive of health itself or, in other words, conceiving health as a verb. Fossil health is a symbolic representation, influenced by Andreas Malm’s concept of fossil capitalism, that integrates environment and health as non-dichotomic areas. Fossil Health sustains that current notions of human and non-human health revolve around fossil fuel dependencies. Moreover, addressing disequilibria from established health ideals involves fossil-fixes. Fossil Health, therefore, represents causes and consequences of a health conception that has the agency to contribute to the functioning of a particular structural eco-social model. Moreover, within current capitalist relations, Fossil Health expands its meaning to cover not only fossil implications but also other dominant paradigms of the capitalist system that are (re)produced through health paradigms, such as the burgeoning of technoscience and biomedicalization, privatization of health, expertization of health, or the imposing of standards of uniformity. Overall, Fossil Health is a comprehensive approach to environment and health, where understanding hegemonic health paradigms means understanding our (human-non-human) nature paradigms and the structuring effect these narratives convey.

Keywords: fossil health, environment, paradigm, capitalism

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7056 Security Practices of the European Union on Migration: An Analysis of the Frontex Within the Framework of Biopolitics

Authors: Gizem Ertürk, Nursena Dinç

Abstract:

The Aegean area has always been an important transit point for migration; however, the establishment of the European Union gave further impetus to the migration phenomenon and increased the significance of the area within this context. The migration waves have been more visible in the area in recent decades, and particularly after the “2015 Migration Crisis,” this issue has been subject to further securitization in the EU. In this conjuncture, the Frontex, which is an agency set up by the EU in 2005 for the purpose of managing and coordinating the border control efforts, has become more functional in the relevant area, but at the same time, have some questionable actions within the context of human rights. This paper problematizes the rationality behind the existence and practices of such a structure and attempts to make a political and legal analysis of the security practices of the European Union against migration within a framework based on the biopolitics approaches of Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben. The dataset of this paper, which focuses on the agency in question by taking it as a case, is formed by making use of the existing literature on the EU’s security policies, the relevant official texts of the Union and Frontex reports on migration practices in and around the Aegean Sea.

Keywords: migration, biopolitics, Frontex, security, European union, securitization

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7055 Analysis of Complex Business Negotiations: Contributions from Agency-Theory

Authors: Jan Van Uden

Abstract:

The paper reviews classical agency-theory and its contributions to the analysis of complex business negotiations and gives an approach for the modification of the basic agency-model in order to examine the negotiation specific dimensions of agency-problems. By illustrating fundamental potentials for the modification of agency-theory in context of business negotiations the paper highlights recent empirical research that investigates agent-based negotiations and inter-team constellations. A general theoretical analysis of complex negotiation would be based on a two-level approach. First, the modification of the basic agency-model in order to illustrate the organizational context of business negotiations (i.e., multi-agent issues, common-agencies, multi-period models and the concept of bounded rationality). Second, the application of the modified agency-model on complex business negotiations to identify agency-problems and relating areas of risk in the negotiation process. The paper is placed on the first level of analysis – the modification. The method builds on the one hand on insights from behavior decision research (BRD) and on the other hand on findings from agency-theory as normative directives to the modification of the basic model. Through neoclassical assumptions concerning the fundamental aspects of agency-relationships in business negotiations (i.e., asymmetric information, self-interest, risk preferences and conflict of interests), agency-theory helps to draw solutions on stated worst-case-scenarios taken from the daily negotiation routine. As agency-theory is the only universal approach able to identify trade-offs between certain aspects of economic cooperation, insights obtained provide a deeper understanding of the forces that shape business negotiation complexity. The need for a modification of the basic model is illustrated by highlighting selected issues of business negotiations from agency-theory perspective: Negotiation Teams require a multi-agent approach under the condition that often decision-makers as superior-agents are part of the team. The diversity of competences and decision-making authority is a phenomenon that overrides the assumptions of classical agency-theory and varies greatly in context of certain forms of business negotiations. Further, the basic model is bound to dyadic relationships preceded by the delegation of decision-making authority and builds on a contractual created (vertical) hierarchy. As a result, horizontal dynamics within the negotiation team playing an important role for negotiation success are therefore not considered in the investigation of agency-problems. Also, the trade-off between short-term relationships within the negotiation sphere and the long-term relationships of the corporate sphere calls for a multi-period perspective taking into account the sphere-specific governance-mechanisms already established (i.e., reward and monitoring systems). Within the analysis, the implementation of bounded rationality is closely related to findings from BRD to assess the impact of negotiation behavior on underlying principal-agent-relationships. As empirical findings show, the disclosure and reservation of information to the agent affect his negotiation behavior as well as final negotiation outcomes. Last, in context of business negotiations, asymmetric information is often intended by decision-makers acting as superior-agents or principals which calls for a bilateral risk-approach to agency-relations.

Keywords: business negotiations, agency-theory, negotiation analysis, interteam negotiations

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7054 Demographic Dividend and Creation of Human and Knowledge Capital in Liberal India: An Endogenous Growth Process

Authors: Arjun K., Arumugam Sankaran, Sanjay Kumar, Mousumi Das

Abstract:

The paper analyses the existence of endogenous growth scenario emanating from the demographic dividend in India during the liberalization period starting from 1980. Demographic dividend creates a fertile ground for the cultivation of human and knowledge capitals contributing to technological progress which can be measured using total factor productivity. The relationship among total factor productivity, human and knowledge capitals are examined in an open endogenous framework for the period 1980-2016. The control variables such as foreign direct investment, trade openness, energy consumption are also employed. The data are sourced from Reserve Bank of India, World Bank, International Energy Agency and The National Science and Technology Management Information System. To understand the dynamic association among variables, ARDL bounds approach to cointegration followed by Toda-Yamamoto causality test are used. The results reveal a short run and long run relationship among the variables supported by the existence of causality. This calls for an integrated policy to build and augment human capital and research and development activities to sustain and pace up growth and development in the nation.

Keywords: demographic dividend, young population, open endogenous growth models, human and knowledge capital

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7053 The Legal Framework for Solid Waste Disposal and Management in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Alabi Odunayo Mayowa, Ajayi Oluwasola Felix

Abstract:

Solid waste such as “garbage” “trash” “refuse” “slug” and “rubbish” is disposed off or is required to be disposed off in accordance with national law. The study relies on primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources include the Constitution, statutes and subsidiary legislation. The secondary sources of information include books, journals, conference proceedings, newspapers, magazines and internet materials. The information obtained from these sources is subjected to content and contextual analysis. The study examines the Kwara State Environmental Protection Agency Law, 1992 and other laws on waste disposal and management in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study also examines the regulations and the agency i.e. the Kwara State Environmental Protection Agency created by the law with a view to determine the inadequacies in the law.

Keywords: solid waste, waste disposal, waste management, domestic waste

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7052 Effects of an Economic Recession on Executive Compensation: A Panel Analysis of Listed Companies in Brazil

Authors: Joaquim Rubens Fontes-Filho, Felipe Buchbinder, Marcelo Desterro

Abstract:

The study aims to identify the effects of an economic recession on the compensation of executives of listed companies. Market-based and labor environment explanations have received particular attention, both to explain the reasons for a growth in this compensation and to indicate that they may increase agency problems rather than mitigate them. In this sense, labor forces, especially related to the market for executives, contribute to defining the terms of compensation packages and represent a significant external control mechanism to moderate agency problems, but may be of little effect if the executives are entrenched and concentrate enough power to have a say in his/her compensation. Based on a five-year data panel related to executive compensation in 250 listed companies in Brazil, we examine whether the economic recession in the last two years produced any impact in this compensation, controlling for the sector and level of governance of the company.

Keywords: agency problems, executive compensation, control mechanisms, corporate governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
7051 Examining the Notion of Duality: The Interaction between Neo-Academicism and University Teachers' Agency within the Performativity Context Defined by Public Managerialism

Authors: Tien Hui Chiang

Abstract:

Along with the predominant influence of neo-liberalism, public managerialism is viewed as a panacea for curing the institutionalized weakness caused by the monopoly of the public sector. In the name of efficiency, its outcome-led approach acquires a legitimate status and, in turn, it transforms into the discourse of performativity, reformulating the souls of individual members into the form of docile bodies who are willing to demonstrate their own ability in organizational contributions. The evaluation system and the organizational reconstruction are viewed as the crucial means for achieving this mission. Inevitably, university teachers are confined within a rigid and bureaucratic setting, in which they do not have too much latitude but are subject to the commands of senior administrators. However, the notion of duality highlights the interaction between structural constraints and agency. If the actor discovers the rules or properties of social structure, he/she is able to transform structural constraints into resources for developing creative actions, conceptualized as an agency. This study was designed for examining how duality operates within this hierarchical arrangement formed by public managerialism. Fourteen informants were interviewed from February to August 2014. The findings show that the evaluation system created the culture of neo-academicalism, addressing excellence in research and, in turn, motivating academic-oriented teachers. This correspondence provided a gateway for them to win honor, dignity, and prestige in groups. However, unlike the concept of duality, this agency was operating within the institutionalized context, regulated by structural constraint. Furthermore, complying with the rule/property of social structure was able to secure their advantages.

Keywords: public managerialism, social discourse, neo-academicalism, duality, structural constraint, agency

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
7050 The Experiences of Agency in the Utilization of Twitter for English Language Learning in a Saudi Tertiary EFL Context

Authors: Fahd Hamad Alqasham

Abstract:

This longitudinal study investigates Saudi students’ use trajectory and experiences of Twitter as an innovative tool for in class learning of English language in a Saudi tertiary EFL (English as a foreign language) context for a 12-week semester. The study adopted van Lier’s agency theory (2008, 2010) as the analytical framework to obtain an in-depth analysis of how the learners’ could utilize Twitter to create innovates ways for them to engage in English learning inside the language classroom. The study implemented a mixed methods approach which included six data collection instruments consisting of a research log, observations, focus group participation, initial and post-project interviews, and a post-project questionnaire. The study was conducted at Qassim University, specifically at Preparatory Year Program (PYP) in the main campus, and included a sample of 25 male students studying in the first level of PYP. The findings results revealed that although Twitter’s affordances which initially paled a crucial role in motivating the learners to initiate their agency inside the classroom to learn English, the contextual constraints, mainly anxiety, the university infrastructure, and the teacher’s role negatively influenced the sustainability of Twitter’s use past week nine of its implementation.

Keywords: applied linguistics, agency, language learning, nnovation, van lier

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7049 A Proposal of Farm-Based Tourism within the Context of Rural Tourism: Zeytinseli

Authors: Vedat Acar, Osman Eralp Çolakoğlu

Abstract:

In this research, with reference to specialization of travel agencies being an important part of tourism industry, a project has been presented about a small-scale enterprise, called as Zeytinseli, contributing actively from the beginning to the end of the production process of olive and olive oil within the context of rural tourism. For this purpose in the research done, firstly, conceptual framework has been formed about travel agency, tour operatorship, specialized travel agency and rural tourism and the necessity of specialization on tourism has been emphasized in today's world. Afterwards, "olive", having an important role in both mythology and divine religions, has been handled within the scope of rural tourism. The cost of accommodation units about Zeytinseli operating in Didim, being a district of Aydın, has been calculated within the context of the project and a fifteen-day's tour to this enterprise has been presented at the end of this project. The research may be said to be an original research on account of embodying not only ecotourism, agro tourism but also cultural tourism and special interest tourism.

Keywords: agro tourism, rural tourism, specialization of travel agency, special interest tourism

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7048 An Interaction between Human and Animal through the Death Experience

Authors: Mindaugas Kazlauskas

Abstract:

In this paper, it is presupposed that the description of the relationship between animal and human should begin with a description of the direct experience of the animal and how, in this experience, the human experiences itself (a self awareness mode). A human is concerned first and foremost with himself as a human through the experience of another as an animal. The questionsare: In the encounter with an animal, how is the animal constituted in the acts of human experience? How does human-animal interaction influence human behavioral patterns, and how does the human identifies itself in this interaction? The paper will present the results of interpretative phenomenological descriptions (IPA) of the relationship between human and animal in the face of death phenomenon through the experience of pet owners who lost their beloved companions and hunters, veterinatians, and farmers who face animal death. The results of IPA analysis reveal different relations such as the identification with an animal, the alienation experience, the experience of resistance, and an experience of detachment. Within these themes, IPA qualitative research results will be presented by highlighting patterns of human behavior, following Friedrich Schlachermacher's hermeneutics methodological principles, and reflecting on changes in value and attitude within society during daily interaction with the animal.

Keywords: animal human interaction, phenomenology, philosophy, death phenomenon

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7047 Human Rights Abuse in the Garment Factory in Bekasi Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

Abstract:

Although the Indonesian human rights protection has increased in recent years, but human rights violations still occur in the industrial sector. Crimes against human rights continue to occur and go unnoticed in spite of the government's legislation on human rights, employment law in addition to an international treaty that has been ratified by Indonesia. The increasing number of garment companies in Bekasi, also give rise to increased human rights violations since the government does not have a commitment to protect it. The Indonesian government and industry owners should pay attention to and protect the human rights of workers and treat them accordingly. This paper will review the human rights violations experienced by workers at garment factories in the context of the law, as well as ideas to improve the protection of workers' rights.

Keywords: human rights protection, human rights violations, workers’ rights, justice, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 355