Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Search results for: Dhaka

87 Housing and Urban Refugee: An Introspective Study on Bihari Camp of Mirpur, Dhaka

Authors: Fahmida Nusrat, Sumaia Nasrin, Pinak Sarker

Abstract:

Biharis as an urban refugee are a significant urban dweller in Dhaka since their forced migration on the partition of 1947. There are many such refugee settlements in Bangladesh, particularly in Dhaka where they often live in dire conditions, facing discrimination from mainstream society. Their camps have become slums. Housing for urban refugee is still not a strategic concern for overall housing policy of Dhaka. The study has been conducted in a significant refugee settlement located in Mirpur-11, Dhaka, to observe their way of living in these camps to understand the socio-cultural aspects that are shaping their settlement morphology, hence to identify the key issues of their built environment to suggest an inclusive and sustainable housing solution for improving their life in urban environment. The methods included first-hand data collection on their household spaces and community spaces accompanied with the overall spatial organization of the settlement pattern which later on followed by a semi-structured interview with randomly selected samples from the camp dwellers to get users’ feedback on the research aspects. The outcome of the study will help initiating housing strategies as well as formulating design issues for this case specific inhabitants of urban Dhaka.

Keywords: Bihari camp, Dhaka, housing strategy, the way of living, urban refugee

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
86 Crime and Class: A Study on Violent Crime in Dhaka City

Authors: A. B. M. Najmus Sakib

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Being one of the most densely populated cities in the world, Dhaka is facing diversified types of crimes every day. Limitations of resources insert serious strains among the inhabitants of this city. This paper aims to analyze the correlation between crime and class, more especially the violent crime in connection with social class. Following the stratified random sampling technique, one of the police divisions among eight of the Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP) will be selected. The data will be collected by evaluating the case files found in the police report. First, this paper discusses the nature and pattern of violent crimes in Dhaka city. Then, it assesses the socio-economic status of the accused persons considering their professions. Furthermore, by testing hypothesis, it will identify how the social classes are connected with violent crimes. Finally, the paper will ascertain the particular class that has an impact on violent crime in Dhaka City and will be ended by suggesting possible measures should take by the law enforcement agencies of Bangladesh.

Keywords: social class, violent crime, crime prevention, nature of crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
85 Measuring Flood Risk concerning with the Flood Protection Embankment in Big Flooding Events of Dhaka Metropolitan Zone

Authors: Marju Ben Sayed, Shigeko Haruyama

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Among all kinds of natural disaster, the flood is a common feature in rapidly urbanizing Dhaka city. In this research, assessment of flood risk of Dhaka metropolitan area has been investigated by using an integrated approach of GIS, remote sensing and socio-economic data. The purpose of the study is to measure the flooding risk concerning with the flood protection embankment in big flooding events (1988, 1998 and 2004) and urbanization of Dhaka metropolitan zone. In this research, we considered the Dhaka city into two parts; East Dhaka (outside the flood protection embankment) and West Dhaka (inside the flood protection embankment). Using statistical data, we explored the socio-economic status of the study area population by comparing the density of population, land price and income level. We have drawn the cross section profile of the flood protection embankment into three different points for realizing the flooding risk in the study area, especially in the big flooding year (1988, 1998 and 2004). According to the physical condition of the study area, the land use/land cover map has been classified into five classes. Comparing with each land cover unit, historical weather station data and the socio-economic data, the flooding risk has been evaluated. Moreover, we compared between DEM data and each land cover units to find out the relationship with flood. It is expected that, this study could contribute to effective flood forecasting, relief and emergency management for a future flood event in Dhaka city.

Keywords: land use, land cover change, socio-economic, Dhaka city, GIS, flood

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
84 Exploring Service Performance of Area-Based Bus Service for Dhaka: A Case Study of Dhaka Chaka

Authors: Md. Musfiqur Rahman Bhuiya Nidalia Islam, Hossain Mohiuddin, Md. Kawser Bin Zaman

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Dhaka North City Corporation introduced first area-based bus service on 10 August 2016 to run through Gulshan and Banani area to dilute sufferings of the people which started with the ban on movement of the bus in these areas after Holy Artisan terrorist attack. This study explores service quality performance of Dhaka Chaka on the basis of information provided by its riders on a questionnaire survey. Total thirteen service quality indicators have been ranked on a scale of 1-5, and they have been classified under three latent variables based on their correlation using eigenvalue and rotated factor matrix derived through factor analysis process. Mean, and skewness has been calculated for each indicator. It has been found that ticket price and ticketing system have relatively poor average service quality rank than other factors. All other factors have moderately good performance. The study also suggests some recommendation to improve service quality of Dhaka Chaka based on the interrelation between considered parameters.

Keywords: area based bus service, eigen value, factor analysis, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
83 Private University Students’ Travel Mode Choice Behaviour to University: Analysis in the Context of Dhaka City

Authors: Sharmin Nasrin

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Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh. In Dhaka among other trips, significant percentages of trips comprise education trips. This paper explores significant factors for private university students’ education trip to the University. A paper pencil based survey has been conducted on Asia Pacific University student in Dhaka from May 2016 to July 2016. Participants were chosen randomly for the survey. Exploratory analysis showed that about 50% chose bus, 33% chose Rickshaw, 2% chose car and 15% chose to walk for travel to their University. Results from Multinomial Logit model revealed that travel cost, travel time and comfort are the significant factors for private university students to choose different modes. However, magnitude of coefficient of attribute comfort is significantly higher compared to travel cost and travel time. Result from this paper can be used by policymakers and Government agencies to provide more cost effective, comfortable journey to their University.

Keywords: private university student's education trip, mode choice mode, Dhaka, developing country

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82 Sustainable Urban Mobility: Rethinking the Bus Stop Infrastructures of Dhaka South

Authors: Hasnun Wara Khondker, M. Tarek Morad

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Bangladesh is one of the most populous countries of the world in terms of density. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh currently has a population of approximately 15-16 million of which around 9 million people are accommodated in Dhaka South City Corporation (DSCC) within around 109 square kilometer area. Despite having various urban issues, country is at its pick of economic progress and Dhaka is the core of this economic growth. To ensure the proper economic development and citizens wellbeing, city needs an ingenious, congestion-free public transportation network. Bus stop/bus bay is an essential infrastructure for ensuring efficient public transportation flow within the city along with enhancing accessibility, user comfort, and safety through public amenities. At present, there is no established Mass Rapid Transit or Bus Rapid Transit network within the city and therefore these private owned buses are the only major mode of mass transportation of Dhaka city. DSCC has undertaken a project to re-design several bus stops and bus bays according to the universal standard for better urban mobility and user satisfaction. This paper will analyze the design approach of the bus stop/bay infrastructure within Dhaka South, putting the research lens on sustainable urban mobility with case studies of similar kind of urban context. The paper will also study the design process with setting several parameters, i.e., accessibility, passenger safety, comfort, sustainability, etc. Moreover, this research will recommend a guideline for designing a bus stop based on the analysis of the design methods.

Keywords: bus stop, Dhaka, public transportation, sustainable urban mobility, universal accessibility, user safety

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81 Cultural Entanglements in the Urban Fabric: A Case of Festivals in Old Dhaka and its Impacts

Authors: Khandoker Upama Kabir, Mohammad Fuhad Anwar Sinha

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Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is known not only for its fast growing economy, lively atmosphere, rich history, and culture but is also known for having a reputation of being a vastly populated city. The historic city centre of Dhaka (currently known as Puran Dhaka or Old Dhaka) which was conceived around the Pre-Mughal era and holds a lot of history and heritage of the region. This historic site has further been neglected, and most of the urban development has been done without integrating this part of the city into the plans. As a result, the festivals that take place traditionally throughout the year in this area create a greater impact on the urban fabric of the whole city. These festivals generate a huge amount of visitors and play a huge role in shaping the identity of the people. This paper will attempt to look at the importance of these traditions, the way these festivals are influencing the urban life of the community, and whether or not it has any significant effect on the economy. Through the use of both primary and secondary sources and SWOT analysis, this paper will attempt to identify the issues faced during these festivals. This paper will also try to suggest some basic remedies based on general comparisons between case studies of similar festivals celebrated globally and how these countries are dealing with such issues while also promoting tourism.

Keywords: urban fabric, festivals, cultural celebration, impact, historic city centre urban memory, mega events

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80 Demographic Impact on Wastewater: A Systemic Analysis of Human Impact on Wastewater Quality in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Dewan Hasin Mahtab, Farzana Sadia

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At present, wastewater treatment has become essential to maintain a constant supply of safe water as well as to protect the environment. Due to overpopulation and overconsumption, the water quality from various surface water sources is degrading every day. Being one of the megacities in the world, Dhaka City, is going through rapid industrialization and urbanization. The effluents from these industries and factories are mostly discharged directly into the rivers without any treatment. As such, the quality of water of Buriganga is being afflicted with a noisome problem of pollution. The water of the Buriganga River has become detrimental to humans, animals, and the environment. It has become crucial to conserve the environment so that we can save both ourselves and the environment. The first step towards it should be analyzing the wastewater to decide the further steps of the treatment process. Increased population and increased consumption both contribute to water pollution. Mohammadpur is a developing area of Dhaka City, and Kamrangirchar is one of the largest slum areas in Dhaka City. The total study area is 6.13 sq. Km of Dhaka city with a population of 4,73,310 people. Of them, 86.47% had their own latrine, 47% were directly connected to the drain, 55% had septic tanks, and 70.09% of them cleaned their septic tank once a year. The pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Total Dissolved Solid, Total Suspended and total coliforms of wastewater from two samples of both Mohammadpur and Kamrangirchar was analyzed. The DO level from the water bodies of Kamrangirchar was found very low, making the water bodies inhabitable for aquatic plants and animals. The BOD and COD level was extremely high from samples collected from Mohammadpur. The total coliforms count was found too high during the wet season, making it a potential health concern in the wet season in these two areas.

Keywords: Dhaka, environmental conservation rule, sanitation, wastewater

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79 Environmental Liability of Architects: Architects Destroying the City in Designed and Creative Way, Dhaka City

Authors: Md. Ratin

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This paper aims to show how Dhaka city is getting destroyed and the creator and guide of the city – the architects destroying the city in more designed and creative way. The liability of architects should be first and foremost to make the would, country, city a better living environment. As without it where the architects will do their design? To make a better living environment architects should conserve the tress, river and other related ingredient related to the environment. This paper attempts to show how cutting down trees and filling rivers causing more problem than having a great architecture in those places. For increasing people in a city like Dhaka, we need more shelter. But for providing those architects building more living spaces. But as a liability of an architect, one should give something back to the environment too. With time the city’s greenery and water body are getting vanished like magic. And for this, the architects should be blamed for giving us a disastrous future. The analysis is based on literature survey and survey by questionnaire, interviews of users.

Keywords: architect, environment, liability, river

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
78 Scope of Rainwater Harvesting in Residential Plots of Dhaka City

Authors: Jubaida Gulshan Ara, Zebun Nasreen Ahmed

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Urban flood and drought has been a major problem of Dhaka city, particularly in recent years. Continuous increase of the city built up area, and limiting rainwater infiltration zone, are thought to be the main causes of the problem. Proper rainwater management, even at the individual plot level, might bring significant improvement in this regard. As residential use pattern occupies a significant portion of the city surface, the scope of rainwater harvesting (RWH) in residential buildings can be investigated. This paper reports on a research which explored the scope of rainwater harvesting in residential plots, with multifamily apartment buildings, in Dhaka city. The research investigated the basics of RWH, contextual information, i.e., hydro-geological, meteorological data of Dhaka city and the rules and legislations for residential building construction. The study also explored contemporary rainwater harvesting practices in the local and international contexts. On the basis of theoretical understanding, 21 sample case-studies, in different phases of construction, were selected from seven different categories of plot sizes, in different residential areas of Dhaka city. Primary data from the 21 case-study buildings were collected from a physical survey, from design drawings, accompanied by a questionnaire survey. All necessary secondary data were gathered from published and other relevant sources. Collected primary and secondary data were used to calculate and analyze the RWH needs for each case study, based on the theoretical understanding. The main findings have been compiled and compared, to observe residential development trends with regards to building rainwater harvesting system. The study has found that, in ‘Multifamily Apartment Building’ of Dhaka city, storage, and recharge structure size for rainwater harvesting, increases along with occupants’ number, and with the increasing size of the plot. Hence, demand vs. supply ratio remains almost the same for different sizes of plots, and consequently, the size of the storage structure increases significantly, in large-scale plots. It has been found that rainwater can meet only 12%-30% of the total restricted water demand of these residential buildings of Dhaka city. Therefore, artificial groundwater recharge might be the more suitable option for RWH, than storage. The study came up with this conclusion that, in multifamily residential apartments of Dhaka city, artificial groundwater recharge might be the more suitable option for RWH, than storing the rainwater on site.

Keywords: Dhaka city, rainwater harvesting, residential plots, urban flood

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77 Investigating the Accessibility of Physically Disabled Individuals in Corporate Offices: A Case of Dhaka City

Authors: Ishrar Tabassum, Jay Andrew Saptok, Khalid Raihan Kabir, Elmee Tabassum

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The purpose of this study is to bring light to the current state of the working environments in the corporate environment and other such institutions with a particular focus on the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) and its guidelines for accommodating the physically disabled. Data were collected via semi-formal interviews, site visits and focus groups conducted using a preset questionnaire as the guidelines. After conducting surveys at corporate offices of 20 organizations from major commercial sectors in Dhaka city, the auditing showed many inadequacies, as aside from the larger corporate offices, the offices have little to no accessibility for the physically disabled. This study hopes to shed light on the fact that the existing BNBCs lack of emphasis on ensuring the accessibility of the handicapped in corporate buildings in the hope that, in the future, the physically disabled will have greater opportunities at being productive members of the workforce.

Keywords: person with disability, PWD, corporate buildings, Dhaka City

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
76 Assessing Bus Service Quality in Dhaka City from the Perspective of Female Passengers

Authors: S. K. Subah, R. Tasnim, M. I. Jahan, M. R. Islam

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While talking about how comfortable and convenient Dhaka's bus service is, the minimum emphasis is placed on the female commuters of the Dhaka city. Recognizing the contemporary situation, the supreme focus is to develop experimental model based on statistical methods. SEM has been adopted to quantify passenger satisfaction, which is affected by the perceived service quality. The study deals with 16 observed variables and three latent variables, which were correlated to identify their significance on the regulation of perceived SQ (Service Quality). To calibrate the model, a dataset of 250 responses from female users of local buses has been utilized through survey. A questionnaire structured with SQ variables was prepared in consultation with prevailing literature, practitioners, academicians, and users. The result concludes that the attributes of safe and secured environment have the most significant impact on the overall bus service quality according to the insight of female respondents. The study outcome might be a great help for the policymakers, women's organizations, and NGOs to formulate transport policy that will ensure a women-friendly public bus service.

Keywords: bus service quality, female perception, structural equation modelling, safety-security, women friendly bus

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
75 Estimation of Gaseous Pollutants at Kalyanpur, Dhaka City

Authors: Farhana Tarannum

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Ambient (outdoor) air pollution is now recognized as an important problem, both nationally and worldwide. The concentrations of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO and O3) have been determined from samples collected at Kallyanpur along Shamoli corridor in Dhaka city. Pollutants were determined in a sample collected at ground level and a roof of a 7-storied building. These pollutants are emitted largely from stationary sources like fossil fuel fired power plants, industrial plants, and manufacturing facilities as well as mobile sources. The incomplete combustion of fuel, wood and the Sulphur containing fuel used in the vehicles are one of the main causes of CO and SOx respectively in our natural environment. When the temperature of combustion in high enough and some of that nitrogen reacts with oxygen in the air, various nitrogen oxides (NOx) are then formed. The VOCs react with NOx in the presence of sunlight to form O3. UV Visible spectrophotometric method has been used for the determination of SOx, NOx and O3. The sensor type device was used for the estimation of CO. It was found that the air pollutants (CO, SOx, NOx and O3) of a sample collected at the roof of a building were lower compared to the ground level; it indicated that ground level people are mostly affected by the gaseous pollutants.

Keywords: gaseous pollutants, UV-visible spectrophotometry, ambient air quality, Dhaka city

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74 Study of Ambient Air Quality on Building's Roof of Dhaka City

Authors: Koninika Tanzim

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The gaseous pollutants, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 affect the environment of Dhaka City. These pollutants are mainly released from stationary sources, like, fossil-fueled, power plants, industrial units and brickfields around the city. Suspended particulate matters including PM10 and PM2.5 are also contributing to air pollution in Dhaka City. SO2, NO2 and O3 are determined by using UV and visible spectrophotometry. The sensor type devised has been used for the determination of CO in ambient air. Lead in the suspended particulate matter was determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected at ground level and on the roof of a seven-storied building. For all the criteria pollutants, the concentration at the roof was found to the lower than that at the ground level. The average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were found to the 241.5 and 81.1 mg/m3 at the ground level. On the roof of a 7 storied building was however 49.99 mg/m3 and 25.88 mg/m3 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. The concentration of Pb varied from 0.011 to 0.04 mg/m3 at the ground level. The values for Pb at the roof level were significantly lower. The values for SO2, NO2, CO and O3 were found to be higher than the USEPA values.

Keywords: gaseous air pollutant, PM, lead, gravimetry, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption, ambient air quality

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73 High School Students’ Seismic Risk Perception and Preparedness in Shavar, Dhaka

Authors: Mohammad Lutfur Rahman

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School students of Dhaka are in extreme risk of natural disasters. However, the study on assessment of the real scenario of high school students about perceptions of earthquake is very little. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the seismic risk perception and preparedness levels about earthquake among high school students in Shavar, Dhaka. A questionnaire was developed, and data collection was done about a group of high school students in seven classrooms. The author uses a method of surveying high school students to identify and describe the factors that influence their knowledge and perceptions about earthquake. This study examines gender and grade differences in perceived risk and communication behavior in response to the earthquake. Female students’ preparation, participation, and communication with family are more frequent than that of male students. Female students have been found to be more likely to learn about a disaster than male students. Higher grade students have more awareness but less preparedness about earthquake than that of the younger one. This research concludes that irrespective of grades, high school students are vulnerable to earthquake due to the lack of a seismic education program.

Keywords: awareness, earthquake, risk perception, seismic

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72 Loss of Green Space in Urban Metropolitan and Its Alarming Impacts on Teenagers' Life: A Case Study on Dhaka

Authors: Nuzhat Sharmin

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Human being is the most integral part of the nature and responsible for maintaining ecological balance both in rural and urban areas. But unfortunately, we are not doing our job with a holistic approach. The rapid growth of urbanization is making human life more isolated from greenery. Nowadays modern urban living involves sensory deprivation and overloaded stress. In many cities and towns of the world are expanding unabated in the name of urbanization and industrialization and in fact becoming jungles of concrete. Dhaka is one of the examples of such cities where open and green spaces are decreasing because of accommodating the overflow of population. This review paper has been prepared based on interviewing 30 teenagers, both male and female in Dhaka city. There were 12 open-ended questions in the questionnaire. For the literature review information had been gathered from scholarly papers published in various peer-reviewed journals. Some information was collected from the newspapers and some from fellow colleagues working around the world. Ideally about 25% of an urban area should be kept open or with parks, fields and/or plants and vegetation. But currently Dhaka has only about 10-12% open space and these also are being filled up rapidly. Old Dhaka has only about 5% open space while the new Dhaka has about 12%. Dhaka is now one of the most populated cities in the world. Accommodating this huge influx of people Dhaka is continuously losing its open space. As a result, children and teenagers are losing their interest in playing games and making friends, rather they are mostly occupied by television, gadgets and social media. It has been known from the interview that only 28% of teenagers regularly play. But the majority of them have to play on the street and rooftop for the lack of open space. On an average they are occupied with electronic devices for 8.3 hours/day. 64% of them has chronic diseases and often visit doctors. Most shockingly 35% of them claimed for not having any friends. Green space offers relief from stress. Areas of natural environment in towns and cities are theoretically seen providing setting for recovery and recuperation from anxiety and strains of the urban environment. Good quality green spaces encourage people to walk, run, cycle and play. Green spaces improve air quality and reduce noise, while trees and shrubbery help to filter out dust and pollutants. Relaxation, contemplation and passive recreation are essential to stress management. All city governments that are losing its open spaces should immediately pay attention to this aesthetic issue for the benefit of urban people. All kinds of development must be sustainable both for human being and nature.

Keywords: greenery, health, human, urban

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
71 A Comparative Analysis of the Indoor Thermal Environment of a Room with and without Transitional Space or Threshold in Traditional Row Houses Adjacent to a Narrow Alley 'Rupchan Lane' in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Fatema Tasmia, Brishti Majumder, Atiqur Rahman

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Attaining appropriate thermal comfort conditions in a place where the climate is hot and humid can be perplexing. Especially, when it resides at a congested place like old Dhaka Bangladesh, the provision of giving cross ventilation and building with proper orientation is quite difficult. This paper aims to investigate the indoor thermal environment of a room with and without transitional space or threshold in traditional row houses adjacent to a narrow alley of old Dhaka through field measurements. Transitional spaces are the part of buildings which are used for semi-outdoor household activities, social gathering and it is also proved to provide an indoor thermal effect. The field study was conducted by collecting thermal data (temperature, humidity and airflow) respectively, among the outdoor narrow alley, transitional space and adjacent indoor. This east-west elongated alley has an average width of 2.13 meter (varies from 1.5 to 2.6 meter) holding row houses on both sides. Among different aspects of thermal environment, the study of this paper is based on the analysis of temperature of corresponding cases. Other aspects and their variables were considered as constant (especially material) for accuracy and avoidance of confusion. This study focuses on the outcome that can ultimately contribute to the configuration of row houses with transitional spaces and in its relation to the adjacent outdoor space while achieving thermal comfort.

Keywords: alley, Old-Dhaka, row houses, temperature, thermal comfort, threshold, transitional space

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70 Rainwater Harvesting is an Effective Tool for City’s Storm Water Management and People’s Willingness to Install Rainwater Harvesting System in Buildings: A Case Study in Kazipara, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Abu Hanif, Anika Tabassum, Fuad Hasan Ovi, Ishrat Islam

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Water is essential for life. Enormous quantities of water are cycled each year through hydrologic cycle but only a fraction of circulated water is available each year for human use. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh is the 19th mega city in the world with a population of over 14 million (World City Information, 2011). As a result the growth of urban population is increasing rapidly; the city is not able to manage with altering situations due to resource limitations and management capacity. Water crisis has become an acute problem faced by the inhabitants of Dhaka city. It is found that total water demand in Dhaka city is 2,240 million liter per day (MLD) whereas supply is 2,150 (MLD). According to Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority about 87 percent of this supply comes from groundwater resources and rest 13 percent from surface water. According to Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority it has been found that the current groundwater depletion rate is 3.52 meter per year. Such a fast depletion of the water table will result in intrusion of southern saline water into the groundwater reservoir, depriving this mega city of pure drinking water. This study mainly focus on the potential of Rainwater Harvesting System(RWHS) in Kazipara area of Dhaka city, determine the perception level of local people in installation of rainwater harvesting system in their building and identify the factors regarding willingness of owner in installing rainwater harvesting system. As most of the residential area of Dhaka city is unplanned with small plots, Kazipara area has been chosen as study area which depicts similar characteristics. In this study only roof top area is considered as catchment area and potential of rainwater harvesting has been calculated. From the calculation it is found that harvested rainwater can serve the 66% of demand of water for toilet flushing and cleaning purposes for the people of Kazipara. It is also observed that if only rooftop rainwater harvesting applied to all the structures of the study area then two third of surface runoff would be reduced than present surface runoff. In determining the perception of local people only owners of the buildings were. surveyed. From the questionnaire survey it is found that around 75% people have no idea about the rainwater harvesting system. About 83% people are not willing to install rainwater harvesting system in their dwelling. The reasons behind the unwillingness are high cost of installation, inadequate space, ignorance about the system, etc. Among 16% of the willing respondents who are interested in installing RWHS system, it was found that higher income, bigger size of buildings are important factors in willingness of installing rainwater harvesting system. Majority of the respondents demanded for both technical and economical support to install the system in their buildings. Government of Bangladesh has taken some initiatives to promote rainwater harvesting in urban areas. It is very much necessary to incorporate rainwater harvesting device and artificial recharge system in every building of Dhaka city to make Dhaka city self sufficient in water supply management and to solve water crisis problem of megacity like as Dhaka city.

Keywords: rainwater harvesting, water table, willingness, storm water

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69 Influences of Emerging Beauty Industry for Men on Construction of Masculinities of Male Students of Dhaka City

Authors: Abu Saleh Mohammad Sowad

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Back in history, muscular and strong male body has always been used to promulgate masculinity; for physically representing supreme manliness there were not many other options. This idealized male figure was proliferated mainly for spreading the notion of male superiority in relation to power and to give a strong base to the social construction of masculinity. This study targets to disclose the perception about the attributes masculinities among the male students of Dhaka city regarding male beautification. It is an attempt to unveil young men’s perspectives regarding their masculinities and beauty. Till the very recent past, beauty was always seen as sole feminine trait in Bangladeshi society. From history we can see men have always been assumed as the ambassador of roughness but in recent time the emergence of fashion-conscious men can be seen, who are slowly occupying a handsome position in the society. Concerning study attempts to bring out the way in which such changing trend of male beauty is perceived among the male students of Dhaka city. What could be the ideologies of these young men who are being involved with it? What is influencing them to be part of such arena which, to a great extent, is still considered as female domain? Is their perception about construction of masculinity is shifting from the so called idealized masculinity? The study tries to find out the answers.

Keywords: masculinity, male beauty, Bangladesh, identity, body

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68 Planning Politics of Dhaka City: Recent Urbanization and Gentrification

Authors: N. M. Esa Abrar Khan

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This paper will describe how a city planning can be abusive and promote gentrification in Dhaka city area in an extreme remorseless way. To our knowledge, Dhaka is enormously overpopulated, and its somewhat unrest political situation and corruption is promoting not only bruised urban growth but also this growth leering people socially and mentally. Due to globalization, whole world is in a rat race of development fiesta and Bangladesh is no longer falling back in this race. Recent political agenda is to develop the country anyhow, whether it is a good development or not. In the name of development, Dhaka city is becoming overwhelmed with flyovers, needless shopping malls and commercial complexes. This drastic urbanization is promoting gentrification. Gentrification is the process of societal change which intimidate the existing group of people from a certain place and encouraging affluent group of people on that place and eventually they take the control of that place. Process of gentrification is more capitalistic rather socially democratic. Architects are indirectly or directly related with this social change and politics is the catalyst of these social alteration. The methodology of this paper was mainly dependent on mass interviews including political leaders and activist’s interviews. Also, photographic analysis, empirical research etc. helped to create this paper. Secondary data were collected from different published and unpublished documents, relevant research articles, and books. From the study, it is clearly can be said that architects and urban designers are promoting social imbalance. The paper tried to suggest how architects and other designers can help to resist gentrification and can remain the social heterogeneity.

Keywords: gentrification, migration, Bangladesh, urban, globalization, hybrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
67 A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Bus Rapid Transit Project from Gazipur to Airport at Dhaka Focusing on Environmental Impacts

Authors: Swapna Begum, Higano Yoshiro

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Dhaka is the capital city of Bangladesh. It is considered as one of the traffic congested cities in the world. The growth of the population of this city is increasing day by day. The land use pattern and the increased socio-economic characteristics increase the motor vehicle ownership of this city. The rapid unplanned urbanization and poor transportation planning have deteriorated the transport environment of this city. Also, the huge travel demand with non-motorized traffics on streets is accounted for enormous traffic congestion in this city. The land transport sector in Dhaka is mainly dependent on road transport comprised of both motorized and non-motorized modes of travel. This improper modal mix and the un-integrated system have resulted in huge traffic congestion in this city. Moreover, this city has no well-organized public transport system and any Mass Transit System to cope with this ever increasing demand. Traffic congestion causes serious air pollution and adverse impact on the economy by deteriorating the accessibility, level of service, safety, comfort and operational efficiency. Therefore, there is an imperative need to introduce a well-organized, properly scheduled mass transit system like (Bus Rapid Transit) BRT minimizing the existing problems.

Keywords: air pollution, BRT, mass transit, traffic congestion

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66 Change Detection of Water Bodies in Dhaka City: An Analysis Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

Authors: M. Humayun Kabir, Mahamuda Afroze, K. Maudood Elahi

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Since the late 1900s, unplanned and rapid urbanization processes have drastically altered the land, reduced water bodies, and decreased vegetation cover in the capital city of Bangladesh, Dhaka. The capitalist modes of urbanization results in the encroachment of the surface water bodies in this city. The main goal of this study is to investigate the change detection of water bodies in Dhaka city, analyzing spatial distribution of water bodies and calculating the changing rate of it. This effort aims to influence public policy for environmental justice initiatives around protecting water bodies for ensuring proper function of the urban ecosystem. This study accomplishes research goal by compiling satellite imageries into GIS software to understand the changes of water bodies in Dhaka city. The work focuses on the late 20th century to early 21st century to analyze this city before and after major infrastructural changes occurred in unplanned manner. The land use of the study area has been classified into four categories, and the areas of the different land use have been calculated using MS Excel and SPSS. The results reveal that the urbanization expanded from central to northern part and major encroachment occurred at the western and eastern part of the city. It has also been found that, in 1988, the total area of water bodies was 8935.38 hectares, and it gradually decreased, and in 1998, 2008, 2017, the total areas of water bodies reached 6065.73, 4853.32, 2077.56 hectares, respectively. Rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization, and industrialization have generated pressure to change the land use pattern in Dhaka city. These expansion processes are engulfing wetland, water bodies, and vegetation cover without considering environmental impact. In order to regain the wetland and surface water bodies, the concern authorities must implement laws and act as a legal instrument in this regard and take action against the violators of it. This research is the synthesis of time series data that provides a complete picture of the water body’s status of Dhaka city that might help to make plans and policies for water body conservation.

Keywords: ecosystem, GIS, industrialization, land use, remote sensing, urbanization

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65 A Comparative Analysis about the Effects of a Courtyard in Indoor Thermal Environment of a Room with and without Transitional Space Adjacent to Courtyard of a House in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Fatema Tasmia, Brishti Majumder, Atiqur Rahman

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Attaining appropriate comfort conditions in a place where the climate is hot and humid can be perplexing. Especially, when it is resided at a congested place like old Dhaka Bangladesh, the provision of giving cross ventilation and building with proper orientation is quite difficult. Courtyards are the part of buildings which are used as space for outdoor household activities, social gathering and it is also proved to have indoor thermal comfort as an effect of courtyard. This paper aims to investigate the effect of courtyard in indoor thermal environment of a room adjacent to the courtyard and a room next to transitional space after a courtyard through field measurements of a case study house. The field measurement was conducted in a two-storey house. Among different aspects of thermal environment, the study of this paper is based on the analysis of temperature in both situations. Ventilation or air movement was considered to have no impact because of the rooms’ layout and location. Other aspects and their variables were considered as constant (especially material) for accuracy and avoidance of confusion. This study focuses on the outcome that can ultimately contribute to the configuration of courtyards and in its relation to indoor space while achieving thermal comfort.

Keywords: courtyard, old Dhaka, temperature, thermal comfort, transitional space

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64 Analysis of Urban Slum: Case Study of Korail Slum, Dhaka

Authors: Sanjida Ahmed Sinthia

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Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world. There are several reasons for this insufficiency and uncontrolled population growth is one of the prime reasons. Others include low economic progress, imbalanced resource management, unemployment and underemployment, urban migration and natural catastrophes etc. As a result, the rate of urban poor is increasing inevitably in every sphere of urban cities in Bangladesh and Dhaka is the most affected one. Besides there is scarcity of urban land, housing, urban infrastructure and amenities which create pressure on urban cities and mostly encroach the open space, wetlands that causes environmental degradation. Government has no or limited control over these due to poor government policy and management, political pressure and lack of resource management. Unfortunately, over centralization and bureaucracy creates unnecessary delay and interruptions in any government initiations. There is also no coordination between government and private sector developer to solve the problem of urban Poor. To understand the problem of these huge populations this paper analyzes one of the single largest slum areas in Dhaka, Korail Slum. The study focuses on socio demographic analysis, morphological pattern and role of different actors responsible for the improvements of the area and recommended some possible steps for determining the potential outcomes.

Keywords: demographic analysis, environmental degradation, government policy, housing and land management policy

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63 Sources of Precipitation and Hydrograph Components of the Sutri Dhaka Glacier, Western Himalaya

Authors: Ajit Singh, Waliur Rahaman, Parmanand Sharma, Laluraj C. M., Lavkush Patel, Bhanu Pratap, Vinay Kumar Gaddam, Meloth Thamban

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The Himalayan glaciers are the potential source of perennial water supply to Asia’s major river systems like the Ganga, Brahmaputra and the Indus. In order to improve our understanding about the source of precipitation and hydrograph components in the interior Himalayan glaciers, it is important to decipher the sources of moisture and their contribution to the glaciers in this river system. In doing so, we conducted an extensive pilot study in a Sutri Dhaka glacier, western Himalaya during 2014-15. To determine the moisture sources, rain, surface snow, ice, and stream meltwater samples were collected and analyzed for stable oxygen (δ¹⁸O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes. A two-component hydrograph separation was performed for the glacier stream using these isotopes assuming the contribution of rain, groundwater and spring water contribution is negligible based on field studies and available literature. To validate the results obtained from hydrograph separation using above method, snow and ice melt ablation were measured using a network of bamboo stakes and snow pits. The δ¹⁸O and δD in rain samples range from -5.3% to -20.8% and -31.7% to -148.4% respectively. It is noteworthy to observe that the rain samples showed enriched values in the early season (July-August) and progressively get depleted at the end of the season (September). This could be due to the ‘amount effect’. Similarly, old snow samples have shown enriched isotopic values compared to fresh snow. This could because of the sublimation processes operating over the old surface snow. The δ¹⁸O and δD values in glacier ice samples range from -11.6% to -15.7% and -31.7% to -148.4%, whereas in a Sutri Dhaka meltwater stream, it ranges from -12.7% to -16.2% and -82.9% to -112.7% respectively. The mean deuterium excess (d-excess) value in all collected samples exceeds more than 16% which suggests the predominant moisture source of precipitation is from the Western Disturbances. Our detailed estimates of the hydrograph separation of Sutri Dhaka meltwater using isotope hydrograph separation and glaciological field methods agree within their uncertainty; stream meltwater budget is dominated by glaciers ice melt over snowmelt. The present study provides insights into the sources of moisture, controlling mechanism of the isotopic characteristics of Sutri Dhaka glacier water and helps in understanding the snow and ice melt components in Chandra basin, Western Himalaya.

Keywords: D-excess, hydrograph separation, Sutri Dhaka, stable water isotope, western Himalaya

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62 Comparative Assessment of Rainwater Management Alternatives for Dhaka City: Case Study of North South University

Authors: S. M. Islam, Wasi Uddin, Nazmun Nahar

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Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, faces two contrasting problems; excess of water during monsoon season and scarcity of water during dry season. The first problem occurs due to rapid urbanization and mismanagement of rainwater whereas the second problem is related to climate change and increasing urban population. Inadequate drainage system also worsens the overall water management scenario in Dhaka city. Dhaka has a population density of 115,000 people per square miles. This results in a 2.5 billion liter water demand every day, 87% of which is fulfilled by groundwater. Over dependency on groundwater has resulted in more than 200 feet drop in the last 50 years and continues to decline at a rate of 9 feet per year. Considering the gravity of the problem, it is high time that practitioners, academicians and policymakers consider different water management practices and look into their cumulative impacts at different scales. The present study assesses different rainwater management options for North South University of Bangladesh and recommends the most feasible and sustainable rainwater management measure. North South University currently accommodates over 20,000 students, faculty members, and administrative staffs. To fulfill the water demand, there are two deep tube wells, which bring up approximately 150,000 liter of water every hour. The annual water demand is approximately 103 million liters. Dhaka receives approximately 1800 mm of rainfall every year. For the current study, two academic buildings and one administrative building consist of 4924 square meters of rooftop area was selected as catchment area. Both rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge options were analyzed separately. It was estimated that by rainwater harvesting, annually a total of 7.2 million liters of water can be reused which is approximately 7% of the total annual water usage. In the monsoon, rainwater harvesting fulfills 12.2% of the monthly water demand. The approximate cost of the rainwater harvesting system is estimated to be 940975 bdt (USD 11500). For direct groundwater recharge, a system comprises of one de-siltation tank, two recharge tanks and one siltation tank were designed that requires approximately 532788 bdt (USD 6500). The payback period is approximately 7 years and 4 months for the groundwater recharge system whereas the payback period for rainwater harvesting option is approximately 12 years and 4 months. Based on the cost-benefit analysis, the present study finds the groundwater recharge system to be most suitable for North South University. The present study also demonstrates that if only one institution like North South University can add up a substantial amount of water to the aquifer, bringing other institutions in the network has the potential to create significant cumulative impact on replenishing the declining groundwater level of Dhaka city. As an additional benefit, it also prevents large amount of water being discharged into the storm sewers which results in severe flooding in Dhaka city during monsoon.

Keywords: Dhaka, groundwater, harvesting, rainwater, recharge

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61 University Students’ Perception on Public Transit in Dhaka City

Authors: Mosabbir Pasha, Ijaj Mahmud Chowdhury, M. A. Afrahim Bhuiyann

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With the increasing population and intensive land use, huge traffic demand is generating worldwide both in developing and developed countries. As a developing country, Bangladesh is also facing the same problem in recent years by producing huge numbers of daily trips. As a matter of fact, extensive traffic demand is increasing day by day. Also, transport system in Dhaka is heterogeneous, reflecting the heterogeneity in the socio-economic and land use patterns. As a matter of fact, trips produced here are for different purposes such as work, business, educational etc. Due to the significant concentration of educational institutions a large share of the trips are generated by educational purpose. And one of the major percentages of educational trips is produced by university going students and most of them are travelled by car, bus, train, taxi, rickshaw etc. The aim of the study was to find out the university students’ perception on public transit ridership. A survey was conducted among 330 students from eight different universities. It was found out that 26% of the trips produced by university going students are travelled by public bus service and only 5% are by train. Percentage of car share is 16% and 12% of the trips are travelled by private taxi. From the study, it has been found that more than 42 percent student’s family resides outside of Dhaka, eventually they prefer bus instead of other options. Again those who chose to walk most of the time, of them, over 40 percent students’ family reside outside of Dhaka and of them over 85 percent students have a tendency to live in a mess. They generally choose a neighboring location to their respective university so that they can reach their destination by walk. On the other hand, those who travel by car 80 percent of their family reside inside Dhaka. The study also revealed that the most important reason that restricts students not to use public transit is poor service. Negative attitudes such as discomfort, uneasiness in using public transit also reduces the usage of public transit. The poor waiting area is another major cause of not using public transit. Insufficient security also plays a significant role in not using public transit. On the contrary, the fare is not a problem for students those who use public transit as a mode of transportation. Students also think stations are not far away from their home or institution and they do not need to wait long for the buses or trains. It was also found accessibility to public transit is moderate.

Keywords: traffic demand, fare, poor service, public transit ridership

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60 Healthcare Waste Management Practices in Bangladesh: A Case Study in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: H. M. Nuralam, Z. Xiao-lan, B. K. Dubey, D. Wen-Chuan

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Healthcare waste (HCW) is one of the major concerns in environmental issues due to its infectious and hazardous nature that is requires specific treatment and systematic management prior to final disposal. This study aimed to assess HCW management system in Dhaka City (DC), Bangladesh, by investigating the present practices implemented by the city. In this study, five different healthcare establishments were selected in DC. Field visits and interviews with health personnel and staff who are concerned with the waste management were conducted. The information was gathered through questionnaire focus on the different aspect of HCW management like, waste segregation and collection, storage and transport, awareness as well. The results showed that a total of 7,215 kg/day (7.2 ton/day) of waste were generated, of which 79.36% (5.6 ton/day) was non-hazardous waste and 20.6% (1.5 ton/day) was hazardous waste. The rate of waste generation in these healthcare establishments (HCEs) was 2.6 kg/bed/day. There was no appropriate and systematic management of HCWs except at few private HCEs that segregate their hazardous waste. All the surveyed HCEs dumped their HCW together with the municipal waste, and some staff members were also found to be engaged in improper handling of the generated waste. Furthermore, the used sharp instruments, saline bags, blood bags and test tubes were collected for resale or reuse. Nevertheless, the lack of awareness, appropriate policy, regulation and willingness to act, were responsible for the improper management of HCW in DC. There was lack of practical training of concerned healthcare to handle the waste properly, while the nurses and staff were found to be aware of the health impacts of HCW.

Keywords: awareness, disposal, Dhaka city, healthcare waste management, waste generation

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59 Green Space and Their Possibilities of Enhancing Urban Life in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Ummeh Saika, Toshio Kikuchi

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Population growth and urbanization is a global phenomenon. As the rapid progress of technology, many cities in the international community are facing serious problems of urbanization. There is no doubt that the urbanization will proceed to have significant impact on the ecology, economy and society at local, regional, and global levels. The inhabitants of Dhaka city suffer from lack of proper urban facilities. The green spaces are needed for different functional and leisure activities of the urban dwellers. Again growing densification, a number of green space are transferred into open space in the Dhaka city. As a result greenery of the city's decreases gradually. Moreover, the existing green space is frequently threatened by encroachment. The role of green space, both at community and city level, is important to improve the natural environment and social ties for future generations. Therefore, it seems that the green space needs to be more effective for public interaction. The main objective of this study is to address the effectiveness of urban green space (Urban Park) of Dhaka City. Two approaches are selected to fulfill the study. Firstly, analyze the long-term spatial changes of urban green space using GIS and secondly, investigate the relationship of urban park network with physical and social environment. The case study site covers eight urban parks of Dhaka metropolitan area of Bangladesh. Two aspects (Physical and Social) are applied for this study. For physical aspect, satellite images and aerial photos of different years are used to find out the changes of urban parks. And for social aspect, methods are used as questionnaire survey, interview, observation, photographs, sketch and previous information of parks to analyze about the social environment of parks. After calculation of all data by descriptive statistics, result is shown by maps using GIS. According to physical size, parks of Dhaka city are classified into four types: Small, Medium, Large and Extra Large parks. The observed result showed that the physical and social environment of urban parks varies with their size. In small size parks physical environment is moderate by newly tree plantation and area expansion. However, in medium size parks physical environment are poor, example- tree decrease, exposed soil increase. On the other hand, physical environment of large size and extra large size parks are in good condition, because of plenty of vegetation and well management. Again based on social environment, in small size parks people mainly come from surroundings area and mainly used as waiting place. In medium-size parks, people come to attend various occasion from different places. In large size and extra large size parks, people come from every part of the city area for tourism purpose. Urban parks are important source of green space. Its influence both physical and social environment of urban area. Nowadays green space area gradually decreases and transfer into open space. The consequence of this research reveals that changes of urban parks influence both physical and social environment and also impact on urban life.

Keywords: physical environment, social environment, urban life, urban parks

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58 Investment Trend Analysis of Dhaka Stock Exchange: A Comparative Study

Authors: Azaz Zaman, Mirazur Rahman

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Capital market is a crucial financial market place where companies and the government can raise long-term funds and, at the same time, investors get the opportunity to invest in the listed companies. Capital markets play a vital role not only in shifting the funds from surplus entity to deficit for investment, but also in the overall economic development of any developing country like Bangladesh. Being the first and biggest capital market of Bangladesh, Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) is the prime bourse of the country. The differences in the investment preference— among three broad categories of investors in DSE including individual investors, institutional investors, and government— are easily observed. Authors of this article have used five categories of investors such as sponsors or directors of the company, institutional investors, foreign investors, government, and the general public in order to present a comparative analysis of their investment patterns. Obtaining data on the percentage of investment by these five types of investors in different sectors from the DSE website, this study aims to analyze the sector-wise investment preference of these investors using August 2018 data. The study has found that the sponsors or directors of the company have the highest percentage of investment in the textile industry which is close to 16%. The Bangladesh government, as an investor, has the highest percentage of investment in the fuel & power sector, approximately 32%. It has also found that the mutual funds' sector is mostly financed by institutional investors, nearly 28%. Foreign investors have their most investments in the banking sector, which is close to 22%. It has also revealed that the textile sector is mostly financed by the general public, close to 17%. Nevertheless, general public, surprisingly, has the lowest percentage of investment in the telecommunication sector, which is 0.10%.

Keywords: stock market investment, Dhaka stock exchange, capital market, Bangladesh

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