Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2214

Search results for: music teachers

2214 The Functions of the Student Voice and Student-Centred Teaching Practices in Classroom-Based Music Education

Authors: Sofia Douklia

Abstract:

The present context paper aims to present the important role of ‘Student voice’ in the music classroom which contributes to a more student-centered music education. My aim is to focus on the functions of the student voice through the music spectrum, which have been born in the music classroom. The music curriculum, the principles of a student-centered music education, the role of students and music teachers as music ambassadors have been considered as the major music parameters of student voice. And what is better than referring into the authentic words of a great music educator as John Paynter? How important is to elicit the student voice in the music classroom? What is the role of the music teachers in UK Music Education?

Keywords: student's voice, student-centred education, music ambassators, music teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2213 Teacher’s Perception of Dalcroze Method Course as Teacher’s Enhancement Course: A Case Study in Hong Kong

Authors: Ka Lei Au

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The Dalcroze method has been emerging in music classrooms, and music teachers are encouraged to integrate music and movement in their teaching. Music programs in colleges in Hong Kong have been introducing method courses such as Orff and Dalcroze method in music teaching as teacher’s education program. Since the targeted students of the course are music teachers who are making the decision of what approach to use in their classroom, their perception is significantly valued to identify how this approach is applicable in their teaching in regards to the teaching and learning culture and environment. This qualitative study aims to explore how the Dalcroze method as a teacher’s education course is perceived by music teachers from three aspects: 1) application in music teaching, 2) self-enhancement, 3) expectation. Through the lens of music teachers, data were collected from 30 music teachers who are taking the Dalcroze method course in music teaching in Hong Kong by the survey. The findings reveal the value and their intention of the Dalcroze method in Hong Kong. It also provides a significant reference for better development of such courses in the future in adaption to the culture, teaching and learning environment and teacher’s, student’s and parent’s perception of this approach.

Keywords: Dalcroze method, music teaching, perception, self-enhancement, teacher’s education

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2212 The Role of Student Culture in Beginning Music Teachers’ Instruction in Urban School Settings

Authors: Kiana Williams

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The purpose of this case study was to examine beginning music teachers’ perspectives of cultural relevance in relation to music instruction in urban school settings within a large Southwestern city. Research questions focused on the role of student culture in beginning music teachers’ instruction. Data were collected based on Seidman’s (2013) three interview series, consisting of audio recordings from two semi-structured individual interviews for each participant, a 15-20-minute video recording from each participant teaching in their classroom, and an audio recording of one focus group interview. Participants included three beginning music teachers currently employed in urban schools in a major metropolitan city in the Southern United States. In this study, a teacher was considered a beginning teacher if they had zero to three years of experience teaching music in urban school settings. The results revealed three broad themes related to connectivity and relatability, concerts, and differentiated instruction. Implications for current music educators as well as music teacher educators in higher education are included in this study. Further research should consider examining the effect of culturally relevant pedagogy on student retention in urban school music programs.

Keywords: culture, instruction, music, pedagogy, teacher, urban

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2211 Musical Diversity: The Differences between Public and Private Kindergartens in China

Authors: Kunyu Yan

Abstract:

Early childhood music education plays a significant role in an individual’s growth. Music can help children understand themselves and relate to others, and make connections between family, school, and society. In recent years, with the development of early childhood education in China, an increasing number of kindergartens have been established, and many of them pay more attention to music education. This research has two main aims. One is to discover how and why music is used in both public and private kindergartens. The second aim is to make recommendations for widening the use of music in kindergartens. In order to achieve these aims, the research uses two main methods. Firstly, it considers the historical background and cultural context of early childhood education in China; and secondly, it uses an approach that compares public and private kindergartens. In this research, six kindergartens were chosen from Qingdao city in Shandong Province as case studies, including 3 public kindergartens and 3 private kindergartens. This research was based on using three types of data collection methods: observation, semi-structured interviews with teachers, and questionnaires with parents. Participant and non-participant observational methods were used and included in daily routines at the kindergartens in order to experience the situation of music education first-hand. Interviews were associated with teachers’ views of teaching and learning music, the perceptions of the music context, and their strategies of using music. Lastly, the questionnaire was designed to obtain the views of current music education from the children’s parents in the respective kindergartens. The results are shown with three main themes: (1) distinct characteristics of public kindergartens (e.g., similar equipment, low tuition fee, qualified teachers, etc); (2) distinct characteristics of private kindergartens (e.g., various tuition fees, own teaching system, trained teachers, etc); and (3) differences between public and private kindergartens (e.g., funding, requirements for teachers, parents’ demands, etc). According to the results, we can see that the main purpose of using music in China is to develop the musical ability of children, and teachers focus on musical learning, such as singing in tune and playing instruments. However, as revealed in this research, there are many other uses and functions of music in these educational settings, including music used for non-musical learning (e.g., counting, learning language, etc.) or in supporting social routines.

Keywords: differences between private and public school, early childhood education, music education, uses and functions of music

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2210 Research and Innovations in Music Teacher Training Programme in Hungary

Authors: Monika Benedek

Abstract:

Improvisation is an integral part of music education programmes worldwide since teachers recognize that improvisation helps to broaden stylistic knowledge, develops creativity and various musical skills, in particular, aural skills, and also motivates to learn music theory. In Hungary, where Kodály concept is a core element of music teacher education, improvisation has been relatively neglected subject in both primary school and classical music school curricula. Therefore, improvisation was an important theme of a one-year-long research project carried out at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. The project aimed to develop the music teacher training programme, and among others, focused on testing how improvisation could be used as a teaching tool to improve students’ musical reading and writing skills and creative musical skills. Teacher-researchers first tested various teaching approaches of improvisation with numerous teaching modules in music lessons at public schools and music schools. Data were collected from videos of lessons and from teachers’ reflective notes. After analysing data and developing teaching modules, all modules were tested again in a pilot course in 30 contact lessons for music teachers. Teachers gave written feedback of the pilot programme, tested two modules by their choice in their own teaching and wrote reflecting comments about their experiences in applying teaching modules of improvisation. The overall results indicated that improvisation could be an innovative approach to teaching various musical subjects, in particular, solfege, music theory, and instrument, either in individual or in group instruction. Improvisation, especially with the application of relative solmisation and singing, appeared to have been a beneficial tool to develop various musicianship skills of students and teachers, in particular, the aural, musical reading and writing skills, and creative musical skills. Furthermore, improvisation seemed to have been a motivating teaching tool to learn music theory by creating a bridge between various musical styles. This paper reports on the results of the research project.

Keywords: improvisation, Kodály concept, music school, public school, teacher training

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2209 Using Music in the Classroom to Help Syrian Refugees Deal with Post-War Trauma

Authors: Vartan Agopian

Abstract:

Millions of Syrian families have been displaced since the beginning of the Syrian war, and the negative effects of post-war trauma have shown detrimental effects on the mental health of refugee children. While educational strategies have focused on vocational training and academic achievement, little has been done to include music in the school curriculum to help these children improve their mental health. The literature of music education and psychology, on the other hand, shows the positive effects of music on traumatized children, especially when it comes to dealing with stress. This paper presents a brief literature review of trauma, music therapy, and music in the classroom, after having introduced the Syrian war and refugee situation. Furthermore, the paper highlights the benefits of using music with traumatized children from the literature and offers strategies for teachers (such as singing, playing an instrument, songwriting, and others) to include music in their classrooms to help Syrian refugee children deal with post-war trauma.

Keywords: children, music, refugees, Syria, war

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
2208 Realization Mode and Theory for Extensible Music Cognition Education: Taking Children's Music Education as an Example

Authors: Yumeng He

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to establish the “extenics” of children music education, the “extenics” thought and methods are introduced into the children music education field. Discussions are made from the perspective of children music education on how to generate new music cognitive from music cognitive, how to generate new music education from music education and how to generate music learning from music learning. The research methods including the extensibility of music art, extensibility of music education, extensibility of music capability and extensibility of music learning. Results of this study indicate that the thought and research methods of children’s extended music education not only have developed the “extenics” concept and ideological methods, meanwhile, the brand-new thought and innovative research perspective have been employed in discussing the children music education. As indicated in research, the children’s extended music education has extended the horizon of children music education, and has endowed the children music education field with a new thought and research method.

Keywords: comprehensive evaluations, extension thought, extension cognition music education, extensibility

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2207 Motivational Qualities of and Flow State Responses to Participant-Selected Music and Researcher-Selected Music

Authors: Nurul A. Hamzah, Tony Morris, Dan Van Der Westhuizen

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Music listening can potentially promote the achievement of flow state during exercise. Selecting music for exercise should consider the motivational factors-internal factors (music tempo and musicality) and external factors (cultural impact and association). This study was a cross-over study which was designed to examine the motivational qualities of music (participant-selected music and researcher-selected music) and flow state responses during exercise accompanying with music. 17 healthy participants (M=30.2, SD=6.3 years old) were among low physical activity individuals. Participants completed two separate sessions of 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (40-60% of Heart Rate Reserve) while listening to music. Half the participants at random were assigned to exercise with participant-selected music first, and half were assigned to exercise with researcher-selected music first. Parameters including flow state responses (Flow State Scale-2) and motivational music rating (Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2) were administered immediately after the exercise. Results from this study showed that there were no significant differences for both flow state t(32)=0.00, p>0.05 and motivational music rating t(32)= .393, p>0.05 between exercise with participant-selected music and exercise with researcher-selected music. Listening to music either participant or researcher selected music could promote flow experience during exercise when music is perceived as motivational. Music tempo and music preference are factors that could influence individuals to enjoy exercise and improve the exercise performance.

Keywords: motivational music, flow state, researcher-selected music, participant-selected music

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2206 Wearable Music: Generation of Costumes from Music and Generative Art and Wearing Them by 3-Way Projectors

Authors: Noriki Amano

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The final goal of this study is to create another way in which people enjoy music through the performance of 'Wearable Music'. Concretely speaking, we generate colorful costumes in real- time from music and to realize their dressing by projecting them to a person. For this purpose, we propose three methods in this study. First, a method of giving color to music in a three-dimensionally way. Second, a method of generating images of costumes from music. Third, a method of wearing the images of music. In particular, this study stands out from other related work in that we generate images of unique costumes from music and realize to wear them. In this study, we use the technique of generative arts to generate images of unique costumes and project the images to the fog generated around a person from 3-way using projectors. From this study, we can get how to enjoy music as 'wearable'. Furthermore, we are also able to have the prospect of unconventional entertainment based on the fusion between music and costumes.

Keywords: entertainment computing, costumes, music, generative programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
2205 Story of Alex: Sociology of Gender

Authors: Karen V. Lee

Abstract:

The significance of this study involves autoethnographic research about a music teacher learning about the socialization of gender issues in teaching. Mentorship involving intervention helps with the consequences influencing a transgendered music teacher. Basic storytelling methodology involves the qualitative method of research as a theoretical framework where the author provides a storied reflection about political issues surrounding teachers and the sociology of gender. Sub-themes involve counseling, adult education to ensure students and teachers receive social, emotional, physical, spiritual, and educational resources that evoke visceral, emotional responses from the audience. Major findings share how stories are helpful resources for others who struggle with the socialization of gender. It is hoped the research dramatizes an episodic yet incomplete story that highlights the circumstances surrounding the protagonist having his sex reassignment surgery during his undergraduate education degree. In conclusion, the research is a reflexive storied framework that embraces a positive outlook about a transgendered teacher during his masectomy. The sensory experience seeks verisimilitude by evoking lifelike and believable feelings from others. Thus, the scholarly importance of the sociology of gender and society provides transformative aspects that contributes to social change. Overall, the surgery surrounding the story about transgendered issues are not uncommon in society. Thus, continued education supports the moral mission to help teachers overcome and understand issues of gender that can socially impacts their professional lives as teachers.

Keywords: sociology of gender, transgender, music teachers, story, autoethnography as research, ideology

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
2204 Analyzing the Perceptions of Emotions in Aesthetic Music

Authors: Abigail Wiafe, Charles Nutrokpor, Adelaide Oduro-Asante

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The advancement of technology is rapidly making people more receptive to music as computer-generated music requires minimal human interventions. Though algorithms are applied to generate music, the human experience of emotions is still explored. Thus, this study investigates the emotions humans experience listening to computer-generated music that possesses aesthetic qualities. Forty-two subjects participated in the survey. The selection process was purely arbitrary since it was based on convenience. Subjects listened and evaluated the emotions experienced from the computer-generated music through an online questionnaire. The Likert scale was used to rate the emotional levels after the music listening experience. The findings suggest that computer-generated music possesses aesthetic qualities that do not affect subjects' emotions as long as they are pleased with the music. Furthermore, computer-generated music has unique creativity, and expressioneven though the music produced is meaningless, the computational models developed are unable to present emotional contents in music as humans do.

Keywords: aesthetic, algorithms, emotions, computer-generated music

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2203 Non-Fungible Token (NFT) - Used in the Music Industry for Independent Artists without a Music Recording Label

Authors: Bartholomew Badar

Abstract:

An NFT is a digital certificate with rights to own an asset, including various valuable digital goods such as art pieces, music items, collectibles, etc. The market for NFTs started developing in 2017 and has lately seen increased growth as crypto-currencies and the blockchain market continue to gain popularity. This study aims to understand potential uses for NFTs concerning the music industry and record labels. Independent artists struggle to distribute and sell their music without the help of a record label. The NFT marketplace could be a great tool to eliminate this problem. The research objective is to identify possibilities for independent artists to own their music rights and share value with an audience. We see a trend of new-school music artists trying to enter the music NFT market by creating visualizers, beats, cover art, etc. To analyze various existing music NFT assets and determine whether or not independent artists could monetize their music without a record label is the main focus of this scholarly paper.

Keywords: blockchain, crypto-currency, music, artist, NFT

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2202 Effect of Acoustical Performance Detection and Evaluation in Music Practice Rooms on Teaching

Authors: Hsu-Hui Cheng, Peng-Chian Chen, Shu-Yuan Chang, Jie-Ying Zhang

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Activities in the music practice rooms range from playing, listening, rehearsing to music performing. The good room acoustics in a music practice room enables a music teacher to teach more effectively subtle concepts such as intonation, articulation, balance, dynamics and tone production. A poor acoustical environment would deeply affect the development of basic musical skills of music students. Practicing in the music practice room is an essential daily activity for music students; consequently, music practice rooms are very important facilities in a music school or department. The purpose of this survey is to measure and analyze the acoustic condition of piano practice rooms at the department of music in Zhaoqing University and accordingly apply a more effective teaching method to music students. The volume of the music practice room is approximately 25 m³, and it has existing curtains and some wood hole sound-absorbing panels. When all small music practice rooms are in constant use for teaching, it was found that the values of the background noise at 45, 46, 42, 46, 45 dB(A) in the small music practice room ( the doors and windows were close), respectively. The noise levels in the small music practice room to higher than standard levels (35dB(A)).

Keywords: acoustical performance, music practice room, noise level, piano room

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
2201 Field-Testing a Digital Music Notebook

Authors: Rena Upitis, Philip C. Abrami, Karen Boese

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The success of one-on-one music study relies heavily on the ability of the teacher to provide sufficient direction to students during weekly lessons so that they can successfully practice from one lesson to the next. Traditionally, these instructions are given in a paper notebook, where the teacher makes notes for the students after describing a task or demonstrating a technique. The ability of students to make sense of these notes varies according to their understanding of the teacher’s directions, their motivation to practice, their memory of the lesson, and their abilities to self-regulate. At best, the notes enable the student to progress successfully. At worst, the student is left rudderless until the next lesson takes place. Digital notebooks have the potential to provide a more interactive and effective bridge between music lessons than traditional pen-and-paper notebooks. One such digital notebook, Cadenza, was designed to streamline and improve teachers’ instruction, to enhance student practicing, and to provide the means for teachers and students to communicate between lessons. For example, Cadenza contains a video annotator, where teachers can offer real-time guidance on uploaded student performances. Using the checklist feature, teachers and students negotiate the frequency and type of practice during the lesson, which the student can then access during subsequent practice sessions. Following the tenets of self-regulated learning, goal setting and reflection are also featured. Accordingly, the present paper addressed the following research questions: (1) How does the use of the Cadenza digital music notebook engage students and their teachers?, (2) Which features of Cadenza are most successful?, (3) Which features could be improved?, and (4) Is student learning and motivation enhanced with the use of the Cadenza digital music notebook? The paper describes the results 10 months of field-testing of Cadenza, structured around the four research questions outlined. Six teachers and 65 students took part in the study. Data were collected through video-recorded lesson observations, digital screen captures, surveys, and interviews. Standard qualitative protocols for coding results and identifying themes were employed to analyze the results. The results consistently indicated that teachers and students embraced the digital platform offered by Cadenza. The practice log and timer, the real-time annotation tool, the checklists, the lesson summaries, and the commenting features were found to be the most valuable functions, by students and teachers alike. Teachers also reported that students progressed more quickly with Cadenza, and received higher results in examinations than those students who were not using Cadenza. Teachers identified modifications to Cadenza that would make it an even more powerful way to support student learning. These modifications, once implemented, will move the tool well past its traditional notebook uses to new ways of motivating students to practise between lessons and to communicate with teachers about their learning. Improvements to the tool called for by the teachers included the ability to duplicate archived lessons, allowing for split screen viewing, and adding goal setting to the teacher window. In the concluding section, proposed modifications and their implications for self-regulated learning are discussed.

Keywords: digital music technologies, electronic notebooks, self-regulated learning, studio music instruction

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2200 Music Aptitude and School Readiness in Indonesian Children

Authors: Diella Gracia Martauli

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This study investigated the relationship between music aptitude and school readiness in Indonesian children. Music aptitude is described as children’s music potential, whereas school readiness is defined as a condition in which a child is deemed ready to enter the formal education system. This study presents a hypothesis that music aptitude is correlated with school readiness. This is a correlational research study of 17 children aged 5-6 years old (M = 6.10, SD = 0.33) who were enrolled in a kindergarten school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Music aptitude scores were obtained from Primary Measures of Music Audiation, whereas School readiness scores were obtained from Bracken School Readiness Assessment Third Edition. The analysis of the data was performed using Pearson Correlation. The result found no correlation between music aptitude and school readiness (r = 0.196, p = 0.452). Discussions regarding the results, perspective from the measures and cultures are presented. Further study is recommended to establish links between music aptitude and school readiness.

Keywords: BSRA, music aptitude, PMMA, school readiness

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2199 Music Note Detection and Dictionary Generation from Music Sheet Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Ammar, Talha Ali, Abdul Basit, Bakhtawar Rajput, Zobia Sohail

Abstract:

Music note detection is an area of study for the past few years and has its own influence in music file generation from sheet music. We proposed a method to detect music notes on sheet music using basic thresholding and blob detection. Subsequently, we created a notes dictionary using a semi-supervised learning approach. After notes detection, for each test image, the new symbols are added to the dictionary. This makes the notes detection semi-automatic. The experiments are done on images from a dataset and also on the captured images. The developed approach showed almost 100% accuracy on the dataset images, whereas varying results have been seen on captured images.

Keywords: music note, sheet music, optical music recognition, blob detection, thresholding, dictionary generation

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2198 Emotional Skills and Musical Performance in the Elementary Music Education in Conservatoires: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Emilia A. Campayo-Munoz, Alberto Cabedo-Mas

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Music students have to face the challenges of musical practice -such as discipline in study, competitiveness, or performance anxiety- that require good emotional management to enable successful performance. However, few rigorous implementations focused on studying the influence of emotional skills in student's musical performance. Responding to this gap in the literature, this study aims to explore the relationship between emotional skills and musical performance in the context of elementary music education in conservatoires. Given the individual nature of the instrumental studies and the difficult availability of teachers to be trained in emotional education, it was decided to conduct a multiple case study in a Spanish music conservatoire. Author 1 carried out the implementation of the research with three 10-year-old students who were selected from her piano class. All of them attended the third year of their piano studies. The research processes consisted of the implementation of a set of specific and cross-sectional activities designed 'ad hoc' to be articulated in the subjects of individual instrument -piano- and ensemble in parallel to the contents of musical nature. The CE-360º questionnaire was used to measure different aspects of the students' emotional skills from a multi-angle perspective, each of the questionnaires being responded by oneself, three teachers and three peers, before and after the implementation. The data from the questionnaire were compared with the grades that the students obtained during the first and last quarter of the school year in the attended subjects. Acknowledging the complexity of emotional development, the results indicate possible relations between emotional skills and musical performance in music education in conservatoires. The results show that for the cases explored; there exists a relationship between emotional skills and musical performance. Although generalizations cannot be made, this study reinforces the need to further explore emotional development in instrumental teaching and suggest the importance of inviting teachers to reflect on the pedagogical practices extended in the conservatoires and to develop and implement those that promote the work of the students' emotions.

Keywords: conservatoires, emotional skills, music education, musical performance

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2197 Using Music: An Effective Medium of Teaching Vocabulary in ESL Classroom

Authors: Takwa Jahan

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Music can be used in ESL classroom to create a learning environment. As literature abounds with positive statements, music can be used as a vehicle for second language acquisition. Music can be applied as an instrument to help second language learners to acquire vocabulary, grammar, spelling and other four skills and to expand cultural knowledge. Vocabulary learning is perceived boring by learners. As listening to music and singing songs are enjoyable to students, it can be used effectively to acquire vocabulary in second language. This paper reports a study to find out how music exhilarates vocabulary acquisition as the learners stay relaxed and thus learning becomes more enjoyable. For conducting my research two groups of fifty students- music and non-music group were formed. Data were collected through class observation, test, questionnaires, and interview. The finding shows that music group acquired much amount of vocabulary than the non-music group. They enjoyed vocabulary learning activities based on listening songs.

Keywords: effective instrument, ESL classroom, music, relax environment, vocabulary learning

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2196 Lines for a Different Approach in Music Education: A Review of the Concept of Musicality

Authors: Emmanuel Carlos De Mata Castrejón

Abstract:

Music education has shown to be connected to many areas of sciences and arts, it has also been associated with several facets of human life. The many aspects around the study of music and education, make very difficult for the music educator to find a way through, even though there are lots of methods of teaching music to young children, they are different between one another and so are the students. For the music to help improve children’s development, it is necessary for the children to explore their musicality as they explore their creativity; it must be a challenging, playful, and enjoyable activity. The purpose of this investigation is to focus the music education not in the music, nor the teaching, but the children to be guided through their own musicality. The first approach to this kind of music education comes from the Active learning methods during the nineteenth century, most of which are still used around the world, sometimes with modifications to fit a certain place or type of students. This approach on children’s musicality requires some knowledge of music, pedagogy, and developmental psychology at least, but more important than the theory or the method used for music education, the focus should be on developing the student’s musicality, considering the complexity of this concept. To get this, it is needed, indeed, far more research in the topic, so this is a call for collaborative research and for interdisciplinary teams to emerge. This is a review of authors and methods in music education trying to trace a line pointing to transdisciplinary work and pursuing the development of children’s musicality.

Keywords: children, methods, music education, musicality

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2195 The Use of Music Therapy to Improve Non-Verbal Communication Skills for Children with Autism

Authors: Maria Vinca Novenia

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The number of school-aged children with autism in Indonesia has been increasing each year. Autism is a developmental disorder which can be diagnosed in childhood. One of the symptoms is the lack of communication skills. Music therapy is known as an effective treatment for children with autism. Music elements and structures create a good space for children with autism to express their feelings and communicate their thoughts. School-aged children are expected to be able to communicate non-verbally very well, but children with autism experience the difficulties of communicating non-verbally. The aim of this research is to analyze the significance of music therapy treatment to improve non-verbal communication tools for children with autism. This research informs teachers and parents on how music can be used as a media to communicate with children with autism. The qualitative method is used to analyze this research, while the result is described with the microanalysis technique. The result is measured specifically from the whole experiment, hours of every week, minutes of every session, and second of every moment. The samples taken are four school-aged children with autism in the age range of six to 11 years old. This research is conducted within four months started with observation, interview, literature research, and direct experiment. The result demonstrates that music therapy could be effectively used as a non-verbal communication tool for children with autism, such as changes of body gesture, eye contact, and facial expression.

Keywords: autism, improvisation, microanalysis, music therapy, nonverbal communication, school-aged

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2194 Feminine Gender Identity in Nigerian Music Education: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Julius Oluwayomi Oluwadamilare, Michael Olutayo Olatunji

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In the African traditional societies, women have always played the role of a teacher, albeit informally. This is evident in the upbringing of their babies. As mothers, they also serve as the first teachers to teach their wards lessons through day-to-day activities. Furthermore, women always play the role of a musician during naming ceremonies, in the singing of lullabies, during initiation rites of adolescent boys and girls into adulthood, and in preparing their children especially daughters (and sons) for marriage. They also perform this role during religious and cultural activities, chieftaincy title/coronation ceremonies, singing of dirges during funeral ceremonies, and so forth. This traditional role of the African/Nigerian women puts them at a vantage point to contribute maximally to the teaching and learning of music at every level of education. The need for more women in the field of music education in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. Today, gender equality is a major discourse in most countries of the world, Nigeria inclusive. Statistical data in the field of education and music education reveal the high ratio of male teachers/lecturers over their female counterparts in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The percentage is put at 80% Male and a distant 20% Female! This paper, therefore, examines feminine gender in Nigerian music education by tracing the involvement of women in musical practice from the pre-colonial to the post-colonial periods. The study employed both primary and secondary sources of data collection. The primary source included interviews conducted with 19 music lecturers from 8 purposively selected tertiary institutions from 4 geo-political zones of Nigeria. In addition, observation method was employed in the selected institutions. The results show, inter alia, that though there is a remarkable improvement in the rate of admission of female students into the music programme of Nigerian tertiary institutions, there is still an imbalance in the job placement in these institutions especially in the Colleges of Education which is the main focus of this research. Religious and socio-cultural factors are highly traceable to this development. This paper recommends the need for more female music teachers to be employed in the Nigerian tertiary institutions in line with the provisions stated in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Keywords: gender, education, music, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
2193 Incorporating Popular Nigerian Music into the School Curriculum: A Potential for National Development

Authors: David O. A. Ogunrinade

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The significance of education to the growth and development of man is imperative. The Nigerian education philosophy and national objectives are geared towards self-realization, social, cultural, and economic, just to mention a few. The acquisition of skills and abilities, both mental and physical, for individual to live and contribute to the development of society should be of major importance to a functional education curriculum. This study specifically set out to examine the momentous potentials of popular music as a veritable tool to be properly incorporated into the curriculum of music education in Nigeria. This will equip the learners to be self-reliant and contribute to the national economy. Interviews with exponents of Nigerian popular music and the stakeholders in the music industry, as well as audio-visual materials were employed to elicit information. Findings reveal that there are lots of potentials and dexterities in popular music that can enable Nigerian music graduates to contribute their own quota to the national development of the nation, as well as being useful to themselves. If the Nigerian society is not to be plagued by a breed of unemployable youths who could not raise the economic productivity of the country, it is deemed pertinent that the music curriculum as one of the vocational education needs to be reviewed to incorporate popular music, as well as to reflect more of the Nigerian cultural heritage.

Keywords: popular music, music curriculum, music in schools, popular music prospect

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2192 A Semiotic Approach to the Construction of Classical Identity in Indian Classical Music Videos

Authors: Jayakrishnan Narayanan, Sengamalam Periyasamy Dhanavel

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Indian classical (Karnatik) music videos across various media platforms have followed an audio-visual pattern that conforms to its socio-cultural and quasi-religious identity. The present paper analyzes the semiotic variations between ‘pure Karnatik music videos’ and ‘independent/contemporary-collaborative music videos’ posted on social media by young professional Karnatik musicians. The paper analyzes these media texts by comparing their various structural sememes namely, the title, artists, music, narrative schemata, visuals, lighting, sound, and costumes. The paper argues that the pure Karnatik music videos are marked by the presence of certain recurring mythological or third level signifiers and that these signifiers and codes are marked by their conspicuous absence in the independent music videos produced by the same musicians. While the music and the musical instruments used in both these sets of music videos remain similar, the meaning that is abducted by the beholder in each case is entirely different. The paper also attempts to study the identity conflicts that are projected through these music videos and the extent to which the cultural connotations of Karnatik music govern the production of its music videos.

Keywords: abduction, identity, media semiotics, music video

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2191 Machines Hacking Humans: Performances Practices in Electronic Music during the 21st Century

Authors: Zimasa Siyasanga Gysman

Abstract:

This paper assesses the history of electronic music and its performance to illustrate that machines and technology have largely influenced how humans perform electronic music. The history of electronic music mainly focuses on the composition and production of electronic music with little to no attention paid to its performance by the majority of scholars in this field. Therefore, establishing a history of performance involves investigating what compositions of electronic music called for in the production of electronic music performance. This investigation into seminal works in the history of electronic music, therefore, illustrates the aesthetics of electronic music performance and the aesthetics established in the very beginnings of electronic music performance demonstrate the aesthetics of electronic music which are still prevalent today. The key aesthetics are the repurposing of technology and the hybridisation of technology. Performers take familiar technology (technology that society has become accustomed to using in daily life), not necessarily related to music or performance and use it as an instrument in their performances, such as a rotary dial telephone. Likewise, since the beginnings of electronic music, producers have always experimented with the latest technologies available to them in their compositions and performances. The spirit of performers of electronic music, therefore, revolves around repurposing familiar technologies and using them in new ways, whilst similarly experimenting with new technologies in their performances. This process of hybridisation plays a key role in the production and performance of electronic music in the twentieth century. Through various interviews with performers of electronic music, it is shown that these aesthetics are driving performance practices in the twenty-first century.

Keywords: body, hybridisation, performance, sound

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2190 A Correlation Analysis of an Effective Music Education with Students’ Mathematical Performance

Authors: Yoon Suh Song

Abstract:

Though music education can broaden one’s capacity for mathematical performance, many countries lag behind in music education. Little empirical evidence is found to identify the connection between math and music. Therefore, this research was set out to explore what music-related variables are associated with mathematical performance. The result of our analysis is as follows: A Pearson's Correlation analysis revealed that PISA math score is strongly correlated with students' Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This lays the foundation for further research as to what factors in students’ IQ lead to a better performance in math.

Keywords: music education, mathematical performance, education, IQ

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2189 Comparative Study of Music-Therapy Types on Anxiety in Early Stage Cancer Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Farnaz Dehkhoda

Abstract:

This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of active and receptive music-therapy on anxiety in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. 184 young adult patients, who were diagnosed with early stage cancer and were undergoing treatment, were divided into three groups. Two groups received music therapy as a parallel treatment and the third group was control group. In active music-therapy, a music specialist helped the patients to play guitar and sing. In the receptive music-therapy, patients preferred pre-recorded music played by MP3 player. The level of anxiety was measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory as pre-test and post-test. ANCOVA revealed that both types of music-therapy reduced anxiety level of patients and the active music-therapy intervention found to be more effective. The results suggest that music-therapy can be applied as an intervention method contemporary with cancer medical treatment, for improving quality of life in cancer patients by reducing their anxiety.

Keywords: Anxiety, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Music-therapy

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2188 Orchestra Course Outcomes in Terms of Values Education

Authors: Z. Kurtaslan, H. Hakan Okay, E. Can Dönmez, I. Kuçukdoğan

Abstract:

Music education aims to bring up individuals most appropriately and to advanced levels as a balanced whole physically, cognitively, affectively, and kinesthetically while making a major contribution to the physical and spiritual development of the individual. The most crucial aim of music education, an influential education medium per se, is to make music be loved; yet, among its educational aims are concepts such as affinity, friendship, goodness, philanthropy, responsibility, and respect all extremely crucial bringing up individuals as a balanced whole. One of the most essential assets of the music education is the training of making music together, solidifying musical knowledge and enabling the acquisition of cooperation. This habit requires internalization of values like responsibility, patience, cooperativeness, respect, self-control, friendship, and fairness. If musicians lack these values, the ensemble will become after some certain time a cacophony. In this qualitative research, the attitudes of music teacher candidates in orchestra/chamber music classes will be examined in terms of values.

Keywords: education, music, orchestra/chamber music, values

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2187 Live Concert Performances in Preschool: Requirements of a Successful Concert for Young Children

Authors: Mei-Ying Liao

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to examine the requirements of a successful concert for young children in preschool in Taiwan. This study reports a case study of a preschool’s experience which undertook ten concerts for young children. The main audiences were young children who were two to six years of age. The performers, including children’s family, amateurs and professional performers, were invited to perform music instruments or singing twice a week. The performers participated in these concerts separately, as a solo or ensemble performance. There were totally ten concerts. The structure of concert included the performance, musical activities, questions and answers, song requests, and exploration of instruments. Data collection included interviews with children, teachers and performers, concert observations, and footnotes. Results showed that the requirements of a successful and meaningful concert for young children were suggested to include concert preparation, concert, and post activities. The concert organizer, host and classroom teachers played vital roles for a successful concert. The organizer had to organize the programs and prepared for the concerts based on the needs and interests of their audience of young children, engage their attention and offer the potential to expand their musical worlds. The hosts had to build a bridge between performers and young children who had to know how they could delight and educate children. Concerts combined games, storytelling, instrument exploration and great music had great effects. Finally, the classroom teachers had to do the extension activities after the concerts so that the children will involve more and get more enthusiasm in concerts.

Keywords: case study, concert, music education, performance

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2186 Impact of Western Music Instruments on Indian Classical Music

Authors: Hukam Chand

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the performance of Indian classical music has been improved a lot due to the technical inclusion of western instruments. Infect, the Indian classical music is all about raags which portray a mood and sentiments expressed through a microtonal scale based on natural harmonic series. And, most of the western instruments are not based on natural harmonic series and the tonal system is the only system which has considerable influence on the Indian classical music. However, the use of western instruments has been growing day by day in one way or the other by the Indian artists due to their quality of harmony. As a result of which, there are some common instruments such as harmonium, violin, guitar, saxophone, synthesizer which are being used commonly by Indian and western artists. On the other hand, a lot of fusion has taken place in the music of both sides due to the similar characteristics in their instruments. For example, harmonium which was originally the western instrument has now acquired an important position in Indian classical music to perform raags. Besides, a lot of suggestions for improving in the Indian music have been given by the artists for technical modification in the western instruments to cater the needs of Indian music through melody approach. Pt. Vishav Mohan Bhatt an Indian musician has developed Mohan Veena (called guitar) to perform raags. N. Rajam the Indian lady Violinist has made a remarkable work on Indian classical music by accompanied with vocal music. The purpose of the present research paper is to highlight the changes in Indian Classical Music through performance by using modified western music instruments.

Keywords: Indian classical music, Western instruments, harmonium, guitar, Violin and impact

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2185 Unpacking Chilean Preservice Teachers’ Beliefs on Practicum Experiences through Digital Stories

Authors: Claudio Díaz, Mabel Ortiz

Abstract:

An EFL teacher education programme in Chile takes five years to train a future teacher of English. Preservice teachers are prepared to learn an advanced level of English and teach the language from 5th to 12th grade in the Chilean educational system. In the context of their first EFL Methodology course in year four, preservice teachers have to create a five-minute digital story that starts from a critical incident they have experienced as teachers-to-be during their observations or interventions in the schools. A critical incident can be defined as a happening, a specific incident or event either observed by them or involving them. The happening sparks their thinking and may make them subsequently think differently about the particular event. When they create their digital stories, preservice teachers put technology, teaching practice and theory together to narrate a story that is complemented by still images, moving images, text, sound effects and music. The story should be told as a personal narrative, which explains the critical incident. This presentation will focus on the creation process of 50 Chilean preservice teachers’ digital stories highlighting the critical incidents they started their stories. It will also unpack preservice teachers’ beliefs and reflections when approaching their teaching practices in schools. These beliefs will be coded and categorized through content analysis to evidence preservice teachers’ most rooted conceptions about English teaching and learning in Chilean schools. The findings seem to indicate that preservice teachers’ beliefs are strongly mediated by contextual and affective factors.

Keywords: beliefs, digital stories, preservice teachers, practicum

Procedia PDF Downloads 349