Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13292

Search results for: scientific development

13292 Strategies for Achieving Application of Science in National Development

Authors: Orisakwe Chimuanya Favour Israel

Abstract:

In a world filled with the products of scientific inquiry, scientific literacy has become a necessity for everyone because it is indispensable to achieving technological development of any nation. Everyone needs to use scientific information to make choices that arise every day. Everyone needs to be able to engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about important issues that involves science and technology. And everyone deserves to share in the excitement and personal fulfillment that can come from -understanding and learning about the natural world. No doubt that industrialized countries have, through their control of science and technology education, developed the potential to increase production, and to improve the standard of living of their people. The main thrust of this paper therefore, is to present an overview of science education, strategies for achieving application of science in national development, such as teaching science with the right spirit of inquiry. Also, the paper discussed three research models that can help in national development and suggests the best out of the three which is more realistic for a developing country like ours (Nigeria) to follow for a sustainable national development and finally suggests some key ways of solving problems of development.

Keywords: scientific inquiry, scientific literacy, strategies, sustainable national development

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
13291 Q-Test of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thought: Development and Testing of an Assessment of Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The QUEST is an assessment of scientific epistemic beliefs and was developed to measure students’ intellectual development in regards to beliefs about knowledge and knowing. The QUEST utilizes Q-sort methodology, which requires participants to rate the degree to which statements describe them personally. As a measure of personal theories of knowledge, the QUEST instrument is described with the Q-sort distribution and scoring explained. A preliminary demonstration of the QUEST assessment is described with two samples of undergraduate students (novice/lower division compared to advanced/upper division students) being assessed and their average QUEST scores compared. The usefulness of an assessment of epistemology is discussed in terms of the principle that assessment tends to drive educational practice and university mission. The critical need for university and academic programs to focus on development of students’ scientific epistemology is briefly discussed.

Keywords: scientific epistemology, critical thinking, Q-sort method, STEM undergraduates

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
13290 Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of Funding on Scientific Development of Researchers

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

Every year, a considerable amount of money is being invested on research, mainly in the form of funding allocated to universities and research institutes. To better distribute the available funds and to set the most proper R&D investment strategies for the future, evaluation of the productivity of the funded researchers and the impact of such funding is crucial. In this paper, using the data on 15 years of journal publications of the NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering research Council of Canada) funded researchers and by means of bibliometric analysis, the scientific development of the funded researchers and their scientific collaboration patterns will be investigated in the period of 1996-2010. According to the results it seems that there is a positive relation between the average level of funding and quantity and quality of the scientific output. In addition, whenever funding allocated to the researchers has increased, the number of co-authors per paper has also augmented. Hence, the increase in the level of funding may enable researchers to get involved in larger projects and/or scientific teams and increase their scientific output respectively.

Keywords: bibliometrics, collaboration, funding, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
13289 A Research on Tourism Market Forecast and Its Evaluation

Authors: Min Wei

Abstract:

The traditional prediction methods of the forecast for tourism market are paid more attention to the accuracy of the forecasts, ignoring the results of the feasibility of forecasting and predicting operability, which had made it difficult to predict the results of scientific testing. With the application of Linear Regression Model, this paper attempts to construct a scientific evaluation system for predictive value, both to ensure the accuracy, stability of the predicted value, and to ensure the feasibility of forecasting and predicting the results of operation. The findings show is that a scientific evaluation system can implement the scientific concept of development, the harmonious development of man and nature co-ordinate.

Keywords: linear regression model, tourism market, forecast, tourism economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
13288 An Observation of the Information Technology Research and Development Based on Article Data Mining: A Survey Study on Science Direct

Authors: Muhammet Dursun Kaya, Hasan Asil

Abstract:

One of the most important factors of research and development is the deep insight into the evolutions of scientific development. The state-of-the-art tools and instruments can considerably assist the researchers, and many of the world organizations have become aware of the advantages of data mining for the acquisition of the knowledge required for the unstructured data. This paper was an attempt to review the articles on the information technology published in the past five years with the aid of data mining. A clustering approach was used to study these articles, and the research results revealed that three topics, namely health, innovation, and information systems, have captured the special attention of the researchers.

Keywords: information technology, data mining, scientific development, clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
13287 Scientific Development as Diffusion on a Social Network: An Empirical Case Study

Authors: Anna Keuchenius

Abstract:

Broadly speaking, scientific development is studied in either a qualitative manner with a focus on the behavior and interpretations of academics, such as the sociology of science and science studies or in a quantitative manner with a focus on the analysis of publications, such as scientometrics and bibliometrics. Both come with a different set of methodologies and few cross-references. This paper contributes to the bridging of this divide, by on the on hand approaching the process of scientific progress from a qualitative sociological angle and using on the other hand quantitative and computational techniques. As a case study, we analyze the diffusion of Granovetter's hypothesis from his 1973 paper 'On The Strength of Weak Ties.' A network is constructed of all scientists that have referenced this particular paper, with directed edges to all other researchers that are concurrently referenced with Granovetter's 1973 paper. Studying the structure and growth of this network over time, it is found that Granovetter's hypothesis is used by distinct communities of scientists, each with their own key-narrative into which the hypothesis is fit. The diffusion within the communities shares similarities with the diffusion of an innovation in which innovators, early adopters, and an early-late majority can clearly be distinguished. Furthermore, the network structure shows that each community is clustered around one or few hub scientists that are disproportionately often referenced and seem largely responsible for carrying the hypothesis into their scientific subfield. The larger implication of this case study is that the diffusion of scientific hypotheses and ideas are not the spreading of well-defined objects over a network. Rather, the diffusion is a process in which the object itself dynamically changes in concurrence with its spread. Therefore it is argued that the methodology presented in this paper has potential beyond the scientific domain, in the study of diffusion of other not well-defined objects, such as opinions, behavior, and ideas.

Keywords: diffusion of innovations, network analysis, scientific development, sociology of science

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
13286 Impact of Financial System’s Development on Economic Development: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Vilma Deltuvaitė

Abstract:

Comparisons of financial development across countries are central to answering many of the questions on factors leading to economic development. For this reason this study analyzes the implications of financial system’s development on country’s economic development. The aim of the article: to analyze the impact of financial system’s development on economic development. The following research methods were used: systemic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature, analysis of statistical data, time series model (Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model). The empirical results suggest about positive short and long term effect of stock market development on GDP per capita.

Keywords: banking sector, economic development, financial system’s development, stock market, private bond market

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
13285 The Effect of Contemporary Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Development of Science

Authors: Ibrahim Malik, Vita Fathimah Silondae, Askoning

Abstract:

The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multi-dimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al-Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So, the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: liberalization, science, Islam, development of science

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
13284 Psychometric Examination of the QUEST-25: An Online Assessment of Intellectual Curiosity and Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The current study reports an examination of the QUEST-25 (Q-Assessment of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thinking) online version for assessing the dispositional attitudes toward scientific thinking and intellectual curiosity among undergraduate students. The QUEST-25 consists of scientific thinking (SIQ-25) and intellectual curiosity (ICIQ-25), which were correlated in hypothesized directions with the Religious Commitment Inventory, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory, Belief in Science scale, and measures of academic self-efficacy. Additionally, concurrent validity was established by the resulting significant differences between those identifying the centrality of religious belief in their lives and those who do not self-identify as being guided daily by religious beliefs. This study demonstrates the utility of the QUEST-25 for research, evaluation, and theory development.

Keywords: guided-inquiry learning, intellectual curiosity, psychometric assessment, scientific thinking

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13283 Encouraging the Development of Scientific Literacy in Early Childhood Institutions: Croatian Experience

Authors: L. Vujičić, Ž. Ivković, Ž. Boneta

Abstract:

There is a widespread belief in everyday discourse that science subjects (physics, chemistry and biology) are, along with math, the most difficult school subjects in the education of an individual. This assumption is usually justified by the following facts: low GPA in these subjects, the number of pupils who fail these subjects is high in comparison to other subjects, and the number of pupils interested in continuing their studies in the fields with a focus on science subjects is lower compared to non-science-oriented fields. From that perspective, the project: “Could it be different? How do children explore it?” becomes extremely interesting because it is focused on young children and on the introduction of new methods, with aim of arousing interest in scientific literacy development in 10 kindergartens by applying the methodology of an action research, with an ethnographic approach. We define scientific literacy as a process of encouraging and nurturing the research and explorative spirit in children, as well as their natural potential and abilities that represent an object of scientific research: to learn about exploration by conducting exploration. Upon project completion, an evaluation questionnaire was created for the parents of the children who had participated in the project, as well as for those whose children had not been involved in the project. The purpose of the first questionnaire was to examine the level of satisfaction with the project implementation and its outcomes among those parents whose children had been involved in the project (N=142), while the aim of the second questionnaire was to find out how much the parents of the children not involved (N=154) in this activity were interested in this topic.

Keywords: documenting, early childhood education, evaluation questionnaire for parents, scientific literacy development

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
13282 Identification of Coauthors in Scientific Database

Authors: Thiago M. R Dias, Gray F. Moita

Abstract:

The analysis of scientific collaboration networks has contributed significantly to improving the understanding of how does the process of collaboration between researchers and also to understand how the evolution of scientific production of researchers or research groups occurs. However, the identification of collaborations in large scientific databases is not a trivial task given the high computational cost of the methods commonly used. This paper proposes a method for identifying collaboration in large data base of curriculum researchers. The proposed method has low computational cost with satisfactory results, proving to be an interesting alternative for the modeling and characterization of large scientific collaboration networks.

Keywords: extraction, data integration, information retrieval, scientific collaboration

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
13281 SciPaaS: a Scientific Execution Platform for the Cloud

Authors: Wesley H. Brewer, John C. Sanford

Abstract:

SciPaaS is a prototype development of an execution platform/middleware designed to make it easy for scientists to rapidly deploy their scientific applications (apps) to the cloud. It provides all the necessary infrastructure for running typical IXP (Input-eXecute-Plot) style apps, including: a web interface, post-processing and plotting capabilities, job scheduling, real-time monitoring of running jobs, and even a file/case manager. In this paper, first the system architecture is described and then is demonstrated for a two scientific applications: (1) a simple finite-difference solver of the inviscid Burger’s equation, and (2) Mendel’s Accountant—a forward-time population genetics simulation model. The implications of the prototype are discussed in terms of ease-of-use and deployment options, especially in cloud environments.

Keywords: web-based simulation, cloud computing, Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), rapid application development (RAD), population genetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
13280 Development of Instructional Material Using Scientific Approach to Make the Nature of Science (NOS) and Critical Thinking Explicit on Chemical Bonding and Intermolecular Forces Topics

Authors: Ivan Ashif Ardhana, Intan Mahanani

Abstract:

Chemistry education tends to change from triplet representation among macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic to tetrahedron shape. This change set the aspect of human element on the top of learning. Meaning that students are expected to solve the problems involving the ethic, morality, and humanity through the class. Ability to solve the problems connecting either theories or applications is called scientific literacy which have been implemented in curriculum 2013 implicitly. Scientific literacy has an aspect of nature science and critical thinking. Both can be integrated to learning using scientific approach and scientific inquiry. Unfortunately, students’ ability of scientific literacy in Indonesia is far from expectation. A survey from PISA had proven it. Scientific literacy of Indonesian students is always at bottom five position from 2002 till 2012. Improving a scientific literacy needs many efforts against them. Developing an instructional material based on scientific approach is one kind of that efforts. Instructional material contains both aspect of nature of science and critical thinking which is instructed explicitly to improve the students’ understanding about science. Developing goal is to produce a prototype and an instructional material using scientific approach whose chapter is chemical bonding and intermolecular forces for high school students grade ten. As usual, the material is subjected to get either quantitative mark or suggestion through validation process using validation sheet instrument. Development model is adapted from 4D model containing four steps. They are define, design, develop, and disseminate. Nevertheless, development of instructional material had only done until third step. The final step wasn’t done because of time, cost, and energy limitations. Developed instructional material had been validated by four validators. They are coming from chemistry lecture and high school’s teacher which two at each. The result of this development research shown the average of quantitative mark of students’ book is 92.75% with very proper in criteria. Given at same validation process, teacher’s guiding book got the average mark by 96.98%, similar criteria with students’ book. Qualitative mark including both comments and suggestions resulted from validation process were used as consideration for the revision. The result concluded us how the instructional materials using scientific approach to explicit nature of science and critical thinking on the topic of chemical bonding and intermolecular forces are very proper if they are used at learning activity.

Keywords: critical thinking, instructional material, nature of science, scientific literacy

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13279 Study on the Effect of Sports Academic Journals in the Construction of Strong Sporting Nation in China

Authors: Qinghui Li, Lei Zhang

Abstract:

In China, sport will play a more important role in the future development of the national economy, are facing greater challenges. Sports industry development in this background,innovative technology and cultural forces which will play an important role. Therefore, as a guide of sports culture, the development of science and technology, display the sports scientific and technological achievements, culture showed important - Sports Academic Journals sports technology platform of talent, but also innovation and value-added will through its value function,play an important role in the development of China's sports development and sports industry. At the same time, in the Chinese academic journals of social environment has undergone great changes,one aspect is the national news publishing system reform, change, development group of scientific publishing market has become the mainstream trend of development; on the other hand, digitalization, internationalization development speed of academic journal soon, in such a social background, how sports academic journal of development? How to serve for the development of sports? This research will be based on the sports academic journals in the past, the development status and characteristics and now plays in the history and context of modern academic value and social value, to explore the new era background, especially the development of the reform of the cultural system, marketization and the digital innovation situation of sports academic periodical show in sports, sports industry development and play a more important role in study.

Keywords: sports academin journals, strong sporting nation, innovation, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
13278 On the Way to the European Research Area: Programmes of the European Union as Factor of the Innovation Development the Scientific Organization in Ukraine

Authors: Yuri Nikitin, Veronika Rukas

Abstract:

Within the framework of the FP7 project "START" the cooperation with European research centres has had a positive impact on raising the level of innovation researches and the introduction of innovations Institute for Super hard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences (ISM NAS) of Ukraine in the economy of Europe and Ukraine, which in turn permits to speeds up the way for Ukrainian science to the European research area through the creation in Ukraine the scientific organizations of innovative type.

Keywords: programs of the EU, innovative scientific results, innovation competence of the staff, commercialization in business of industry of the Europe and Ukraine

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
13277 Exploring Students’ Visual Conception of Matter and Its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Arlyne C. Marasigan, Janir T. Datukan

Abstract:

The study explored how students visualize the states and classifications of matter using scientific models. It also identified misconceptions of students in using scientific models. In general, high percentage of students was able to use scientific models correctly and only a little misconception was identified. From the result of the study, a teaching framework was formulated wherein scientific models should be employed in classroom instruction to visualize abstract concepts in chemistry and for better conceptual understanding.

Keywords: visual conception, scientific models, mental models, states of matter, classification of matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
13276 The Influence of Modern Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Improvement of Science

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim

Abstract:

The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary general science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multidimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al -Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: liberalization, science, Islam, al-Qur’an textual studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
13275 An Overview of the Advice Process and the Scientific Production of the Adviser-Advised Relationship in the Areas of Engineering

Authors: Tales H. J. Moreira, Thiago M. R. Dias, Gray F. Moita

Abstract:

The adviser-advised relationship, in addition to the evident propagation of knowledge, can provide an increase in the scientific production of the advisors. Specifically, in post-graduate programs, in which the advised submit diverse papers in different means of publication, these end up boosting the production of their advisor, since in general the advisors appear as co-authors, responsible for instructing and assisting in the development of the work. Therefore, to visualize the orientation process and the scientific production resulting from this relation is another important way of analyzing the scientific collaboration in the different areas of knowledge. In this work, are used the data of orientations and postgraduate supervisions from the Lattes curricula, from the main advisors who work in the Engineering area, to obtain an overview of the process of orientation of this group, and even, to produce Academic genealogical trees, where it is possible to verify how knowledge has spread in the diverse areas of engineering.

Keywords: academic genealogy, advice, engineering, lattes platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
13274 Secondary Science Teachers' Views about Purposes of Practical Works in School Science

Authors: Kew-Cheol Shim, Sung-Hwan Moon, Ji-Hyon Kil, Kyoungho Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper was to examine views of secondary school science teachers about purposes to use practical works in school science. The instrument to survey consisted eighteen items, which were categorized into four components as follows: ‘Scientific inquiry’, ‘Scientific knowledge’, ‘Science-related attitude’, and ‘STS (science-technology-society)’. Subjects were 152 secondary school science teachers (male 70 and female 82; middle school 50 and high school 102), who are teaching in 42 schools of 8 provinces. On the survey, science teachers were asked to answer on 5-point Lickert scale (from 1 to 5) how they thought of using practical works on purposes with domains of science objectives in school. They had positive views about using practical works for improving scientific inquiry process skills, science-related attitudes, and perceptions about STS literacy, and acquiring scientific knowledge. They would have the most willingness of using practical works for ‘Scientific Inquiry’ among domains of science objectives in school.

Keywords: secondary school, science teacher, practical work, scientific inquiry, scientific knowledge, scientific attitude, STS

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
13273 The Convergence between Science Practical Work and Scientific Discourse: Lessons Learnt from Using a Practical Activity to Encourage Student Discourse

Authors: Abraham Motlhabane

Abstract:

In most practical-related science lessons, the focus is on completing the experimental procedure as directed by the teacher. However, the scientific discourse among learners themselves and teacher–learner discourse about scientific processes, scientific inquiry and the nature of science should play an important role in the teaching and learning of science. This means the incorporation of inquiry-based activities aimed at sparking debates about scientific concepts. This article analyses a science lesson presented by a teacher to his colleagues acting as learners. Six lessons were presented and transcribed. One of the lessons has been used for this study as the basis for the events as they unfolded during the lesson. Data was obtained through direct observations and the use of a predetermined observation schedule. Field notes were compiled during teacher preparations and the presentation of the lessons.

Keywords: discourse, inquiry, practical work, science, scientific

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
13272 A Conceptual Framework for Knowledge Integration in Agricultural Knowledge Management System Development

Authors: Dejen Alemu, Murray E. Jennex, Temtim Assefa

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy; however, the sector is dominated by smallholder farmers resulting in land fragmentation and suffering from low productivity. Due to these issues, much effort has been put into the transformation of the sector to bring about more sustainable rural economic development. Technological advancements have been applied for the betterment of farmers resulting in the design of tools that are potentially capable of supporting the agricultural sector; however, their use and relevance are still alien to the local rural communities. The notion of the creating, capturing and sharing of knowledge has also been repetitively raised by many international donor agencies to transform the sector, yet the most current approaches to knowledge dissemination focus on knowledge that originates from the western view of scientific rationality while overlooking the role of indigenous knowledge (IK). Therefore, in agricultural knowledge management system (KMS) development, the integration of IKS with scientific knowledge is a critical success factor. The present study aims to contribute in the discourse on how to best integrate scientific and IK in agricultural KMS development. The conceptual framework of the research is anchored in concepts drawn from the theory of situated learning in communities of practice (CoPs): knowledge brokering. Using the KMS development practices of Ethiopian agricultural transformation agency as a case area, this research employed an interpretive analysis using primary and secondary qualitative data acquired through in-depth semi-structured interviews and participatory observations. As a result, concepts are identified for understanding the integration of the two major knowledge systems (i.e., indigenous and scientific knowledge) and participation of relevant stakeholders in particular the local farmers in agricultural KMS development through the roles of extension agent as a knowledge broker including crossing boundaries, in-between position, translation and interpretation, negotiation, and networking. The research shall have a theoretical contribution in addressing the incorporation of a variety of knowledge systems in agriculture and practically to provide insight for policy makers in agriculture regarding the importance of IK integration in agricultural KMS development and support marginalized small-scale farmers.

Keywords: communities of practice, indigenous knowledge, knowledge management system development, knowledge brokering

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13271 Ontology-Based Systemizing of the Science Information Devoted to Waste Utilizing by Methanogenesis

Authors: Ye. Shapovalov, V. Shapovalov, O. Stryzhak, A. Salyuk

Abstract:

Over the past decades, amount of scientific information has been growing exponentially. It became more complicated to process and systemize this amount of data. The approach to systematization of scientific information on the production of biogas based on the ontological IT platform “T.O.D.O.S.” has been developed. It has been proposed to select semantic characteristics of each work for their further introduction into the IT platform “T.O.D.O.S.”. An ontological graph with a ranking function for previous scientific research and for a system of selection of microorganisms has been worked out. These systems provide high performance of information management of scientific information.

Keywords: ontology-based analysis, analysis of scientific data, methanogenesis, microorganism hierarchy, 'T.O.D.O.S.'

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13270 Narratives in Science as Covert Prestige Indicators

Authors: Zinaida Shelkovnikova

Abstract:

The language in science is changing and meets the demands of the society. We shall argue that in the varied modern world there are important reasons for the integration of narratives into scientific discourse. As far as nowadays scientists are faced with extremely prompt science development and progress; modern scientific society lives in the conditions of tough competition. The integration of narratives into scientific discourse is thus a good way to prompt scientific experience to different audiences and to express covert prestige of the discourse. Narratives also form the identity of the persuasive narrator. Using the narrative approach to the scientific discourse analysis we reveal the sociocultural diversity of the scientists. If you want to attract audience’s attention to your scientific research, narratives should be integrated into your scientific discourse. Those who understand this consistent pattern are considered the leading scientists. Taking into account that it is prestigious to be renowned, celebrated in science, it is a covert prestige to write narratives in science. We define a science narrative as the intentional, consequent, coherent, event discourse or a discourse fragment, which contains the author creativity, in some cases intrigue, and gives mostly qualitative information (compared with quantitative data) in order to provide maximum understanding of the research. Science narratives also allow the effective argumentation and consequently construct the identity of the persuasive narrator. However, skills of creating appropriate scientific discourse reflect the level of prestige. In order to teach postgraduate students to be successful in English scientific writing and to be prestigious in the scientific society, we have defined the science narrative and outlined its main features and characteristics. Narratives contribute to audience’s involvement with the narrator and his/her narration. In general, the way in which a narrative is performed may result in (limited or greater) contact with the audience. To gain these aim authors use emotional fictional elements; descriptive elements: adjectives; adverbs; comparisons and so on; author’s evaluative elements. Thus, the features of science narrativity are the following: descriptive tools; authors evaluation; qualitative information exceeds the quantitative data; facts take the event status; understandability; accessibility; creativity; logics; intrigue; esthetic nature; fiction. To conclude, narratives function covert prestige of the scientific discourse and shape the identity of the persuasive scientist.

Keywords: covert prestige, narrativity, scientific discourse, scientific narrative

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13269 Evaluation Means in English and Russian Academic Discourse: Through Comparative Analysis towards Translation

Authors: Albina Vodyanitskaya

Abstract:

Given the culture- and language-specific nature of evaluation, this phenomenon is widely studied around the linguistic world and may be regarded as a challenge for translators. Evaluation penetrates all the levels of a scientific text, influences its composition and the reader’s attitude towards the information presented. One of the most challenging and rarely studied phenomena is the individual style of the scientific writer, which is mostly reflected in the use of evaluative language means. The evaluative and expressive potential of a scientific text is becoming more and more welcoming area for researchers, which stems in the shift towards anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics. Other reasons include: the cognitive and psycholinguistic processes that accompany knowledge acquisition, a genre-determined nature of a scientific text, the increasing public concern about the quality of scientific papers and some such. One more important issue, is the fact that linguists all over the world still argue about the definition of evaluation and its functions in the text. The author analyzes various approaches towards the study of evaluation and scientific texts. A comparative analysis of English and Russian dissertations and other scientific papers with regard to evaluative language means reveals major differences and similarities between English and Russian scientific style. Though standardized and genre-specific, English scientific texts contain more figurative and expressive evaluative means than the Russian ones, which should be taken into account while translating scientific papers. The processes that evaluation undergoes while being expressed by means of a target language are also analyzed. The author offers a target-language-dependent strategy for the translation of evaluation in English and Russian scientific texts. The findings may contribute to the theory and practice of translation and can increase scientific writers’ awareness of inter-language and intercultural differences in evaluative language means.

Keywords: academic discourse, evaluation, scientific text, scientific writing, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
13268 Investigation of the Relationship between Government Expenditure and Country’s Economic Development in the Context of Sustainable Development

Authors: Lina Sinevičienė

Abstract:

Arising problems of countries’ public finances, social and demographic changes motivate scientific and policy debates on public spending size, structure and efficiency in order to meet the changing needs of society and business. The concept of sustainable development poses new challenges for scientists and policy-makers in the field of public finance. This paper focuses on the investigation of the relationship between government expenditure and country’s economic development in the context of sustainable development. Empirical analysis focuses on the data of the European Union (except Croatia and Luxemburg) countries. The study covers 2003 – 2012 years, using annual cross-sectional data. Summarizing the research results, it can be stated that governments should pay more attention to the needs that ensure sustainable development in the long-run when formulating public expenditure policy, particularly in the field of environment protection.

Keywords: economic development, economic growth, government expenditure, sustainable development

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13267 Contributions of Non-Formal Educational Spaces for the Scientific Literacy of Deaf Students

Authors: Rafael Dias Silva

Abstract:

The school is a social institution that should promote learning situations that remain throughout life. Based on this, the teaching activities promoted in museum spaces can represent an educational strategy that contributes to the learning process in a more meaningful way. This article systematizes a series of elements that guide the use of these spaces for the scientific literacy of deaf students and as experiences of this nature are favorable for the school development through the concept of the circularity. The methodology for the didactic use of these spaces of non-formal education is one of the reflections developed in this study and how such environments can contribute to the learning in the classroom. To develop in the student the idea of ​​association making him create connections with the curricular proposal and notice how the proposed activity is articulated. It is in our interest that the experience lived in the museum be shared collaborating for the construction of a scientific literacy and cultural identity through the research.

Keywords: accessibility in museums, Brazilian sign language, deaf students, teacher training

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
13266 Development of Student Invention Competences and Skills in Polytechnic University

Authors: D. S. Denchuk, O. M. Zamyatina, M. G. Minin, M. A. Soloviev, K. V. Bogrova

Abstract:

The article considers invention activity in Russia and worldwide, its modern state, and the impact of innovative engineering activity on the national economy of the considered countries. It also analyses the historical premises of modern engineer-ing invention. The authors explore the development of engineering invention at an engineer-ing university, the creation of particular environment for scientific and technical creativity of students on the example of Elite engineering education program at Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia. It is revealed that for the successful de-velopment of engineering invention in a higher education institution it is neces-sary to apply a learning model that develops the creative potential of a student, which is, in its turn, inseparably connected with the ability to generate new ideas in engineering. Such academic environment can become a basis for revealing stu-dents' creativity.

Keywords: engineering invention, scientific and technical creativity, students, project-based approach

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13265 The Quality of Human Capital as a Factor of Social and Economic Development of the Region

Authors: O. Gubnitsyna, O. Zakoretskaya, O. Russova

Abstract:

It is generally recognized that the main task of modern society is human development. The quality of human capital has been identified as a key driver of economic development in the region. In this article, considered the quality of human capital as one of the main types of social and economic potential for the region’s development. The phenomenon of human capital represents both material and intellectual components of human activity. It is show that the necessary population characterized by certain quantitative and qualitative indicators (qualification and professional structure, education or social general condition and others) and is an necessary resource for the development of the regional economy. The connection of the regional goals with the quality of human capital is discussed in the article and a number of recommendations on its improvement were given. Solving the tasks stated in the article, the authors used analytical and statistical methods of research, scientific publications of domestic and foreign scientists on this issue. The results can be used in this implementation of the concept of regional development.

Keywords: human capital, the quality of human capital, economic development, social general condition

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13264 Publish/Subscribe Scientific Workflow Interoperability Framework (PS-SWIF) Architecture and Design

Authors: Ahmed Alqaoud

Abstract:

This paper describes Publish/Subscribe Scientific Workflow Interoperability Framework (PS-SWIF) architecture and its components that collectively provide interoperability between heterogeneous scientific workflow systems. Requirements to achieve interoperability are identified. This paper also provides a detailed investigation and design of models and solutions for system requirements, and considers how workflow interoperability models provided by Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) can be achieved using the PS-SWIF system.

Keywords: publish/subscribe, scientific workflow, web services, workflow interoperability

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13263 A Method to Assess Aspect of Sustainable Development: Walkability

Authors: Amna Ali Al-Saadi, Riken Homma, Kazuhisa Iki

Abstract:

Despite the fact that many places have successes in achieving some aspects of sustainable urban development, there are no scientific facts to convince decision makers. Also, each of them was developed to fulfill the need of specific city only. Therefore, objective method to generate the solutions from a successful case is the aim of this research. The questions were: how to learn the lesson from each case study; how to distinguish the potential criteria and negative one; snd how to quantify their effects in the future development. Walkability has been selected as a goal. This is because it has been found as a solution to achieve healthy life style as well as social, environmental and economic sustainability. Moreover, it has complication as every aspect of sustainable development. This research is stand on quantitative- comparative methodology in order to assess pedestrian oriented development. Three analyzed area (AAs) were selected. One site is located in Oman in which hypotheses as motorized oriented development, while two sites are in Japan where the development is pedestrian friendly. The study used Multi- criteria evaluation method (MCEM). Initially, MCEM stands on analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The later was structured into main goal (walkability), objectives (functions and layout) and attributes (the urban form criteria). Secondly, the GIS were used to evaluate the attributes in multi-criteria maps. Since each criterion has different scale of measurement, all results were standardized by z-score and used to measure the co-relations among criteria. As results, different scenario was generated from each AA. MCEM (AHP-OWA)-GIS measured the walkability score and determined the priority of criteria development in the non-walker friendly environment. The comparison criteria for z-score presented a measurable distinguished orientation of development. This result has been used to prove that Oman is motorized environment while Japan is walkable. Also, it defined the powerful criteria and week criteria regardless to the AA. This result has been used to generalize the priority for walkable development. In conclusion, the method was found successful in generate scientific base for policy decisions.

Keywords: walkability, policy decisions, sustainable development, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 357