Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4225

Search results for: national identity

4225 The Georgians’ Discourses of National Identity in the Context of Europeanisation

Authors: Lia Tsuladze

Abstract:

The paper discusses the Georgians’ online discourses of national identity in the context of Europeanisation focusing on two periods - initialing of the EU-Georgia Association Agreement in November 2013 and signing it in June 2014. Discussing how the Georgians’ aspiration to integrate with the EU is combined with their perception of Europeanisation as a threat to the national identity, the author explores how the national sentiment is expressed in the above discourses while performed for the local vs. international audiences.

Keywords: Europeanisation, frontstage, backstage discourses, Georgia, national identity

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4224 The Role of Accounting in the Run-Added Tax in Iran

Authors: Zahra Karimi

Abstract:

Money is not the only medium of economic exchanges, but also affects the national identity of citizens and national sovereignty of the government. Hence, money can be used as a tool to strengthen the national and political identity of nations. In other words, the value of the national currency can be affecting citizen’s view to the economic situation of their country and national identity. Government with the maintenance of the value of the national currency must increase the confidence of its citizens into national currency and prevents that "currency substitution phenomenon" occurred and people turn to foreign currencies. Hence, this article intends to explain the zeros elimination from the national currency and study of experience of other countries and discussion history analyzed benefits and harms of zeroes elimination from the national currency, And then to evaluate the effect or lack of effect of removing of zeros from the national currency on inflation answer the question whether it is appropriate and on time to delete three zeros from the Riyal of Iran is or not?

Keywords: zeros elimination from the national currency, value of the national currency, Riyal, inflation, Iran, money, government

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4223 The Analysis of the Role of Handicrafts in Consolidating Iran National Identity

Authors: Nadia Pourabbas Tahvildari

Abstract:

National identity is formed in the process of time and in the community while influenced by the historical events. The country which has a more coherent national and historical identity would be successful as well as strengthening solidarity and social cohesion. Among the international community where the various likes challenge the subject of identity, taking into consideration the components which using identity seems to be very critical. Handicrafts as reflecting the historical and cultural characteristics of the product location can be used as an important component in order to introduce the culture and identity to be evaluated. As one of the most durable crafts for man, handicrafts have played a continuous role in sustaining human culture. Today without the presence of handicrafts, restoration of culture and national identity and religious beliefs of the past clans and people, is not only difficult but is even impossible also. Due to its brilliant historical experience and having rich culture and civilization, Iran has accomplished to the high competence in the field of traditional arts and handicrafts. This article is a scientific approach which by using descriptive – analytic method based on library studies tried to address the issue of handicrafts looking to examine the position of the industry to consolidate the national identity. Studies indicate that Iran as one of the original human habitats in the field of handicrafts has adequate enrichment and in case there will be an appropriate planning and investment away from oil-based industry, it would be beneficent. Furthermore, the quality and variety of handicrafts can be used as an essential yardstick for the consolidation of Iran national identity in the age of globalization.

Keywords: handicrafts, Iran national identity, globalization, cultural heritage

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4222 The Relationship between the Feeling of Distributive Justice and National Identity of the Youth

Authors: Leila Batmany

Abstract:

This research studies the relationship between the feeling of distributive justice and national identity of the youth. The present analysis intends to experimentally investigate the various dimensions of the justice feeling and its effect on the national identity components. The study has taken justice into consideration from four different points of view on the basis of availability of valuable social sources such as power, wealth, knowledge and status in the political, economic, and cultural and status justice respectively. Furthermore, the national identity has been considered as the feeling of honour, attachment and commitment towards national society and its seven components i.e. history, language, culture, political system, religion, geographical territory and society. The 'field study' has been used as the method for the research with the individual as unit, taking 368 young between the age of 18 and 29 living in Tehran, chosen randomly according to Cochran formula. The individual samples have been randomly chosen among five districts in north, south, west, east, and centre of Tehran, based on the multistage cluster sampling. The data collection has been performed with the use of questionnaire and interview. The most important results are as follows: i) The feeling of economic justice is the weakest one among the youth. ii) The strongest and the weakest dimensions of the national identity are, respectively, the historical and the social dimension. iii) There is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling political and statues justice and then national identity, whereas no meaningful relationship exists between the economic and cultural justice and the national identity. iv) There is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling of justice in all dimensions and legitimacy of the political system. There is also such a relationship between the legitimacy of the political system and national identity. v) Generally, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling of distributive justice and national identity among the youth. vi) It is through the legitimacy of the political system that justice feeling can have an influence on the national identity.

Keywords: distributive justice, national identity, legitimacy of political system, Cochran formula, multistage cluster sampling

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4221 Captives on the Frontier: An Exploration of National Identity in Argentine Literature and Art

Authors: Carlos Riobo

Abstract:

This paper analyzes literature and art in Argentina from the nineteenth to the twenty-first centuries as these media used the figure of the white female captive to define a developing national identity. This identity excluded the Indians whose lands the whites were taking and who appeared as the aggressors and captors in writing and paintings. The paper identifies the complicit relationship between art and history in crafting national memory. It also identifies a movement toward purity (as defined by separation of entities) and away from mestizaje (racial and cultural mixtures).

Keywords: Argentina, borders, captives, literature, painting

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4220 Examining the Influences of Exchange Programmes on Youths' National Identity: A Hong Kong Case Study

Authors: Annie Y. N. Cheng

Abstract:

Since the handover of Hong Kong to China, 'National Identity' has become a vital focus promoted by the HKSAR government. According to the poll by the University of Hong Kong’s Public Opinion Programme (2010 – 2015), young people aged between 18 and 29 have the least and decreasing recognition, an average 5.5%, of their Chinese identity. Past research has shown that student participation in exchange programmes and study tours provides the possibility of new formulations of national identity. Since the Policy Address 2008, the HKSAR government has been actively expanding and exploring the feasibility of Mainland exchange programmes to enhance our youths’ understanding of Chineseness and to strengthen their national identity. Schools have been sponsored or subsidized with the costs of Mainland exchange activities through various grants and channels. Considering the significantly increasing number of Hong Kong youths who have participated in these Mainland exchange programmes and study tours, however, the effectiveness of these activities is understudied. At present, there is the lack of systematic research on the impacts of these activities and the ways in which they influence our students’ perceptions of national identity. Using case study approach, this study aims to examine students’ perceptions of their national identity; and evaluate whether the Mainland exchange programmes or study tours have influences on students’ perceptions of national identity. Results show that the influences on national identity varied which were dependent on the objectives and destinations of the programmes. The findings of this study can provide significant feedback for schools to organize meaningful Mainland exchange activities or study tours and inform policy makers how to formulate effective strategies for promoting such exchange activities.

Keywords: Hong Kong youth, mainland exchange programme, national identity, study tours

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4219 Historical Analysis of the Evolution of Swiss Identity and the Successful Integration of Multilingualism into the Swiss Concept of Nationhood

Authors: James Beringer

Abstract:

Switzerland’s ability to forge a strong national identity across linguistic barriers has long been of interest to nationalism scholars. This begs the question of how this has been achieved, given that traditional explanations of luck or exceptionalism appear highly reductionist. This paper evaluates the theory that successful Swiss management of linguistic diversity stems from the strong integration of multilingualism into Swiss national identity. Using archival analysis of Swiss government records, historical accounts of prominent Swiss citizens, as well as secondary literature concerning the fundamental aspects of Swiss national identity, this paper charts the historical evolution of Swiss national identity. It explains how multilingualism was deliberately and successfully integrated into Swiss national identity as a response to political fragmentation along linguistic lines during the First World War. Its primary conclusions are the following. Firstly, the earliest foundations of Swiss national identity were purposefully removed from any association with a single national language. This produced symbols, myths, and values -such as a strong commitment to communalism, the imagery of the Swiss natural landscape, and the use of Latin expressions, which can be adopted across Swiss linguistic groups. Secondly, the First World War triggered a turning point in the evolution of Swiss national identity. The fundamental building blocks proved insufficient in preventing political fractures amongst linguistic lines, as each Swiss linguistic group gravitated towards its linguistic neighbours within Europe. To avoid a repeat of such fragmentation, a deliberate effort was made to fully integrate multilingualism as a fundamental aspect of Swiss national identity. Existing natural symbols, such as the St Gotthard Mountains, were recontextualized in order to become associated with multilingualism. The education system was similarly reformed to reflect the unique multilingual nature of the Swiss nation. The successful result of this process can be readily observed in polls and surveys, with large segments of the Swiss population highlighting multilingualism as a uniquely Swiss characteristic, indicating the symbiotic connection between multilingualism and the Swiss nation.

Keywords: language's role in identity formation, multilingualism in nationalism, national identity formation, Swiss national identity history

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4218 Group Boundaries against and Due to Identity Threat

Authors: Anna Siegler, Sara Bigazzi, Sara Serdult, Ildiko Bokretas

Abstract:

Social identity emerging from group membership defines the representational processes of our social reality. Based on our theoretical assumption the subjective perception of identity threat leads to an instable identity structure. The need to re-establish the positive identity will lead us to strengthen group boundaries. Prejudice in our perspective offer psychological security those who thinking in exclusive barriers, and we suggest that those who identify highly with their ingroup/national identity and less with superordinate identities take distance from others and this is related to their perception of threat. In our study we used a newly developed questionnaire, the Multiple Threat and Prejudice Questionnaire (MTPQ) which measure identity threat at different dimensions of identification (national, existential, gender, religious) and the distancing of different outgroups, over and above we worked with Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Identification with All Humanity Scale (IWAH). We conduct one data collection (N=1482) in a Hungarian sample to examine the connection between national threat and distance-taking, and this survey includes the investigation (N=218) of identification with different group categories. Our findings confirmed that those who feel themselves threatened in their national identity aspects are less likely to identify themselves with superordinate groups and this correlation is much stronger when they think about the nation as a bio-cultural unit, while if nation defined as a social-economy entity this connection is less powerful and has just the opposite direction.

Keywords: group boundaries, identity threat, prejudice, superordinate groups

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4217 Relevance of History to National Development

Authors: Abdulsalami Muyideen Deji

Abstract:

Achievement of one age serves as a starting point for the next generation. History explains the significance of past and present achievement which serves a guide principle for great minds to determine the next line of action in personal life which translate to national development. If history does this in human life, it is not out of place to accept history as a vanguard of national development. History remained the only relevant discipline which shapes the affairs of developed society. It gives adequate knowledge of great people in any society, how they used their ability and leadership prowess to develop their environment. As a result of this people use the idea of those heroes as guiding principle to determine the present issues. The custodian of identity is history, while identity builds confidence in man; it also makes man to master his environment for rapid development. Adequate developments of man’s environment translate to national development.

Keywords: history, national development, leadership prowess, identity

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4216 National Identity in Connecting the Community through Mural Art for Petronas Dagangan Berhad

Authors: Nadiah Mohamad, Wan Samiati Andriana Wan Mohd Daud, M. Suhaimi Tohid, Mohd Fazli Othman, Mohamad Rizal Salleh

Abstract:

This is a collaborative project of the mural art between The Department of Fine Art from Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) and Petronas Dagangan Berhad (PDB), the most leading retailer and marketer of downstream oil and gas products in Malaysia. Five different states in the Peninsular of Malaysia that has been identified in showcasing the National Identity of Malaysia at each Petronas gas station, this also includes the Air Keroh in Melaka, Pasir Pekan in Kelantan, Pontian in Johor, Simpang Pulai in Perak, and also Wakaf Bharu in Terengganu. This project is to analyze the element of national identity that has been demonstrated at the Petronas's Mural. The ultimate aim of the mural is to let the community and local people to be aware about what Malaysians are consists and proud of and how everyone is able to connect with the idea through visual art. The method that is being explained in this research is by using visual data through research and also self-experience in collecting the visual data in identifying what images is considered as the national identity and idea development and visual analysis is being transferred based upon the visual data collection. In this stage, elements and principles of design will be the key in highlighting what is necessary for a work of art. In conclusion, visual image of the National Identity of Malaysia is able to connect to the audience from local and also to the people from outside the country to learn and understand the beauty and diversity of Malaysia as a unique country with art through the wall of five Petronas gas station.

Keywords: community, fine art, mural art, national identity

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4215 Language Factor in the Formation of National and Cultural Identity of Kazakhstan

Authors: Andabayeva Dina, Avakova Raushangul, Kortabayeva Gulzhamal, Rakhymbay Bauyrzhan

Abstract:

This article attempts to give an overview of the language situation and language planning in Kazakhstan. Statistical data is given and excursion to history of languages in Kazakhstan is done. Particular emphasis is placed on the national- cultural component of the Kazakh people, namely the impact of the specificity of the Kazakh language on ethnic identity. Language is one of the basic aspects of national identity. Recently, in the Republic of Kazakhstan purposeful work on language development has been conducted. Optimal solution of language problems is a factor of interethnic relations harmonization, strengthening and consolidation of the peoples and public consent. Development of languages - one of the important directions of the state policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The problem of the state language, as part of national (civil) identification play a huge role in the successful integration process of Kazakh society. And quite rightly assume that one of the foundations of a new civic identity is knowing Kazakh language by all citizens of Kazakhstan. The article is an analysis of the language situation in Kazakhstan in close connection with the peculiarities of cultural identity.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, mentality, language policy, ethnolinguistics, language planning, language personality

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4214 Nationalist Approach to the Music Culture in Early Republic Period in Turkey

Authors: Hilmi Yazici

Abstract:

Just after Ottoman period, new more homogenic republic was struggling to form a national identity and dealing with the cultural and historical background of the nation. This new republic had an aim of modernization and westernization which started in the late ottoman period. In this process, the culture was an important basis to form a new nation and it clearly put forward that the new citizens of the new national republic are to have a modern and national culture. The result of this aimed change was to find the Turkish culture suppressed among the common people of the Anatolia and to take the western modernization and breed this with national culture. So in this context, we can say that this approach separated the people from ottoman culture and its roots to empower the national identity. Repeatedly, it may be said that Turkish folkloric music was an important basis for the new revolution, on the other hand classical Turkish music was alienated with the idea that it didn’t belong to Turkish culture. So the aim of this study is to determine how these efforts to nationalize a new identity and culture was successful and conscious intervention to folkloric Turkish music became efficient.

Keywords: opera, nationalism in music, Turkish music

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4213 A Queer Approach to the National Irish Identity during 'The Troubles' in Belfast in Paul Mcveigh's 'The Good Son'

Authors: Eduardo Garcia Agustin

Abstract:

This paper focuses on how Mickey – the 10-year-old main character and narrator in Paul McVeigh’s novel The Good Son (2015) – becomes aware of his own queerness and its implications in a conflicting place and time such as Belfast during ‘The Troubles’ in the 1980s. Queer theory allows a comparative reading of identity issues such as national and gender discourses. As opposed to some other excluding social constructs that classify identities in an Us-Others binomial, queer has become a sort of umbrella term where there is room for more identities other than LGTBQ. Therefore, it offers some relevant tools to read this highly awarded novel by focusing on the intersectional construction of Mickey’s identity in progress within the social and familiar realms. The aim of this paper is to offer a queer reading of the The Good Son, which was awarded with the Polari First Book Prize in 2016, by showing the key role of Mickey’s conflictive realization of his own queerness in the polarized society of Northern Ireland in the 1980s, where there is no shade of grey. Within such a polarized context, Mickey’s perception of his own internal and external identity conflicts he is exposed to will show how necessary a certain touch of pink is as a potential escape to those conflicts.

Keywords: conflict, national identity, Northern Ireland, queer identity

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4212 Processes of Identities Formation and Transformation among Professional Skilled Mexican Migrants in the United States

Authors: M. Laura Vazquez Maggio, Lilia Dominguez Villalobos, Jan Luka Frey

Abstract:

This paper contributes to the understanding of the dynamic and the relational nature of identities formation among skilled middle-class migrants. Following the idea that identities are never singular, multifaceted and have a necessarily processual character, the authors specifically analyze three dimensions of the identity of qualified Mexican migrants in the US and the interplay between them. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with skilled Mexican middle-class migrants in the US, the paper explores how skilled Mexican migrants preserve their ethno-national identity (their ‘Mexicanness’) in reaction to a hostile socio-political reception context in the US. It further shows how these migrants recreate their class identity and show tendencies to distance themselves from what they perceive as lower-class Mexican migrants and the dominant popular Mexican and Latin-American cultural expressions. In a final step, it examines how the lived experience of migration itself impacts the migrants’ identities, their concept of self and feelings/modes of being and belonging.

Keywords: ethno-national identity, middle class identity, middle-class migration, migrants’ identity, skilled migration

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4211 A Factor-Analytical Approach on Identities in Environmentally Significant Behavior

Authors: Alina M. Udall, Judith de Groot, Simon de Jong, Avi Shankar

Abstract:

There are many ways in which environmentally significant behavior can be explained. Dominant psychological theories, namely, the theory of planned behavior, the norm-activation theory, its extension, the value-belief-norm theory, and the theory of habit do not explain large parts of environmentally significant behaviors. A new and rapidly growing approach is to focus on how consumer’s identities predict environmentally significant behavior. Identity may be relevant because consumers have many identities that are assumed to guide their behavior. Therefore, we assume that many identities will guide environmentally significant behavior. Many identities can be relevant for environmentally significant behavior. In reviewing the literature, over 200 identities have been studied making it difficult to establish the key identities for explaining environmentally significant behavior. Therefore, this paper first aims to establish the key identities previously used for explaining environmentally significant behavior. Second, the aim is to test which key identities explain environmentally significant behavior. To address the aims, an online survey study (n = 578) is conducted. First, the exploratory factor analysis reveals 15 identity factors. The identity factors are namely, environmentally concerned identity, anti-environmental self-identity, environmental place identity, connectedness with nature identity, green space visitor identity, active ethical identity, carbon off-setter identity, thoughtful self-identity, close community identity, anti-carbon off-setter identity, environmental group member identity, national identity, identification with developed countries, cyclist identity, and thoughtful organisation identity. Furthermore, to help researchers understand and operationalize the identities, the article provides theoretical definitions for each of the identities, in line with identity theory, social identity theory, and place identity theory. Second, the hierarchical regression shows only 10 factors significantly uniquely explain the variance in environmentally significant behavior. In order of predictive power the identities are namely, environmentally concerned identity, anti-environmental self-identity, thoughtful self-identity, environmental group member identity, anti-carbon off-setter identity, carbon off-setter identity, connectedness with nature identity, national identity, and green space visitor identity. The identities explain over 60% of the variance in environmentally significant behavior, a large effect size. Based on this finding, the article reveals a new, theoretical framework showing the key identities explaining environmentally significant behavior, to help improve and align the field.

Keywords: environmentally significant behavior, factor analysis, place identity, social identity

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4210 Constitutional Identity: The Connection between National Constitutions and EU Law

Authors: Norbert Tribl

Abstract:

European contemporary scientific public opinion considers the concept of constitutional identity as a highlighted issue. Some scholars interpret the matter as the manifestation of a conflict of Europe. Nevertheless, constitutional identity is a bridge between the Member States and the EU rather than a river that will wash away the achievements of the integration. In accordance with the opinion of the author, the main problem of constitutional identity in Europe is the undetermined nature: the exact concept of constitutional identity has not been defined until now. However, this should be the first step to understand and use identity as a legal institution. Having regard to this undetermined nature, the legal-theoretical examination of constitutional identity is the main purpose of this study. The concept of constitutional identity appears in the Anglo-Saxon legal systems by a different approach than in the supranational system of European Integration. While the interpretation of legal institutions in conformity with the constitution is understood under it, the European concept is applied when possible conflicts arise between the legal system of the European supranational space and certain provisions of the national constitutions of the member states. The European concept of constitutional identity intends to offer input in determining the nature of the relationship between the constitutional provisions of the member states and the legal acts of the EU integration. In the EU system of multilevel constitutionalism, a long-standing central debate on integration surrounds the conflict between EU legal acts and the constitutional provisions of the member states. In spite of the fact that the Court of Justice of the European Union stated in Costa v. E.N.E.L. that the member states cannot refer to the provisions of their respective national constitutions against the integration. Based on the experience of more than 50 years since the above decision, and also in light of the Treaty of Lisbon, we now can clearly see that EU law has itself identified an obligation for the EU to protect the fundamental constitutional features of the Member States under Article 4 (2) of Treaty on European Union, by respecting the national identities of member states. In other words, the European concept intends to offer input for the determination of the nature of the relationship between the constitutional provisions of the member states and the legal acts of the EU integration.

Keywords: constitutional identity, EU law, European Integration, supranationalism

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4209 Attitude of Tertiary Students on Multiculturalism in Indonesia

Authors: Budi Annisa Sidi

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Present-day Indonesia maintains a narrative of a culturally plural but unified nation. At the same time, multicultural policies extend different degrees of recognition, accommodation, toleration and even discrimination towards different socio-cultural groups. In conjunction with different ethnographic landscapes across regions in Indonesia, this approach leads to a varied experience and understanding of national identity and multiculturalism among people. As a result, governments seeking to maintain national unity while practicing multiculturalism have to juggle different expectations. This situation is examined through the microcosms of university students using questionnaires followed up by focus group discussions and personal interviews. A comparison between university students across four different provinces in Indonesia (Aceh, Jakarta, West Java and the Moluccas) highlights the influence of one’s surroundings on their perception of multiculturalism. Students in the more heterogeneous areas generally show more acceptance towards diversity compared to students in primarily homogenous areas who have little actual experience in dealing with diversity. Regardless of their environment, students claim to have positive feelings and a strong sense of attachment to Indonesia but hold different ideas of what constitutes an ideal Indonesian national identity.

Keywords: Indonesia, multiculturalism, national identity, nationalism

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4208 Examining Kokugaku as a Pattern of Defining Identity in Global Comparison

Authors: Mária Ildikó Farkas

Abstract:

Kokugaku of the Edo period can be seen as a key factor of defining cultural (and national) identity in the 18th and early 19th century based on Japanese cultural heritage. Kokugaku focused on Japanese classics, on exploring, studying and reviving (or even inventing) ancient Japanese language, literature, myths, history and also political ideology. ‘Japanese culture’ as such was distinguished from Chinese (and all other) cultures, ‘Japanese identity’ was thus defined. Meiji scholars used kokugaku conceptions of Japan to construct a modern national identity based on the premodern and culturalist conceptions of community. The Japanese cultural movement of the 18-19th centuries (kokugaku) of defining cultural and national identity before modernization can be compared not to the development of Western Europe (where national identity strongly attached to modern nation states) or other parts of Asia (where these emerged after the Western colonization), but rather with the ‘national awakening’ movements of the peoples of East Central Europe, a comparison which have not been dealt with in the secondary literature yet. The role of a common language, culture, history and myths in the process of defining cultural identity – following mainly Miroslav Hroch’s comparative and interdisciplinary theory of national development – can be examined compared to the movements of defining identity of the peoples of East Central Europe (18th-19th c). In the shadow of a cultural and/or political ‘monolith’ (China for Japan and Germany for Central Europe), before modernity, ethnic groups or communities started to evolve their own identities with cultural movements focusing on their own language and culture, thus creating their cultural identity, and in the end, a new sense of community, the nation. Comparing actual texts (‘narratives’) of the kokugaku scholars and Central European writers of the nation building period (18th and early 19th centuries) can reveal the similarities of the discourses of deliberate searches for identity. Similar motives of argument can be identified in these narratives: ‘language’ as the primary bearer of collective identity, the role of language in culture, ‘culture’ as the main common attribute of the community; and similar aspirations to explore, search and develop native language, ‘genuine’ culture, ‘original’ traditions. This comparative research offering ‘development patterns’ for interpretation can help us understand processes that may be ambiguously considered ‘backward’ or even ‘deleterious’ (e.g. cultural nationalism) or just ‘unique’. ‘Cultural identity’ played a very important role in the formation of national identity during modernization especially in the case of non-Western communities, who had to face the danger of losing their identities in the course of ‘Westernization’ accompanying modernization.

Keywords: cultural identity, Japanese modernization, kokugaku, national awakening

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4207 Analyses of the Constitutional Identity in Hungary: A Case Study on the Concept of Constitutionalism and Legal Continuity in New Fundamental Law of Hungary

Authors: Zsuzsanna Fejes

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The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the legal history of constitutionalism in Hungary, in focus of the democratic transitions in 1989-1990, describing the historical and political background of the changes and presenting the main and most important features of the new democracy, and institutional and legal orders. In Hungary the evolved political, economic and moral crisis prior to the constitutional years 2010-11 had been such a constitutional moment, which led to an opportune and unavoidable change at the same time. The Hungarian constitutional power intended to adopt a new constitution, which was competent to create a common constitutional identity and to express a national unity. The Hungarian Parliament on 18th April 2011 passed the New Fundamental Law. The new Fundamental Law rich in national values meant a new challenge for the academics, lawyers, and political scientists. Not only the classical political science, but also the constitutional law and theory have to struggle with the interpretation of the new declarations about national constitutional values in the Fundamental Law. The main features and structure of the new Fundamental Law will be analysed, and given a detailed interpretation of the Preamble as a declaration of constitutional values. During the examination of the Preamble shall be cleared up the components of Hungarian statehood and national unity, individual and common human rights, the practical and theoretical demand on national sovereignty, and the content and possibilities for the interpretation of the achievements of the historical Constitution. These scopes of problems will be presented during the examination of the text of National Avowal, as a preamble of the Fundamental Law. It is examined whether the Fundamental Law itself could be suitable and sufficient means to citizens of Hungary to express the ideas therein as their own, it will be analysed how could the national and European common traditions, values and principles stated in the Fundamental Law mean maintenance in Hungary’s participation in the European integration.

Keywords: common constitutional values, constitutionalism, national identity, national sovereignty, national unity, statehood

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4206 Acceptance of Health Information Application in Smart National Identity Card (SNIC) Using a New I-P Framework

Authors: Ismail Bile Hassan, Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad

Abstract:

This study discovers a novel framework of individual level technology adoption known as I-P (Individual- Privacy) towards Smart National Identity Card health information application. Many countries introduced smart national identity card (SNIC) with various applications such as health information application embedded inside it. However, the degree to which citizens accept and use some of the embedded applications in smart national identity remains unknown to many governments and application providers as well. Moreover, the previous studies revealed that the factors of trust, perceived risk, privacy concern and perceived credibility need to be incorporated into more comprehensive models such as extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology known as UTAUT2. UTAUT2 is a mainly widespread and leading theory existing in the information system literature up to now. This research identifies factors affecting the citizens’ behavioural intention to use health information application embedded in SNIC and extends better understanding on the relevant factors that the government and the application providers would need to consider in predicting citizens’ new technology acceptance in the future. We propose a conceptual framework by combining the UTAUT2 and Privacy Calculus Model constructs and also adding perceived credibility as a new variable. The proposed framework may provide assistance to any government planning, decision, and policy makers involving e-government projects. The empirical study may be conducted in the future to provide proof and empirically validate this I-P framework.

Keywords: unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model, UTAUT2 model, smart national identity card (SNIC), health information application, privacy calculus model (PCM)

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4205 Globalization and Women's Social Identity in Iran: A Case Study of Educated Women in the 'World City' of Yazd

Authors: Mohammad Tefagh

Abstract:

The process of globalization has transformed many social and cultural phenomena and has entered the world into a new era and arena. This phenomenon has introduced new methods, ideas, and identity interactions to human beings and has caused great changes in individual and social identity. Women have also been affected by globalization. Globalization has made the presence of women more and more effective and has caused identity changes and changes in the dimensions of identity in them. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of globalization of culture on changes in the social identity of educated women in the global city of Yazd. This study will discuss identity change and identity reconstruction due to globalization. The method of this study is qualitative, and the research data is obtained through in-depth interviews with 15 Yazdi-educated women at the Ph.D. level. The method of data analysis is thematic analysis. Findings of the research show that educated Yazdi women have changed their identity due to new communication processes and globalization, including faster, easier, and cheaper communication with other women in the world near and far. Women's social identity has also changed in the face of elements of globalization in various dimensions such as national, gender, religious, and group identities. The analysis of the interviews revealed the confronting elements such as using new cultural goods and communication technologies, membership in social networks, and increasing awareness of environmental change.

Keywords: globalization, social identity, educated women, Yazd

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4204 Ethnicism and Nigeria's National Development Crisis

Authors: A. E. Agbogu

Abstract:

While scholars have predicted that identity politics (or what is euphemistically referred to as ethnic politics in Nigeria) were a dying phenomenon in other parts of the world, in Nigeria, it has remained the basis of political activity and has indeed become not only the unwritten law of all calculations in the political firmament of the country but also the ultimo ratio. We intend in the paper that follows to explore the reason for this unhealthy development. The paper seeks to offer explanations for the paradoxical reality of the upsurge of ethnic politics in Nigeria when in fact, the phenomenon is apparently on a downward spiral elsewhere in the world, particularly in countries that are at par with Nigeria in terms of national development. The paper is descriptive and qualitative and has relied on available data for its source of materials. Among other things, the paper locates identity politics as a tool in the hands of a national elite that has not transcended the limitations imposes by the shackles of the parsonian particularistic polar attributes which have tended to fixate their weltanschauung or world view on attachments that are unpardonably primordial. In the event, ethnicity becomes a veritable instrument not only for cheap sectional mobilization but also a means for seeking access to the so-called national cake. It is recommended that a way out of this socio-politico malady is the creation of a political arrangement that conduces to the gravitational tendency which will lead to the transfer of loyalties away from the extant ethno-nationalities to the centre.

Keywords: ethnicism, development, crisis, identity politics

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4203 Database Playlists: Croatia's Popular Music in the Mirror of Collective Memory

Authors: Diana Grguric, Robert Svetlacic, Vladimir Simovic

Abstract:

Scientific research analytically explores database playlists by studying the memory culture through Croatian popular radio music. The research is based on the scientific analysis of databases developed on the basis of the playlist of ten Croatian radio stations. The most recent Croatian song on Statehood Day 2008-2013 is analyzed in order to gain insight into their (memory) potential in terms of storing, interpreting and presenting a national identity. The research starts with the general assumption that popular music is an efficient identifier, transmitter, and promoter of national identity. The aim of the scientific research of the database was to analytically reveal specific titles of Croatian popular songs that participate in marking memories and analyzing their symbolic capital to gain insight into the popular music experience of the past and to develop a new method of scientifically based analysis of specific databases.

Keywords: specific databases, popular radio music, collective memory, national identity

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4202 Ethnolinguistic Identity and Language Policies: Negotiating Identity and Diversity in Modern Linguistic Environment in Malawi

Authors: Peter Mayeso Jiyajiya

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The question of language and identity in the post-colonial Africa has resulted in the policy inconsistencies and perceived wayward practices regarding language use. The need to reside and situate oneself in the global village has alienated local identities, with most countries, Malawi in particular promoting exogenous colonial language(s) at the expense of local languages that mirror people’s identities. This has brought a mismatch between language policy and implementation. The resultant effect has been alienation of the ‘Self’ from one’s indigenous identity and creation of the ‘other’ in the foreign identity, and the undermining of the linguistic rights of the minority language speakers. The need to negotiate the identity and modernity in the global village is thus imperative. The paper attempts to review the language situation in Malawi in light of the growing desire for international integration vis-à-vis the cultivation and maintenance of national ethnolinguistic identity. It further highlights the dilemma that the promotion of vernacular languages is facing in the modern Malawi. It also examines the Malawi language policy and its implementation. The failures, challenges, and inconsistencies are discussed in order to negotiate the position of minority languages in the modern Malawi. The paper notes that identity construction and maintenance within the framework of language policy in Malawi is undermined by attitudinal factors towards one’s culture and language. The paper then provides suggestions of negotiating identity in Malawi within the framework of globalisation through the placement of premiums on the minority languages.

Keywords: identity, language policy, minority languages, vernacular language

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4201 Social and Digital Transformation of the Saudi Education System: A Cyberconflict Analysis

Authors: Mai Alshareef

Abstract:

The Saudi government considers the modernisation of the education system as a critical component of the national development plan, Saudi Vision 2030; however, this sudden reform creates tension amongst Saudis. This study examines first the reflection of the social and digital education reform on stakeholders and the general Saudi public, and second, the influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the ethnoreligious conflict in Saudi Arabia. This study employs Cyberconflict theory to examine conflicts in the real world and cyberspace. The findings are based on a qualitative case study methodology that uses netnography, an analysis of 3,750 Twitter posts and semi-structural interviews with 30 individuals, including key actors in the Saudi education sector and Twitter activists during 2019\2020. The methods utilised are guided by thematic analysis to map an understanding of factors that influence societal conflicts in Saudi Arabia, which in this case include religious, national, and gender identity. Elements of Cyberconflict theory are used to better understand how conflicting groups build their identities in connection to their ethnic/religious/cultural differences and competing national identities. The findings correspond to the ethnoreligious components of the Cyberconflict theory. Twitter became a battleground for liberals, conservatives, the Saudi public and elites, and it is used in a novel way to influence public opinion and to challenge the media monopoly. Opposing groups relied heavily on a discourse of exclusion and inclusion and showed ethnic and religious affiliations, national identity, and chauvinism. The findings add to existing knowledge in the cyberconflict field of study, and they also reveal outcomes that are critical to the Saudi Arabian national context.

Keywords: education, cyberconflict, Twitter, national identity

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4200 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

Abstract:

In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity

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4199 The Impact of Personal Identity on Self-Esteem among Muslim Adolescents

Authors: Nadia Ayub

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The purpose of the study was to explore the impact of personal identity on self-esteem among adolescents. Two hypotheses were tested in the study, i.e., personal identity effects on self-esteem; and gender difference in the variables of personal identity and self-esteem. The total of 300 (150 female; 150 male) adolescents participated in the study. Personal identity scale (Ayub, N., In Press), and self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1985) were administered. The findings of the study suggest that positive personal identity impact on self-esteem and gender difference was found on the variables of personal identity and self-esteem. In conclusion, the results of the study are beneficial for researchers, policymakers, psychologists. The strong positive personal identity and self-esteem help in healthy mental development not only in adolescence but throughout the life of individuals.

Keywords: personal identity, self-esteem, adolescents, positive psychology

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4198 The Nation as Brand: Postcolonial Construction of National Identity in Late 20th/21st Century Qatar

Authors: Ryunhye Kim

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Despite its relatively short history as an independent state, Qatar has emerged as a highly regarded Gulf state and global power. Since its independence in September 1971, the state has employed deliberate policy initiatives designed to put Qatar on the map and distinguish it from other Gulf states. Because Qatar and its neighbors are resource-poor apart from energy, whoever is first to introduce a unique aspect of branding not only takes the lead but assumes what is often an insurmountable advantage. This study examines three specific modes of branding undertaken by Qatar: (1) energy policies to utilize its natural gas to become a dominant supplier; (2) the deliberate construction of a distinct cultural brand utilizing sports, architecture, museums, and media; and (3) ‘niche diplomacy’ to serve as a mediator in regional and intra-national conflicts, especially as interlocutor between the United States and Arab regimes and Muslim groups. Gleaning data from a range of sources, this study analyzes the effectiveness and significance of Qatar’s place branding on the global stage, as well as potential disadvantages and limits in this branding, including problems encountered before and after the ‘Qatar crisis.’

Keywords: national branding, national-identity, Qatar, soft-power

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4197 Exploring the Relationship between Organisational Identity and Value Systems: Reflecting on the Values-Crafting Process in a Multi-National Organisation within the Entertainment Industry

Authors: Dieter Veldsman, Theo Heyns Veldsman

Abstract:

The knowledge economy demands an organisation that is flexible, adaptable and able to navigate the ever-changing environment. This fast-paced environment has however resulted in an organizational landscape that battles to engage employees, retain top talent and create meaningful work for its members. In the knowledge economy, the concept of organizational identity has become an important consideration as organisations aim to create a compelling and inviting narrative for all stakeholders across the business value chain. Values are often seen as the behavioural framework that informs organisational culture, yet often values are perceived to be inauthentic and misaligned with the true character or identity of the organisation and how it is perceived by different role players. This paper focuses on exploring the relationship between organisational identity and value systems by focusing on a case study within a multi-national organisation within South Africa. The paper evaluates the implementation of mixed methods OD approach that gathered collaborative inputs of more than 4500 employees who participated in crafting the newly established values system post a retrenchment process. The paper will evaluate the relationship between the newly crafted value system and the identity of the organisation as described by various internal and external stakeholders in order to explore potential alignment, dissonance and key insights into understanding the relationship between organisational identity and values. The case study will be reported from the perspective of an OD consultant who supported the transformation process over a period of 8 months and aims to provide key insights into values and identity alignment within knowledge economy organisations. From a practical perspective, the paper provides insights into how values are created, perceived and lived within organisations and the impact on employee engagement and culture.

Keywords: culture, organisational development, organisational identity, values

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4196 Wasif Jawharriyeh and the Identity-Forming Spaces of Late Ottoman Jerusalem

Authors: Feyza Daloglu

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This paper scrutinizes the Ottoman years of Wasif Jawharriyeh’s memoir, The Storyteller of Jerusalem, within the framework of citadinite, employed by the Open Jerusalem Project. Open Jerusalem Project uses the term citadinite to describe “the dynamic identity relationship city dwellers have with each other and their urban environment.” While Jerusalem and Jerusalemite identity have usually been analyzed within religious, national, or colonial frameworks, citadinite offers a fresh perspective by turning its lens to the urban identity of its citizens in the 19th and 20th centuries to overcome the shortcomings of usual frameworks. Wasif Jawharriyeh is a proud Jerusalemite and a Greek Orthodox Arab, who spent his childhood and teenage years under the Ottoman Empire. His memoir reveals a great deal of urbanity and a strong sense of Jerusalemite identity which appears to be favored over other forms of identities - Arab, Christian - in the late empire years. Through citadinite, this paper aims to discuss aspects of Jerusalemite identity and key points of urban life in the late Ottoman holy city with the guidance of a very lively and social Ottoman citizen and at that time a young musician, Wasif Jawharriyeh.

Keywords: arab memoir, cityscape, jerusalem identity, ottoman city, urban life

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