Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7210

Search results for: social unrest

7210 Poverty and Illiteracy as a Key Factor for Crime and Unrest in Nigeria

Authors: Lawrence Emah


Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation is undoubtedly, currently going through one of the most difficult phases in her 55 years of existence as an independent nation. At no other time in her history is she under so much pressure of social unrest and unacceptable rate of crime and criminality than it is today. From the North where there is an insurgency to contend with, then to the South where kidnapping and armed robbery hold sway. These issues did not just sprout from nowhere; they have a root somewhere. This is why this paper seeks to bring to the fore poverty and illiteracy as leading causes of these twin social ills– crime and social restiveness as well as suggest practical solutions to the problems.

Keywords: crime, illiteracy, poverty, unrest

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
7209 Causes of Nigeria Unrest and Conflict Situation

Authors: Victor Osaghae


In 2005, the CIA published a report warning that Nigeria, the seventh most populous country in the world, could disintegrate within 15 years. Nigeria experiences civil unrest, violence and strikes. Nigeria has one of the highest rates of internal violence in the world, only unlike others with similar levels of bloodshed such as Colombia or Chechnya, there is not a civil war going on. The types of unrest observed in Nigeria from literatures consulted can be categorized into five namely: religious, social, political, labour, and communal or ethnic unrests. The cuases of the unrests are as follows: injustice, unemployment, religious intolerance, illiteracy and government not filling agreements reached with unions. The cost due to these unrests cannot be quantified because it affects human, material/properties and money.

Keywords: unrest, conflicts, Boko Haram, disturbance

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
7208 Older Adults' Perception of Successful Aging among Unrest Situation: A Case of the Three Southernmost Provinces of Thailand

Authors: Medina Adulyarat


Like many other countries, Thailand is experiencing an increase in its proportion of older adults. However, the political, social, and religious climates of the various regions of Thailand are very diverse and the life experiences of older Thai citizens can vary greatly by region. For more than a decade, the southernmost provinces, namely Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat, have experienced social and political unrest, often characterized by violence in the form of bombings and shootings, which has impacted the older adults residing in these regions. While, Muslims are considered a minority in Thailand, the majority of individuals in southernmost regions are Muslims, causing these regions to be different in terms of culture and beliefs. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examines older adults’ perceptions of successful aging within the context of violent social and political unrest. This research aims to 1) understand how older adults living in these areas perceive successful aging in relation to Rowe and Kahn’s successful ageing model, and 2) describe the experiences of older adults living in areas of violent social and political unrest. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with eight older adults living in the unrest area, composing of four males and four females aged between 55-75. Content analysis was used to investigate older adults’ perception of successful aging. Older adults living their life amidst the violence did not view the situation as a threat to their life for they viewed that they are not the targets of the unrest situation. Additionally, participants identified their religious beliefs and a strong sense of community belonging as coping strategies employed to deal with social and political unrest. Thus, according to them, the violence did not affect their perception of successful aging. While the participants’ perceptions of successful aging were generally consistent with aspects identified in the successful aging model proposed by Rowe and Kahn, a theme of “financial stability” emerged. The results can be divided into four interrelated themes, which are; 1) engaging with others; 2) religiosity; 3) financial stability; and 4) health. Understanding the older persons’ view of successful aging in vulnerable situations should add more depth and enhance the conceptualization of the successful aging concept.

Keywords: cultural gerontology, minority population, successful aging, unrest situation

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
7207 Impact of Globalization on Youth Bulge and Civil Unrest: An Empirical Approach

Authors: Swetasree Roy, Subaran Roy


The contemporary literature documents globalization affects the stability of a country in three ways i) it increases peace ii) it decreases the likelihood of civil unrest, and iii) it creates employment. In this paper, we show that unemployment amongst youth plays a significant role in the effect of globalization and the internal stability of a country. Using recent data on globalization for 88 countries (2000-2014), we examine whether the presence of a large section of youth exacerbates the negative effects of globalization, thereby increasing chances of civil unrest. Using recent measures of globalization, we find globalization affect adversely on the stability of a country. Our results indicate that globalization in the presence of a high youth unemployment rate can create more instability in an economy. Results are robust in the presence of other socio-economic variables.

Keywords: globalization, youth bulge, civil unrest, unemployment

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7206 Analyzing Migration Patterns Using Public Disorder Event Data

Authors: Marie E. Docken


At some point in the lifecycle of a country, patterns of political and social unrest of varying degrees are observed. Events involving public disorder or civil disobedience may produce effects that range a wide spectrum of varying outcomes, depending on the level of unrest. Many previous studies, primarily theoretical in nature, have attempted to measure public disorder in answering why or how it occurs in society by examining causal factors or underlying issues in the social or political position of a population. The main objective in doing so is to understand how these activities evolve or seek some predictive capability for the events. In contrast, this research involves the fusion of analytics and social studies to provide more knowledge of the public disorder and civil disobedience intensity in populations. With a greater understanding of the magnitude of these events, it is believed that we may learn how they relate to extreme actions such as mass migration or violence. Upon establishing a model for measuring civil unrest based upon empirical data, a case study on various Latin American countries is performed. Interpretations of historical events are combined with analytical results to provide insights regarding the magnitude and effect of social and political activism.

Keywords: public disorder, civil disobedience, Latin America, metrics, data analysis

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7205 Unfolding the Social Clash between Online and Non-Online Transportation Providers in Bandung

Authors: Latifah Putti Tiananda, Sasti Khoirunnisa, Taniadiana Yapwito, Jessica Noviena


Innovations are often met with two responses, acceptance or rejection. In the past few years, Indonesia is experiencing a revolution of transportation service, which utilizes online platform for its operation. Such improvement is welcomed by consumers and challenged by conventional or ‘non-online’ transportation providers simultaneously. Conflicts arise as the existence of this online transportation mode results in declining income of non-online transportation workers. Physical confrontations and demonstrations demand policing from central authority. However, the obscurity of legal measures from the government persists the social instability. Bandung, a city in West Java with the highest rate of online transportation usage, has recently issued a recommendation withholding the operation of online transportation services to maintain peace and order. Thus, this paper seeks to elaborate the social unrest between the two contesting transportation actors in Bandung and explore community-based approaches to solve this problem. Using qualitative research method, this paper will also feature in-depth interviews with directly involved sources from Bandung.

Keywords: Bandung, market competition, online transportation services, social unrest

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
7204 Quality and Qualitative Education for All, Panacea for Insecurity and Political Unrest in Nigeria

Authors: Babatunde Joel Todowede


It is a public knowledge that lack of quality and qualitative education breeds problems besetting Nigeria as a nation today. This paper entitled “Quality and Qualitative Education for all, panacea for insecurity and political unrest in Nigeria” seeks to explore how quality and qualitative education for all will tends to put an end to insecurity and political unrest in Nigeria as a Nation. It may be pertinent to note at this juncture that the development of any modern society or nation is primarily hinged on the functionality of its educational system. There is no developed nation in the world today, which does not owe its advancement to quality and qualitative education. In other words, Education is a vital instrument in the nation’s economic competitiveness, in its people, and in its communities. Hence, Education is not luxury to be cut in difficult economic times – it is an essential element of growth. In fact, education is the bedrock of any society that hopes to be numbered among the developed economies in the world. Nigeria, as a nation, has made continual efforts to assume its rightful place in education on the African continent, but has not been quite lucky. Interestingly however, Quality and Qualitative Education for all will come about if all stakeholders in the Education Sector perform their roles with skill and efficiency. Education is a very sensitive area, hence, needs to be passionate about education, and focused on building a future for the sector.” Quality and qualitative education instill significant core values in every student, which shape them into mature, caring and independent individuals. These values include commitment, collaboration, integrity, responsibility and respect. By imbibing these values in every aspect of their life, they are able to contribute their skills and talents while supporting each other in attaining their lifelong goals. This paper identified lack of proper education as the bane of insecurity and political unrest in the Country and urged the government to review the policy in a way that there will be quality and standard to check insurgency in the Country. More so, until the fallen standard of education in Nigeria is fixed to engage out of school children, the incessant attack on innocent Nigerians, particularly in the North East may get worse.

Keywords: quality and qualitative education, panacea, insecurity, political unrest

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
7203 Educaton for Social Reconstruction: Impact of Social Terrorism on Women Education in Nigeria

Authors: Theresa Chinyere ONU


This paper examines the effect of social terrorism on education in Nigeria. The article looked into some prevailing conditions of international political unrest and insecurity. The fear and risk of these conditions to national security and the struggle for power establishment which has further intensified and taken the shape of terrorism has imposed devastating effects on the growth and prosperity of Nigeria; as traffic patterns get disturbed, hospitals and schools get dysfunctional. This has also affected the educational standard in Nigeria as parents are no longer comfortable in sending their children to schools in some states for the fear of terrorist attacks. The study emphasized the integrated the effort of the government management institutions.

Keywords: education, social terrorism, women, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
7202 Global Collaboration During Global Crisis a Response to Rigorous Field Education in Social Work

Authors: Ruth Gerritsen-McKane, Mimi Sodhi, Lisa Gray, Donette Considine, Henry Kronner, Tameca Harris-Jackson


During these extraordinary times amid a global pandemic, political/civil unrest, and natural disasters, the need for appropriately trained professional social workers has never been stronger. Needs do not diminish but are heightened during such remarkable times. All too often, “developed” countries see the crisis in developing countries as uniquely theirs; 2020 has shown, there are no “others”; there is only us. Consequently, engaging in meaningful collaboration worldwide is essential! This presentation speaks to the fundamentals of global collaboration and, more importantly, how an in these trying times, the development of strong international partnerships can create opportunities for social work students across the planet to engage in meaningful field education opportunities. Accomplished by multiple modalities, a deeper understanding and response to social work students becoming formidable global citizens can be achieved.

Keywords: global citizens, global crisis, global collaboration, modalities

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7201 Examining the Racialisation of White Workers in Rural Louisiana as a Technology of Capitalist Management and Control

Authors: Kendall Artz


In the 1950s, a wave of violent labor unrest shook a small town in south-western Louisiana leading to the racialisation of workers—previously considered white—as ‘mixed-race’ or, in local terms, ‘Redbone.’ This paper examines why the group known as ‘Redbones’ were marked as non-white in relation to strike violence and their opposition to capitalist expansion. Utilising archival research, historiography and oral testimony, I examine how an instance of labor unrest was reinterpreted by local law enforcement, an interstate capitalist class and the national press as calling into question the racial integrity of a group of workers who had been formerly marked as white. This explosive and largely unstudied strike provides an opportunity to better understand how racialisation operates as a technology of control, even over individuals who appear phenotypically white. The strike at Elizabeth allows a glimpse at the tactics of representatives of white supremacy when white workers do not fully embrace the ‘wages of whiteness.

Keywords: American federation of labor, labor history, Louisiana history, wages of whiteness

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
7200 Consequences of Youth Bulge in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Idrees


The present study has been designed to explore the causes and effects of Youth Bulge in Pakistan. However, youth bulge is a part of population segment which create problem for the whole society. The youth bulge is a common phenomenon in many developing countries, and in particular, in the least developed countries. It is often due to a stage of development where a country achieves success in reducing infant mortality but mothers still have a high fertility rate. The result is that a large share of the population is comprised of children and young adults, and today’s children are tomorrow’s young adults. Youth often play a prominent role in political violence and the existence of a “youth bulge” has been associated with times of political crisis. The population pyramid of Pakistan represents a large youth proportion and our government did not use that youth in positive way and did not provide them opportunity for development, this situation creates frustration in youth that leads them towards conflict, unrest and violence. This study will be focus on the opportunity and motives of the youth bulge situation in Pakistan in the lens of youth bulge theory. Moreover, it will give some suggestions to utilize youth in the development activities and avoid youth bulge situation in Pakistan. The present research was conducted in the metropolitan entities of Punjab, Pakistan. A sample of 300 respondents was taken from three randomly selected metropolitan entities (Faisalabad, Lahore and Rawalpindi) of Punjab Province of Pakistan. Information regarding demography, household, locality and other socio-cultural variables related to causes and effects of youth bulge in the state was collected through a well structured interview schedule. Mean, Standard Deviation and frequency distribution were used to check the measure of central tendency. Multiple linear regression was also applied to measure the influence of various independent variables on the response variable.

Keywords: youth bulge, violence, conflict, social unrest, crime, metropolitan entities, mean, standard deviation, multiple linear regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
7199 Planning Politics of Dhaka City: Recent Urbanization and Gentrification

Authors: N. M. Esa Abrar Khan


This paper will describe how a city planning can be abusive and promote gentrification in Dhaka city area in an extreme remorseless way. To our knowledge, Dhaka is enormously overpopulated, and its somewhat unrest political situation and corruption is promoting not only bruised urban growth but also this growth leering people socially and mentally. Due to globalization, whole world is in a rat race of development fiesta and Bangladesh is no longer falling back in this race. Recent political agenda is to develop the country anyhow, whether it is a good development or not. In the name of development, Dhaka city is becoming overwhelmed with flyovers, needless shopping malls and commercial complexes. This drastic urbanization is promoting gentrification. Gentrification is the process of societal change which intimidate the existing group of people from a certain place and encouraging affluent group of people on that place and eventually they take the control of that place. Process of gentrification is more capitalistic rather socially democratic. Architects are indirectly or directly related with this social change and politics is the catalyst of these social alteration. The methodology of this paper was mainly dependent on mass interviews including political leaders and activist’s interviews. Also, photographic analysis, empirical research etc. helped to create this paper. Secondary data were collected from different published and unpublished documents, relevant research articles, and books. From the study, it is clearly can be said that architects and urban designers are promoting social imbalance. The paper tried to suggest how architects and other designers can help to resist gentrification and can remain the social heterogeneity.

Keywords: gentrification, migration, Bangladesh, urban, globalization, hybrid

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7198 Social Entrepreneurship: When Social Innovation Is Driven by Value Creation

Authors: Zeinab Hmama, Majda Alaoui


Social entrepreneurship is seen as a response to social problem. The literature on social entrepreneurship highlights two elements: social value creation and economic value creation. The creation of social value is a process that results from the creation of a value with 'value' for society that leads to a social change. However, theoretical thoughts consider that social value is a multidimensional concept that is difficult to define. Many definitions of social value and social change have been proposed. Most of these definitions use financial and economic value to justify the social value created. As a result, social value is often identified in monetary value. Referring to the economic concept to explain social value is not a false approach but limits the understanding of the creation of social value and reduces exploration of opportunities and analysis of other facets of this value. In this article, we explore the dimensions of social entrepreneurship and try to better understand the concept of social value based on the different visions conveyed in the literature.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social impact, social change, measurement, social value, social problem, value creation

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
7197 Using an Epidemiological Model to Study the Spread of Misinformation during the Black Lives Matter Movement

Authors: Maryam Maleki, Esther Mead, Mohammad Arani, Nitin Agarwal


The proliferation of social media platforms like Twitter has heightened the consequences of the spread of misinformation. To understand and model the spread of misinformation, in this paper, we leveraged the SEIZ (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected, Skeptics) epidemiological model to describe the underlying process that delineates the spread of misinformation on Twitter. Compared to the other epidemiological models, this model produces broader results because it includes the additional Skeptics (Z) compartment, wherein a user may be Exposed to an item of misinformation but not engage in any reaction to it, and the additional Exposed (E) compartment, wherein the user may need some time before deciding to spread a misinformation item. We analyzed misinformation regarding the unrest in Washington, D.C. in the month of March 2020, which was propagated by the use of the #DCblackout hashtag by different users across the U.S. on Twitter. Our analysis shows that misinformation can be modeled using the concept of epidemiology. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first to attempt to apply the SEIZ epidemiological model to the spread of a specific item of misinformation, which is a category distinct from that of rumor and hoax on online social media platforms. Applying a mathematical model can help to understand the trends and dynamics of the spread of misinformation on Twitter and ultimately help to develop techniques to quickly identify and control it.

Keywords: Black Lives Matter, epidemiological model, mathematical modeling, misinformation, SEIZ model, Twitter

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
7196 The Capabilities of New Communication Devices in Development of Informing: Case Study Mobile Functions in Iran

Authors: Mohsen Shakerinejad


Due to the growing momentum of technology, the present age is called age of communication and information. And With Astounding progress of Communication and information tools, current world Is likened to the "global village". That a message can be sent from one point to another point of the world in a Time scale Less than a minute. However, one of the new sociologists -Alain Touraine- in describing the destructive effects of new changes arising from the development of information appliances refers to the "new fields for undemocratic social control And the incidence of acute and unrest social and political tensions", Yet, in this era That With the advancement of the industry, the life of people has been industrial too, quickly and accurately Data Transfer, Causes Blowing new life in the Body of Society And according to the features of each society and the progress of science and technology, Various tools should be used. One of these communication tools is Mobile. Cellular phone As Communication and telecommunication revolution in recent years, Has had a great influence on the individual and collective life of societies. This powerful communication tool Have had an Undeniable effect, On all aspects of life, including social, economic, cultural, scientific, etc. so that Ignoring It in Design, Implementation and enforcement of any system is not wise. Nowadays knowledge and information are one of the most important aspects of human life. Therefore, in this article, it has been tried to introduce mobile potentials in receive and transmit News and Information. As it follows, among the numerous capabilities of current mobile phones features such as sending text, photography, sound recording, filming, and Internet connectivity could indicate the potential of this medium of communication in the process of sending and receiving information. So that nowadays, mobile journalism as an important component of citizen journalism Has a unique role in information dissemination.

Keywords: mobile, informing, receiving information, mobile journalism, citizen journalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
7195 The Impact of Political Events on National Archaeological Heritage and Tourism Industry: Study Case of Egypt after January 25th, 2011

Authors: Sabry A. El Azazy


Tourism plays an essential role in supporting the National Economy. Egypt was ranked as one of the most attractive touristic destinations worldwide. Tourism as a service sector affects political events and unstable conditions. Within the revolution of January 25th, 2011, tourism became below standards, and the archeological heritage sites were subject to threat. Because of the political tension and social instability, Egypt's tourism sector has drastically dropped. Currently, Egypt is working on overcoming the crisis caused by political unrest. However, it is expected to take a long time to get back to where it was, especially in terms of regaining the confidence of travelers in the country's ability to guarantee and maintain security and stability. Recently, many great projects have been done, such as; New Administrative Cairo Capital, New Suez Canal logistic project, New City of Al Alamin, New Grand Egyptian Museum, as well as other great projects that reflect positively on the tourism industry and archaeological heritage development in Egypt.

Keywords: archaeology, archaeological heritage, attractions, national economy, political events, touristic destinations, tourism industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
7194 To Live on the Margins: A Closer Look at the Social and Economic Situation of Illegal Afghan Migrants in Iran

Authors: Abdullah Mohammadi


Years of prolong war in Afghanistan has led to one of the largest refugee and migrant populations in the contemporary world. During this continuous unrest which began in 1970s (by military coup, Marxist revolution and the subsequent invasion of USSR), over one-third of the population migrated to neighboring countries, especially Pakistan and Iran. After the Soviet Army withdrawal in 1989, a new wave of conflicts emerged between rival Afghan groups and this led to new refugees. Taliban period, also, created its own refugees. During all these years, I.R. of Iran has been one of the main destinations of Afghan refugees and migrants. At first, due to the political situation after Islamic Revolution, Iran government didn’t restrict the entry of Afghan refugees. Those who came first in Iran received ID cards and had access to education and healthcare services. But in 1990s, due to economic and social concerns, Iran’s policy towards Afghan refugees and migrants changed. The government has tried to identify and register Afghans in Iran and limit their access to some services and jobs. Unfortunately, there are few studies on Afghan refugees and migrants’ situation in Iran and we have a dim and vague picture of them. Of the few studies done on this group, none of them focus on the illegal Afghan migrants’ situation in Iran. Here, we tried to study the social and economic aspects of illegal Afghan migrants’ living in Iran. In doing so, we interviewed 24 illegal Afghan migrants in Iran. The method applied for analyzing the data is thematic analysis. For the interviews, we chose family heads (17 men and 7 women). According to the findings, illegal Afghan migrants’ socio-economic situation in Iran is very undesirable. Its main cause is the marginalization of this group which is resulted from government policies towards Afghan migrants. Most of the illegal Afghan migrants work in unskilled and inferior jobs and live in rent houses on the margins of cities and villages. None of them could buy a house or vehicle due to law. Based on their income, they form one of the lowest, unprivileged groups in the society. Socially, they face many problems in their everyday life: social insecurity, harassment and violence, misuse of their situation by police and people, lack of education opportunity, etc. In general, we may conclude that illegal Afghan migrant have little adaptation with Iran’s society. They face severe limitations compared to legal migrants and refugees and have no opportunity for upward social mobility. However, they have managed some strategies to face these difficulties including: seeking financial and emotional helps from family and friendship networks, sending one of the family members to third country (mostly to European countries), establishing self-administered schools for children (schools which are illegal and run by Afghan educated youth).

Keywords: illegal Afghan migrants, marginalization, social insecurity, upward social mobility

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7193 Predictors of Quality of Life among Older Refugees Aging out of Place

Authors: Jonix Owino, Heather Fuller


Refugees flee from their home countries due to civil unrest, war, persecution and migrate to Western countries such as the United States in search of a safe haven. Transitioning into a new society and culture can be challenging, thereby affecting refugee’s quality of life and well-being in the host communities. Moreover, as individuals age, they experience physical, cognitive and socioemotional changes that may impact their quality of life. However, little is known about the predictors of quality of life among aging refugees. It is not clear how quality of life varies by age, that is, between midlife refugees in comparison to their older counterparts. In addition to age, other sociodemographic factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, or country of origin are likely to have differential associations to quality of life, yet research on such variations among older refugees is sparse. Thus the present study seeks to explore factors associated with quality of life by asking the following research questions: 1) Do sociodemographic factors (such as age and gender) predict quality of life among older refugees, 2) Is there an association between social integration and quality of life, and 3) Is there an association between migratory related experiences (such as post migratory adjustments) and quality of life. The present study recruited 90 refugees (primarily originating from Bhutan, Somalia, Burundi, and Sudan) aged 50 or older living in the US. The participants completed a structured questionnaire which assessed factors such as participant’s sociodemographic attributes (e.g., age, gender, length of residence in the US, country of origin, employment, level of education, and marital status), and validated measures of social integration, post-migration living difficulties, and quality of life. Preliminary results suggest sociodemographic variability in quality of life among these refugees. Further analyses will be conducted using hierarchical regression analyses to address the following hypotheses: first, it is hypothesized that quality of life will vary by age and gender such that younger refugees and men will report higher quality of life. Second, it is expected that refugees with greater levels of social integration will also report better quality of life. Finally, post-migration factors such as language barriers and family stress are hypothesized to predict poorer quality of life. Further results will be analyzed, including potential moderating effects of age and gender, and resulting findings will be interpreted and discussed. The findings from this study have potential implications for communities on how they can better support older refugees as well as develop social programs that can effectively cater to their well-being. Conclusions will be drawn and discussed in light of policies related to both aging and refugee migration within the context of the US.

Keywords: aging out of place, migration, older refugees, quality of life, social integration

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7192 Anti-Social Media: Implications of Social Media in the Form of Stressors on Our Daily Lives

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Huma Irfan


This research aims to investigate the role of social media (Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) in our daily lives and its implication on our everyday routine in the form of stressors. The study has been validated by a social media survey with 150 social media users belonging to various age groups. The study explores how social media can make an individual anti-social in his or her life offline. To explain the phenomenon, we have proposed and evaluated a model based on social media usage and stressors including burnout and social overload. Results, through correlation and regression tests, have revealed that with increase in social media usage, social overload and burnout also increases. Evidence for the fact that excessive social media usage causes social overload and burnout has been provided in the study.

Keywords: burnout, emotional exhaustion, fatigue, stressors, social networking, social media, social overload

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
7191 Relationships between Social Entrepreneurship, CSR and Social Innovation: In Theory and Practice

Authors: Krisztina Szegedi, Gyula Fülöp, Ádám Bereczk


The shared goal of social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and social innovation is the advancement of society. The business model of social enterprises is characterized by unique strategies based on the competencies of the entrepreneurs, and is not aimed primarily at the maximization of profits, but rather at carrying out goals for the benefit of society. Corporate social responsibility refers to the active behavior of a company, by which it can create new solutions to meet the needs of society, either on its own or in cooperation with other social stakeholders. The objectives of this article are to define concepts, describe and integrate relevant theoretical models, develop a model and introduce some examples of international practice that can inspire initiatives for social development.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, CSR, social innovation, social entrepreneurship

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
7190 Measures for Conflict Management in Nigerian Higher Institutions

Authors: Oyelade Oluwatoyin


The phenomenon of crises in educational sector in Nigeria has reached its peak in the 21st century. Thus, this paper examines the strategies that can be used in managing the conflict situation in Nigeria Higher Institution of learning. The causes of conflicts such as inadequate funding, insufficient school facilities, poor working condition, poor enrolment, proliferation of higher institutions and unfavourable administrative decision are the major detriment of law and order i.e. strike action, destruction of property and programmes coupled with the student unrest. This write-up will make use of the available information and with the aim of adding value to existing knowledge. It was recommend that steps should be taken by policy maker to prevent scourge of conflicts in tertiary institutions in Nigeria

Keywords: conflicts, higher institutions, management, measures

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7189 Ultra-Poor Revisited: A Case of Southern Thailand

Authors: Sirirat Taneerananon


This paper presents the results of a study of the ultra-poor in the south of Thailand, revisited after 10 years since the original study in 2000. The original study was conducted in four provinces. The first two namely Phatthalung and Nakorn were chosen to represent the Thai Buddhists and the others, Satun and Pattani were chosen to represent the Thai Muslims. For this study, only the results from the three provinces except Pattani are reported as it was difficult and dangerous to conduct fieldwork in Pattani due to the continued unrest in the area since 2005. The objectives of the study are to find out the changes of the poverty situation after 10 years and to see the impacts of the poverty reduction projects implemented by the government on the poor. The research methodology used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The same villages in the four provinces studied in 1999 were again chosen. In each village, five ultra-poor people and heads of the villages were interviewed. The results show that the poverty situation of the ultra-poor groups has not changed much since they lacked the basic key factor to get themselves out of poverty: The ownership of land. Their chronic poverty situation has been passed on from the last generation. In the province of Phatthalung, the ultra-poor have improved in terms of economic situation because of the big increase in the price of rubber. However, the same could not be said for other provinces. Even though the government’s projects have not reduced the poverty directly, the projects have significantly contributed to the improvement of the quality of life of the poor and the people in the areas.

Keywords: poverty, Southern Thailand, ultra-poor, social sustainability

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7188 The Nexus between Socio-Economic Inequalities and the Talibanization in Pakistan’s Federally Administrated Tribal Areas

Authors: Sajjad Ahmed


Since September 2001, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) have become a hotbed of Talibanization. The eruption of Talibanization has caused a catastrophic human and socio-economic cost on Pakistan ever since. The vast majority of extant studies have tended to focus on assessing the current disparaging and destructive condition of FATA as a product of the notorious 'Global War on Terrorism' and its consequences in the form of the Afghan war and the rising socio-political unrest in the region. This, however, is not the case. This study argues that the Talibanization has not happened overnight, the magma of current militant volcanic outburst has been stockpiled since the inception of Pakistan in 1947. The study claims that the Talibanization is the expression of the conflict between the privileged and the underprivileged. The prevailing situation in FATA warrants an in-depth analysis of the problem. By using a qualitative and quantitative research principle, this paper attempts to critically examine 'How is Talibanization in Pakistan connected with the political, social, and economic conditions in FATA?' The critical analyses of this study would assist to policymakers in order to formulate all-encompassing anti-radicalization policies to effectively root out Talibanization in FATA. This research intends to explore the undiscovered root causes of the problem and to suggest remedial measures.

Keywords: exclusion, FATA (Federally Administrated Tribal Areas), inequalities, marginalization, Pakistan, socio-economic, talibanization

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7187 Orientation towards Social Entrepreneurship-Prioritary: Givens for Overcoming Social Inequality

Authors: Revaz Gvelesiani


Nowadays, social inequality increasingly strengthens the trend from business entrepreneurship to social entrepreneurship. It can be said that business entrepreneurs, according to their interests, move towards social entrepreneurship. Effectively operating markets create mechanisms, which lead to 'good' behavior. This is the most important feature of the rationally functioning society. As for the prospects of social entrepreneurship, expansion of entrepreneurship concept at the social arena may lead to such an outcome, when people who are skeptical about business, become more open towards entrepreneurship as a type of activity. This is the way which by means of increased participation in entrepreneurship promotes fair distribution of wealth. Today 'entrepreneurship for all' is still a dream, although the one, which may come true.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, business entrepreneurship, functions of entrepreneurship, social inequality, social interests, interest groups, interest conflicts

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7186 Social Business: Opportunities and Challenges

Authors: Muhammad Mustafizur Rahaman


Social business is a new concept in the field of Business Economics and Capitalist Economy. It has increased the importance in economic and social development in emerging economies. Professor Muhammad Yunus is the founding father of the notion. While conventional business underscores profit maximization as a core business principle, social business calls for addressing social problems at the expense of profit. This underlying principle gives social business advantageous position over conventional businesses to serve those who live at the bottom of the pyramid. It also poses grave challenges to the social business because social business sacrifices profit at one hand and seeks financial sustainability on the other. For the sake of its financial sustainability, the social business might increase the price of its product or service which might lower its social impact, thus, makes the business self-defeating. Therefore, social business should be more innovative in every business process including production, marketing, and management. Otherwise, the business is unlikely to be driven out from the society.

Keywords: innovativeness, self-defeat, social business, social problem

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7185 Determinants of Internationalization of Social Enterprises: A 20-Year Review

Authors: Xiaoqing Li


Social entrepreneurship drives the global movement as social enterprises create best ways to satisfy social needs through connecting international resources. However, what determines social enterprises to internationalize is underexplored. This study aims to answer this question by conducting a systematic review of studies of past 20 years on social enterprises' internationalization. Findings reveal that factors at the individual (entrepreneur), firm, and environment (home and host country) levels determine the degree of social enterprises' internationalization. Future research is challenged by: a. adopting an integrated approach examining the three levels to explain social enterprises' internationalization; b. the different nature of social enterprises from commercial businesses demands scholars to refine and develop appropriate theoretical models to capture the dynamism of social enterprises' internationalization behavior.

Keywords: determinants, entrepreneurship, internationalization, social enterprises

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7184 Social Business Models: When Profits and Impacts Are Not at Odds

Authors: Elisa Pautasso, Matteo Castagno, Michele Osella


In the last decade, the emergence of new social needs as an effect of the economic crisis has stimulated the flourishing of business endeavours characterised by explicit social goals. Social start-ups, social enterprises or Corporate Social Responsibility operations carried out by traditional companies are quintessential examples in this regard. This paper analyses these kinds of initiatives in order to discover the main characteristics of social business models and to provide insights to social entrepreneurs for developing or improving their strategies. The research is conducted through the integration of literature review and case study analysis and, thanks to the recognition of the importance of both profits and social impacts as the key success factors for a social business model, proposes a framework for identifying indicators suitable for measuring the social impacts generated.

Keywords: business model, case study, impacts, social business

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7183 The Effectiveness of Social Story with the Help Smart Board use to Teach Social Skills for Preschool Children with ASD

Authors: Dilay Akgun Giray


Basic insuffiency spaces of ASD diagnosed individuals can be grouped as cognitive and academic characteristics, communicational characteristics, social characteristics and emotional characteristics. Referring to the features that children with ASD exhibit on social events, it is clear they have limitations for several social skills. One of the evidence based practices which has been developed and used for the limitations of definite social skills for individuals with autism is “Social Story Method”. Social stories was designed and applied for the first time in 1991, a special education teacher, in order to acquire social skills and improve the existing social skills for children with ASD. Many studies have revealed the effectiveness of social stories for teaching the social skills to individuals with ASD. In this study, three social skills that the child ,who was diagnosed ASD, is going to need primarily will be studied with smart board. This study is multiple probe across-behavior design which is one of the single subject research models.

Keywords: authism spectrum disorders, social skills, social story, smart board

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7182 Social Structure, Involuntary Relations and Urban Poverty

Authors: Mahmood Niroobakhsh


This article deals with special structuralism approaches to explain a certain kind of social problem. Widespread presence of poverty is a reminder of deep-rooted unresolved problems of social relations. The expected role from an individual for the social system recognizes poverty derived from an interrelated social structure. By the time, enabled to act on his role in the course of social interaction, reintegration of the poor in society may take place. Poverty and housing type are reflections of the underlying social structure, primarily structure’s elements, systemic interrelations, and the overall strength or weakness of that structure. Poverty varies based on social structure in that the stronger structures are less likely to produce poverty.

Keywords: absolute poverty, relative poverty, social structure, urban poverty

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7181 The Journey to Social Entrepreneurship: Profile Analysis of Social Enterprises in Morocco

Authors: Zeinab Hmama


Much recent discourse has highlighted the supporting role of social entrepreneurs in solving social problems. However, the identification of social enterprise’s characteristics in emerging countries has not yet been thoroughly examined. This research seeks to explores the profile of social enterprises in Morocco. In this perspective, we conduct a quantitative study on a sample of 87 social enterprises. This study was undertaken in Morocco based on a quantitative study lead among sample consists of 82 organizations qualified as social enterprises. Therefore, the response rate was 45.12% (37/82). Participants in the study were described on the basis of the following demographic characteristics: Gender, Age, Education Level and field, Entrepreneurial activity age, Legal forms, Line of business.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social enterprise, problem resolution, value creation

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