Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3178

Search results for: market competition

3178 Technological Improvements and the Challenges They Pose to Market Competition in the Philippines

Authors: Isabel L. Guidote

Abstract:

Continued advancements and innovation in the technological arena may yield both beneficial and detrimental effects to market competition in the Philippines. This paper discusses recent developments in the digital sphere which have resulted in improved access to the Philippine market for both producers and consumers. Acknowledging that these developments are likely to disrupt or alter prevailing market conditions, this paper likewise tackles competition theories of harm that may arise as a result of such technological innovations, with reference to cases decided by foreign competition authorities and the European Commission. As the Philippine moves closer to the digital frontier, it is imperative that producers, consumers, and regulators alike be well-equipped to address the risks and challenges posed by these rapid advancements in technology.

Keywords: antitrust, competition law, market competition, technology

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3177 Price Regulation in Domestic Market: Incentives to Collude in the Deregulated Market

Authors: S. Avdasheva, D. Tsytsulina

Abstract:

In many regulated industries over the world price cap as a method of price regulation replaces cost-plus pricing. It is a kind of incentive regulation introduced in order to enhance productive efficiency by strengthening sellers’ incentives for cost reduction as well as incentives for more efficient pricing. However pricing under cap is not neutral for competition in the market. We consider influence on competition on the markets where benchmark for cap is chosen from when sellers are multi-market. We argue that the impact of price cap regulation on market competition depends on the design of cap. More specifically if cap for one (regulated) market depends on the price of the supplier in other (non-regulated) market, there is sub-type of price cap regulation (known in Russian tariff regulation as ‘netback minus’) that enhance incentives to collude in non-regulated market.

Keywords: price regulation, competition, collusion

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3176 Competition in Kenya: The Legal and Institutional Framework and an Appraisal of Key Market Players

Authors: Edwin Njoroge Kimani, Alan M. Munyao

Abstract:

Despite Kenya’s status as a regional economic powerhouse, it struggles with economic shocks that expose the consumers. This, however, seems not to affect major cooperates such as those in the telecommunication and energy sectors. Through their operations, they have not only been able to fluctuate prices at will but also they have been accused of curtailing their rivals from penetrating the market. This study, through literature review of the legal and institutional framework, reports and publications interrogates the law and uncovers the following; i) failings of the legal framework to define market dominance and abuse of such positions, ii) the participation of the state, iii) the inertia of the government to prosecute corporations that abuse their market dominance, iv) the role of the state as a market player and as a regulator through the Competition Authority of Kenya. This study concludes that the market distortion is as a result of weak legal and institutional framework as well as conflict of interest by the government. Not much has been researched in the field of competition law the greater East Africa. This research is intended to form part of the growing research in the field and inform legal reform.

Keywords: competition law, economic power, dominance, Kenya

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3175 Analyzing the Prospects and Challenges in Implementing the Legal Framework for Competition Regulation in Nigeria

Authors: Oluchukwu P. Obioma, Amarachi R. Dike

Abstract:

Competition law promotes market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by undertakings. There is a need for a third party to regulate the market for efficiency and supervision, since, if the market is left unchecked, it may be skewed against the consumers and the economy. Competition law is geared towards the protection of consumers from economic exploitation. It is the duty of every rational government to optimally manage its economic system by employing the best regulatory practices over the market to ensure it functions effectively and efficiently. The Nigerian government has done this by enacting the Federal Competition and Consumer Protection Act, 2018 (FCCPA). This is a comprehensive legal framework with the objective of governing competition issues in Nigeria. Prior to its enactment, the competition law regime in Nigeria was grossly inadequate despite Nigeria being the biggest economy in Africa. This latest legislation has become a bold step in the right direction. This study will use the doctrinal methodology in analyzing the FCCPA, 2018 in order to discover the extent to which the Act will guard against anti-competitive practices and promote competitive markets for the benefit of the Nigerian economy and consumers. The study finds that although the FCCPA, 2018 provides for the regulation of competition in Nigeria, there is a need to effectively tackle the challenges to the implementation of the Act and the development of anti-trust jurisprudence in Nigeria. This study concludes that incisive implementation of competition law in Nigeria will help protect consumers and create a conducive environment for economic growth, development, and protection of consumers from obnoxious competition practices.

Keywords: anti-competitive practices, competition law, competition regulation, consumer protection.

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3174 Competitive Condition and Market Power of Islamic Banks in Indonesia

Authors: Cupian

Abstract:

The expansion of Islamic banking industry seems to emphasize the banking competition in Indonesia where conventional and Islamic banks coexist. In addition, the 2007/2008 global financial crisis and deregulation have the effect on competitive conditions in Islamic banking market. In this context, this study aims at investigating competitive conditions and market power of Islamic banks in Indonesia using firm level data over the period 2006-2013. The study also attempts to identify the factors that represent the power of banking market to better study the degree of competition in this banking industry. Using samples of 27 Islamic commercial banks, the study uses a variety of structural and non-structural measures related to the traditional approach and the new empirical approach of the industrial organization (NEIO). The methodology is based on the set of measures of the competition and market power. The first measure is a set of concentration ratios (CR4) and Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI).The second measures are the Panzar and Ross H-statistic and the Lerner index based on econometric estimations with the aim of evaluating the market structure and measuring its power in terms of price setting. The results of the competition analysis suggest that the Islamic banking markets in Indonesia cannot be characterized by the bipolar cases of either perfect competition or monopoly over 2006-2013. That is, banks earned their revenues operating under conditions of monopolistic competition in that period. Overall, Islamic banks in Indonesia operate in a relatively less competitive environment or in high market power. It is also indicated that Islamic bank that hope to achieve higher returns should operate in the competitive environment.

Keywords: bank competition, islamic banks, market structure, profitability

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3173 Competition Law as a “Must Have” Course in Legal Education

Authors: Noemia Bessa Vilela, Jose Caramelo Gomes

Abstract:

All law student are familiarized, in the first years of their bachelor of laws with the concepts of “public goods” and “ private goods”; often, such legal concept does not exactly match such economic concept, and there are consequences are some sort of confusion being created. The list of goods that follow under each category is not exhaustive, nor are students given proper mechanisms to acknowledge that some legal fields can, on its own, be considered as a “public good”; this is the case of Competition. Legal authors consider that “competition law is used to promote public interest” and, as such, it is a “public good”; in economics theory, Competition is the first public good in a market economy, as the enabler of allocation efficiency. Competition law is the legal tool to support the proper functioning of the market economy and democracy itself. It is fact that Competition Law only applies to economic activities, still, competition is object of private litigation as an integral part of Public Law. Still, regardless of the importance of Competition Law in the economic activity and market regulation, most student complete their studies in law, join the Bar Associations and engage in their professional activities never having been given sufficient tools to deal with the increasing demands of a globalized world. The lack of knowledge of economics, market functioning and the mechanisms at their reach in order to ensure proper realization of their duties as lawyers/ attorneys-at-law would be tackled if Competition Law would be included as part of the curricula of Law Schools. Proper teaching of Competition Law would combine the foundations of Competition Law, doctrine, case solving and Case Law study. Students should to understand and apply the analytical model. Special emphasis should be given to EU Competition Law, namely the TFEU Articles 101 to 106. Damages Directive should also be part of the curriculum. Students must in the first place acquire and master the economic rationale as competition and the world of competition law are the cornerstone of sound and efficient market. The teaching of Competition Law in undergraduate programs in Law would contribute to fulfill the potential of the students who will deal with matters related to consumer protection, economic and commercial law issues both in private practice and as in-house lawyers for companies.

Keywords: higher education, competition law, legal education, law, market economy, industrial economics

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3172 Correlation of the Rate of Imperfect Competition and Profit in Banking Markets

Authors: Jan Cernohorsky

Abstract:

This article aims to assess the evolution of imperfect competition in selected banking markets, in particular in the banking markets of Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia. Another objective is to assess the evolution of the relationship of imperfect competition and profit development in the banking markets. The article first provides an overview of literature on the topic. It then measures the degree of imperfect competition in individual markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The commonly used indicator of total assets was chosen as an indicator. Based on this measurement, the individual banking sectors are categorized into theoretical definitions of the various types of imperfect competition - namely all surveyed banking sectors falling within the theoretical definition of monopolistic competition. Subsequently, using correlation analysis, i.e., the Pearson correlation coefficient, or the Spearman correlation coefficient, the connection between the evolution of imperfect competition and the development of the gross profit on selected banking markets was surveyed. It was found that with the exception of the banking market in Slovenia, where there is a positive correlation; there is no correlation between the evolution of imperfect competition and profit development in the selected markets. This means a recommendation for the regulators that it is not appropriate to rationalize a higher degree of regulation in granting banking licenses on the size of the profits attained in the banking market, as the relationship between the degree of concentration in the banking market and the amount of profit according to our measurements does not exist.

Keywords: bank, banking system, imperfect competition, profitability

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3171 Strategy, Intellectual Capital Disclosure, Competition, and Market Performance

Authors: Agnes Utari Widyaningdyah

Abstract:

This study investigates the relationship between strategy, intellectual capital (IC) disclosure, and the firm’s performance by considering business competition as a moderating variable. The secondary sectors manufacturing firms in the Jakarta Stock Industrial Classification as sample because this group represents a knowledge-intensive firm according to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) criteria. Using path analysis, this study reveals that there is a significant influence of strategy toward IC disclosure. Firms with differentiation strategy tend to withhold its strategic information included IC because of afraid in losing their competitive advantage. The results also indicate that firms are more likely to withhold information about IC if they perceive that current or potential competition is strong. However, firms should consider that IC disclosure is a positive signal to the investor.

Keywords: strategy, IC disclosure, market performance, business competition

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3170 The Effects of Techno-Economic Paradigm on Social Evolution

Authors: Derya Güler Aydin, Bahar Araz Takay

Abstract:

Two different forms of competition theories can be distinguished: Those theories that emphasize the equilibrating forces created by competition, and those emphasizing the disequilibrating forces. This difference can be attributed, among other things, to the differences regarding the functioning of the market economy; that is to say, the basic problem here is whether competition should be understood as a static state or a dynamic process. This study aims to analyze the dynamic competition theories by K. Marx and J. A. Schumpeter and neo- Schumperians all of which focus on the dynamic role played by competition through creating disequilibria, endogenous structural change and social transformation as a distinguishing characteristic of the market system. With this aim, in the first section, after examining the static, neoclassical competition theory, both Marx‟s theory, which is based on profit rate differentials, and Schumpeter‟s theory, which is based on the notion of “creative destruction”, will be discussed. In the second section, the long-term fluctuations, based on creative gales of destruction, the concept will be examined under the framework of techno-economic paradigm. It is argued that the dynamic, even disequilibrium tendencies created by the competition process should be regarded in both understanding the working of capitalism and social transformation of the system.

Keywords: competition, techno-enomic paradigm, Schumpeter, social evolution

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3169 Maximisation of Consumer Welfare in the Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights in Competition Guidelines: The Malaysian Experience

Authors: Ida Madieha Abdul Ghani Azmi, Heng Gee Lim, Adlan Abdul Razak, Nasaruddin Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

The objective of competition law is to maximise consumer welfare through the regulation of anti-competitive behaviour that results in the distortion of the market. Intellectual property law also seeks to enhance consumer welfare in the long run by encouraging the development of useful devices and processes. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, the IP owners behave in such a way that makes it difficult for rival companies to sell substitute products and technology in the market. Intellectual property owners may also reach a dominant position in the market such that they are able to dictate unfair terms and conditions on other market players. Among the two major categories of anti-competitive behavior is the use of horizontal and vertical agreement to constrain effective competition and abuse of dominant position. As a result, many countries have regulated the conduct of the IP owners that are considered as anti-competitive including the US, Canada, and Singapore. This paper visits the proposed IP Guidelines recently drafted by the Malaysian Competition Commission and investigates to what extent it resolves most of the anti-competitive behavior of the IP owners. The paper concludes by suggesting some of the rules that could be prescribed by the Competition Commission in order to maintain the relevancy of competition law as the main check against the abuse of rights by the intellectual property owners.

Keywords: abuse of dominant position, consumer welfare, intellectual property rights, vertical and horizontal agreements

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3168 Market Competition and the Adoption of Clean Technology: Evidence from the Taxi Industry

Authors: Raúl Bajo-Buenestado

Abstract:

This paper studies the impact of the intensity of market competition on firms' willingness to adopt green technologies —which has become particularly relevant in the light of the debate on whether competition policies should be relaxed to achieve certain environmental targets. We exploit the staggered rollout of different rail-hailing platforms (most notably, Uber) across different metropolitan areas in Spain as a natural experiment that provides time and city-specific exogenous variation in the intensity of competition to study the impact on taxi drivers' decisions to purchase “green” or “dirty” vehicles. It was shown that the entry of these platforms significantly increased the takeout of green vehicles among professional drivers in incumbent (dominant) conventional taxi companies and decreased that of dirty vehicles. The exact opposite effect is observed in the cities where these platforms were extremely unlikely to enter. Back of the envelope calculations suggest that the entry of Uber is associated with an extra green vehicle purchase in every four among taxi drivers, resulting in a substantial drop in the level of emissions from the taxi fleet —still mostly dominated diesel vehicles.

Keywords: technological change, green technology adoption, market competition, diffusion of technology, environmental externalities

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3167 Hydraulic Resources Management under Imperfect Competition with Thermal Plants in the Wholesale Electricity Market

Authors: Abdessalem Abbassi, Ahlem Dakhlaoui, Lota D. Tamini

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze infinite discrete-time games between hydraulic and thermal power operators in the wholesale electricity market under Cournot competition. We consider a deregulated electrical industry where certain demand is satisfied by hydraulic and thermal technologies. The hydraulic operator decides the production in each season of each period that maximizes the sum of expected profits from power generation with respect to the stochastic dynamic constraint on the water stored in the dam, the environmental constraint and the non-negative output constraint. In contrast, the thermal plant is operated with quadratic cost function, with respect to the capacity production constraint and the non-negativity output constraint. We show that under imperfect competition, the hydraulic operator has a strategic storage of water in the peak season. Then, we quantify the strategic inter-annual and intra-annual water transfer and compare the numerical results. Finally, we show that the thermal operator can restrict the hydraulic output without compensation.

Keywords: asymmetric risk aversion, electricity wholesale market, hydropower dams, imperfect competition

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3166 Future of the Supply Chain Management

Authors: Mehmet Şimşek

Abstract:

In the rapidly changing market conditions, it is getting harder to survive without adapting new abilities. Technology and globalization have enabled foreign producers to enter into national markets, even local ones. For this reason there is now big competition among production companies for market share. Furthermore, competition has provided customer with broad range of options to choose from. To be able to survive in this environment, companies need to produce at low price and at high quality. The best way to succeed this is the efficient use of supply chain management that has started to get shaped by the needs of customers and the environment.

Keywords: cycle time, logistics, outsourcing, production, supply chain

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3165 Bank Competition: On the Relationship with Revenue Diversification and Funding Strategy from Selected ASEAN Countries

Authors: Oktofa Y. Sudrajad, Didier V. Caillie

Abstract:

Association of Southeast Asian Countries Nations (ASEAN) is moving forward to the next level of regional integration by the initiation of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) which is already started in 2015, 8 years after its declaration for the creation of AEC in 2007. This commitment imposes financial integration in the region is one of the main agenda which will be achieved until 2025. Therefore, the commitment to financial integration including banking integration will bring new landscape in the competition and business model in this region. This study investigates the effect of competition on bank business model using a sample of 324 banks from seven members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). We use market power approach and Boone indicator as competition measures, while income diversification and bank funding strategies are employed as bank business model representation. Moreover, we also evaluate bank business model based by grouping the banks based on the main banking characteristics. We use unbalanced bank-specific annual panel data over the period of 2003 – 2015. Our empirical analysis shows that the banking industries in ASEAN countries adapt their business model by increasing non-interest income proportion due to the level of competition increase in the sector.

Keywords: bank business model, banking competition, Boone indicator, market power

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3164 The Market Structure Simulation of Heterogenous Firms

Authors: Arunas Burinskas, Manuela Tvaronavičienė

Abstract:

Although the new trade theories, unlike the theories of an industrial organisation, see the structure of the market and competition between enterprises through their heterogeneity according to various parameters, they do not pay any particular attention to the analysis of the market structure and its development. In this article, although we relied mainly on models developed by the scholars of new trade theory, we proposed a different approach. In our simulation model, we model market demand according to normal distribution function, while on the supply side (as it is in the new trade theory models), productivity is modeled with the Pareto distribution function. The results of the simulation show that companies with higher productivity (lower marginal costs) do not pass on all the benefits of such economies to buyers. However, even with higher marginal costs, firms can choose to offer higher value-added goods to stay in the market. In general, the structure of the market is formed quickly enough and depends on the skills available to firms.

Keywords: market, structure, simulation, heterogenous firms

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3163 On Increase and Development Prospects of Competitiveness of Georgia’s Transport-Logistical System on the Contemporary Stage

Authors: Ketevan Goletiani

Abstract:

MMultimodal transport is Europe-Asia’s rational decision of the XXI century. Success prerequisite of this form of cargo carriage is not technologic decision, but the comprehensive attitude towards it. Integration of the transport industry must refer to both technical and organizational-economic fields. Support of the multimodal’s must be the priority of the transport policy in different organizations of Europe and Asia. The method of approach to the transport as a unified system has been changed to a certain extent in the market conditions. Nowadays the competition between the different kinds of transport is not to be considered as a competition of one kind of transport towards another one, but is to be considered as a stimulator of the transport development. Basically, transport logistic, as the recent methodology and organization of the rationally flow of cargos at the specialized logistic centres during their procession provides effective rise of such flow of cargos, decreases non-operating expenses and gives the opportunity to the transport companies to come along with the time, to meet market clients’ requirements. It is apparent that the advanced transport-forwarding and logistic firms are being analized.

Keywords: transport systems, multimodal transport, competition, transport logistics

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3162 Competition, Performance and Ethnicity: Explaining Corruption in Ghana and Kenya

Authors: Roxanne J. Kovacs

Abstract:

This paper shows that political corruption in Ghana and Kenya does not, as is assumed by a considerable part of the academic literature, depend on the level of party competition as such, but rather on the kinds of issues that parties compete about. Party competition in Ghana revolves around party performance, which gives political leaders a strong incentive to control corruption. In contrast, party competition in Kenya revolves around ethnic identities, which directly reduces competition based on candidate quality and therefore fosters corruption.

Keywords: corruption, electoral competition, Kenya, Ghana

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3161 A Study on Pre and Post Competitive State Anxiety among the Athletes

Authors: Vinay Choudhary, Ibakordor Patlong

Abstract:

This study investigates and evaluates pre and post competitive anxiety, self-confidence, and performance of the athletes. The Cognitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 was administered to collect data from 73 athletes, both men, and women, before and after the competition, who participated in the Reliance Foundation Youth Sports (RFYS)-Athletics, held at Gachibowli Stadium, Hyderabad. A paired t-test was used to find the significant difference between the pre and post-competition. Results showed that the levels of cognitive state anxiety before the competition was low as compared after the competition and the levels of somatic state anxiety before the competition was high as compared after the competition whereas the levels of self-confidence before the competition was high as compared after the competition. This study concludes that the levels of cognitive state anxiety increases after the competition as athletes could not perform according to the performance expectations, on the contrary, the levels of somatic anxiety decrease as there was no pressure of performance on the athletes after the competition and the levels of self-confidence decreases after the competition as athletes could not reach their desired performance levels.

Keywords: anxiety, athletes, pre and post, CSAI-2, self-confidence, performance

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3160 Relationship between Creative Market Actor and Traditional Market Vendor toward a Sustainable Market Model in Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Galuh Pramesti

Abstract:

In Indonesia, the rise of the middle class and consumer purchasing power has created a trend of shifting the traditional into a modern retail market. Development of the creative economy as an impact of the global economy has invaded the traditional market, due to low rents and minimum innovation, raising the issue of sustainability and urban resilience for survival of the traditional market. The study aims to understand the current market conditions by examining the challenges, resiliency, and identify the relationship between the traditional market and creative market. Using a single-case study approach as the research methodology, Santa Market has been chosen as the case study. It is a pilot project of collaboration between a traditional market and creative economy in Jakarta, Indonesia. The research was conducted as a qualitative study through in-depth interviews with the market vendors and the market management, besides a desk-based study of the leasing data and spatial analysis. The findings indicate traffic fluctuation as the main challenge. It is related to the tenant’s presence, rental fluctuation, gentrification, infrastructure, and market competition. Thus, the findings on resilience show a different response for creative and traditional markets. The traditional market’s response remained stable with minimum innovation, whereas the creative market relies on technological development. Regarding the relationship, supply and demand have become the main relationship occurring in Santa Market. It is then developed into the context of society and regulation. The conclusion provides recommendations for more solid regulation to protect the market tenants from stakeholder interests that can disrupt market viability, and a critical discussion on the concept of collaboration between traditional and creative markets. There is also a suggestion for further study on relation with the surroundings, to create a holistic study on how the collaboration can work well in the traditional market.

Keywords: creative economy, market sustainability, traditional market, urban resilience

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3159 Comparative Analysis between Thailand and the United States of a Wholesale Exemption for Vertical Restraint Regarding Intellectual Property Licensing

Authors: Sanpetchuda Krutkrua, Suphawatchara Malanond

Abstract:

Competition law is not a new thing in Thailand. Thailand first passed the first competition law during the Second World War in order to stop business operator monopolizing food and basic living supplies. The competition law in Thailand has been amended several times during the past eighty years in order to make it suitable for the current economic and social condition. In 2017, Thailand enacted the current Trade Competition Act of B.E. 2560, which contain several changes to the regime in order to enhance a prevention of collusive practices and monopolization through both vertical restraints and horizontal restraints. Section 56 of the Act provides exemptions for the vertical relationship; i.e., the arrangement in form of complementary relationship, between business operators, franchising agreements between franchisor and franchisee, and licensing agreement between licensor and licensee. The key is that such agreements must not be excessive, create monopolization or attempt to monopolize, or cause any impacts the consumers regarding price, quality, quantity of the goods. The goal of the paper is to explore the extent of the exemption under Section 56 and its sequential regulations regarding vertical trade restraints in the case intellectual property licensing. The research will be conducted in form of a comparative analysis on exemptions for collusive practices under the United States Antitrust law and the Thai Competition Act of B.E. 2560. The United Antitrust law, fairly similar to the Thai Competition Act of B.E. 2561, views the intellectual property licensing to have pro-competitive benefits to the market as long as the intellectual property licensing agreement does not harm the competition amongst the business operators that could have or would have been competitors. The United States Antitrust law identifies the relationship between the parties of the agreement whether such agreement is horizontal or vertical or both. Even though the nature of licensing agreements is primarily vertical, the relationship between licensor and licensees can also be horizontal if they could have been potential competitors in the market as well. The United States Antitrust law frowns upon, if not prohibits, the horizontal restraints regarding the intellectual property licensing but does not impose the same restrictions on the vertical trade restraints regarding intellectual property licensing.

Keywords: antitrust, competition law, vertical restraint, intellectual property, intellectual property licensing, comparative law

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3158 Measurement of Innovation Performance

Authors: M. Chobotová, Ž. Rylková

Abstract:

Time full of changes which is associated with globalization, tougher competition, changes in the structures of markets and economic downturn, that all force companies to think about their competitive advantages. These changes can bring the company a competitive advantage and that can help improve competitive position in the market. Policy of the European Union is focused on the fast growing innovative companies which quickly respond to market demands and consequently increase its competitiveness. To meet those objectives companies need the right conditions and support of their state.

Keywords: innovation, performance, measurements metrics, indices

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3157 Assessing the Corporate Identity of Malaysia Universities in the East Coast Region with the Market Conditions in Ensuring Self-Sustainability: A Study on Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Authors: Suffian Hadi Ayub, Mohammad Rezal Hamzah, Nor Hafizah Abdullah, Sharipah Nur Mursalina Syed Azmy, Hishamuddin Salim

Abstract:

The liberalisation of the education industry has exposed the institute of higher learning (IHL) in Malaysia to the financial challenges. Without good financial standing, public institution will rely on the government funding. Ostensibly, this contradicts with the government’s aspiration to make universities self-sufficient. With stiff competition from private institutes of higher learning, IHL need to be prepared at the forefront level. The corporate identity itself is the entrance to the world of higher learning and it is in this uniqueness, it will be able to distinguish itself from competitors. This paper examined the perception of the stakeholders at one of the public universities in the east coast region in Malaysia on the perceived reputation and how the university communicate its preparedness for self-sustainability through corporate identity. The findings indicated while the stakeholders embraced the challenges in facing the stiff competition and struggling market conditions, most of them felt the university should put more efforts in mobilising the corporate identity to its constituencies.

Keywords: communication, corporate identity, market conditions, universities

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3156 Price Gouging in Time of Covid-19 Pandemic: When National Competition Agencies are Weak Institutions that Exacerbate the Effects of Exploitative Economic Behaviour

Authors: Cesar Leines

Abstract:

The social effects of the pandemic are significant and diverse, most of those effects have widened the gap of economic inequality. Without a doubt, each country faces difficulties associated with the strengths and weaknesses of its own institutions that can address these causes and consequences. Around the world, pricing practices that have no connection to production costs have been used extensively in numerous markets beyond those relating to the supply of essential goods and services, and although it is not unlawful to adjust pricing considering the increased demand of certain products, shortages and disruption of supply chains, illegitimate pricing practices may arise and these tend to transfer wealth from consumers to producers that affect the purchasing power of the former, making people worse off. High prices with no objective justification indicate a poor state of the competitive process in any market and the impact of those underlying competition issues leading to inefficiency is increased when national competition agencies are weak and ineffective in enforcing competition in law and policy. It has been observed that in those countries where competition authorities are perceived as weak or ineffective, price increases of a wide range of products and services were more significant during the pandemic than those price increases observed in countries where the perception of the effectiveness of the competition agency is high. When a perception is created of a highly effective competition authority, one which enforces competition law and its non-enforcement activities result in the fulfillment of its substantive functions of protecting competition as the means to create efficient markets, the price rise observed in markets under its jurisdiction is low. A case study focused on the effectiveness of the national competition agency in Mexico (COFECE) points to institutional weakness as one of the causes leading to excessive pricing. There are many factors that contribute to its low effectiveness and which, in turn, have led to a very significant price hike, potentiated by the pandemic. This paper contributes to the discussion of these factors and proposes different steps that overall help COFECE or any other competition agency to increase the perception of effectiveness for the benefit of the consumers.

Keywords: agency effectiveness, competition, institutional weakness, price gouging

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3155 Practical Strategies: Challenges in Transforming Theoretical Know-How into Practice for Offering Value-Added Amenities and Services

Authors: Mohammad Ayub Khan

Abstract:

With increased market segmentation and competition in the hotel industry, a hotel’s ability to constantly renovate its services and amenities is a business practice that can be termed as an attitude that is not only flexible but also malleable as a result of which a hotel/property is continually poised to face the ever-changing nature of the hospitality industry and upgrades that keep the hotel or brand in competition with current competitors. One such challenge is to competitively and creatively market value-added amenities, upgraded technology, and marketing all of these as a package to not only stay relevant in the market but also to retain and enhance revenues to ensure the future financial health of a hotel. This delicate balance between staying relevant and financially viable is a crucial challenge that this poster will explore, analyze, and present by specifically looking at the ability of a hotel/brand to effectively translate its theoretical need and practice of constantly staying updated, including strategically renovating, upgrading, modifying its services, into a tangible business practice. In what ways do hotels face this challenge? In what areas of the hotel is this business concept/action most effective and profitable are just some questions that this paper will attempt to answer.

Keywords: hospitality theory, renovations, value-added amenities, strategic planning

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3154 European Hinterland and Foreland: Impact of Accessibility, Connectivity, Inter-Port Competition on Containerization

Authors: Dial Tassadit Rania, Figueiredo De Oliveira Gabriel

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the relationship between ports and their hinterland and foreland environments and the competitive relationship between the ports themselves. These two environments are changing, evolving and introducing new challenges for commercial and economic development at the regional, national and international levels. Because of the rise of the containerization phenomenon, shipping costs and port handling costs have considerably decreased due to economies of scale. The volume of maritime trade has increased substantially and the markets served by the ports have expanded. On these bases, overlapping hinterlands can give rise to the phenomenon of competition between ports. Our main contribution comparing to the existing literature on this issue, is to build a set of hinterland, foreland and competition indicators. Using these indicators? we investigate the effect of hinterland accessibility, foreland connectivity and inter-ports competition on containerized traffic of Europeans ports. For this, we have a 10-year panel database from 2004 to 2014. Our hinterland indicators are given by two indicators of accessibility; they describe the market potential of a port and are calculated using information on population and wealth (GDP). We then calculate population and wealth for different neighborhoods within a distance from a port ranging from 100 to 1000km. For the foreland, we produce two indicators: port connectivity and number of partners for each port. Finally, we compute the two indicators of inter-port competition and a market concentration indicator (Hirshmann-Herfindhal) for different neighborhood-distances around the port. We then apply a fixed-effect model to test the relationship above. Again, with a fixed effects model, we do a sensitivity analysis for each of these indicators to support the results obtained. The econometric results of the general model given by the regression of the accessibility indicators, the LSCI for port i, and the inter-port competition indicator on the containerized traffic of European ports show a positive and significant effect for accessibility to wealth and not to the population. The results are positive and significant for the two indicators of connectivity and competition as well. One of the main results of this research is that the port development given here by the increase of its containerized traffic is strongly related to the development of its hinterland and foreland environment. In addition, it is the market potential, given by the wealth of the hinterland that has an impact on the containerized traffic of a port. However, accessibility to a large population pool is not important for understanding the dynamics of containerized port traffic. Furthermore, in order to continue to develop, a port must penetrate its hinterland at a deep level exceeding 100 km around the port and seek markets beyond this perimeter. The port authorities could focus their marketing efforts on the immediate hinterland, which can, as the results shows, not be captive and thus engage new approaches of port governance to make it more attractive.

Keywords: accessibility, connectivity, European containerization, European hinterland and foreland, inter-port competition

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3153 An Exemption for Vertical Restraint Regarding Intellectual Property Licensing: Case Study of Thailand

Authors: Sanpetchuda Krutkrua, Suphawatchara Malanond

Abstract:

Throughout the history of Antitrust regimes in Thailand, Thailand has been trying to prevent collusive practices in the market through the amendments of the Trade Competition Act, and Thailand just passed the current Trade Competition Act of B.E. 2560 in 2017 of which several aspects of the law were amended in order to enhance the prevention of collusive outcome through both vertical trade restraints and horizontal trade restraints. An agreement is vertical when it involves arrangements that are in a complementary relationship. In Section 55 of the Act, any agreements to reduce the price, quantity, or quality of the goods, agreements to assign a sole retailer for the goods, and the agreement to impose conditions on the retailers are not allowed. However, Section 56 provides exemptions for the vertical relationship between the business operators, the franchise agreement, and the licensing agreement as long as such agreements do not surpass the necessity to do so, create monopolization, or affect the consumers in terms of price, quality, quantity, or options. The paper aims to explore the extent of the exemption under Section 56 and sequential regulations in terms of the vertical trade restraints regarding intellectual property licensing, and, at the same time, compare with the exemptions under the European Union competition law, and Singapore competition law. Comparative legal analysis with leading jurisdiction will illustrate the application of the newly enacted Thai Competition Act in terms of its enforcement in the global impact of IP rights, which, by nature are de jure or de facto international protection.

Keywords: antitrust, competition law, vertical restraint, intellectual property, IP licensing

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3152 The Analysis of Underground Economy Transaction Existence of Junk Night Market (JNM) in Malang City

Authors: Sebastiana Viphindratin, Silvi Asna

Abstract:

The under ground economy phenomenon is exist in Indonesia. There are some factors which affect the existence this underground economy activity. One of them is a hierarchy power structure that handles the underground economy existence. The example of the existence of underground economy is the occurring informal market in Indonesia. Malang city is one of the city which has this kind of market. Junk night market (JNM) as an underground economy activity is arising in that city. The JNM is located in Gatot Subroto Sidewalk Street. The JNM is a illegal market which sell thrift, antique, imitation and black market goods. The JNM is interesting topic to be discussed, because this market is running in long time without any policy from local government. The JNM activity has their own “power” that run the market rules. Thus, it is important to analyze how the existence and power structure of JNM actors community are in Malang city. This research using qualitative method with phenomenological approach where we try to understand the phenomenon and related actors deeply. The aim of this research is to know the existence and power structure of JNM actors community in Malang. In JNM, there is no any entry barriers and tax charge from Malang government itself. Price competition also occurs because the buyer can do a bargain with the seller. In maintaining buyer loyalty, the JNM actors also do pre-order system. Even though, this market is an illegal market but the JNM actors also give the goods guarantee (without legal contract) as a formal market. In JNM actor’s community, there is no hierarchy and formal power structure. The role in JNM is managed by informal leaders who come up from the trading activity problems that are sidewalk and parking area dividing. Therefore, can be concluded that even the JNM is illegal market but it can survive with natural market pattern. In JNM development, JNM has positive and negative impact for Malang city. The positive impact of JNM is this market can open a new employment but the negative impact is there is no tax income from that market. Therefore, suggested that the government of Malang city should manage and give appropriate policies in this case.

Keywords: junk night market (JNM), Malang city, underground economy, illegal

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3151 Market-Power, Stability, and Risk-Taking: An Analysis Surrounding the Riba-Free Banking

Authors: Louati Salma, Louhichi Awatef, Boujelbene Younes

Abstract:

Analysis of the trade-off between competition and financial stability has been at the center of academic and policy debate for over two decades and especially since the 2007-2008 global financial crises. We use information on 10 OIC countries from 2005 to 2014 to investigate the influence of bank competition on individual bank stability and risk-taking. Alternatively, we explore whether the quality of prudential regulation may affect the nexus between competition and banking stability/risk-taking. We provide a particular attention to the Islamic banking system which principally involves with the Riba-free instruments as compared to the conventional interest-based system. We first run a dynamic panel regression (GMM), and then we apply a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) methodology to compare both banking business models.

Keywords: Lerner index, Islamic banks, non-performing loans, prudential regulations, z-score

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
3150 Supply Chain Control and Inventory Management in Garment Industry

Authors: Nisa Nur Duman, Sümeyya Kiliç

Abstract:

In global competition conditions, survival of the plants by obtaining competitive advantage relies on the effective usage of existing sources. By this way, the plants can minimize their costs without losing their quality. They also take advantage took advantage on their competitors and enlarge customer portfolio by increasing profit margins. Changing structure of market and customer demands also change the structure of the competition between companies. Furthermore, competition is not only between the companies. By this manner, supply chain and supply chain management get importance by considering company performances. Companies that want to survive, search the ways of decreasing costs and the ways of meeting customer expectations. One of the important tools for reaching these goals is inventory managemet. The best inventory management system is meeting the demands by considering plant goals.

Keywords: Supply chain, inventory management, apparel sector, garment industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
3149 Jurisdictional Issues between Competition Law and Data Protection Law in Protection of Privacy of Online Consumers

Authors: Pankhudi Khandelwal

Abstract:

The revenue models of digital giants such as Facebook and Google, use targeted advertising for revenues. Such a model requires huge amounts of consumer data. While the data protection law deals with the protection of personal data, however, this data is acquired by the companies on the basis of consent, performance of a contract, or legitimate interests. This paper analyses the role that competition law can play in evading these loopholes for the protection of data and privacy of online consumers. Digital markets have certain distinctive features such as network effects and feedback loop, which gives incumbents of these markets a first-mover advantage. This creates a situation where the winner takes it all, thus creating entry barriers and concentration in the market. It has been also seen that this dominant position is then used by the undertakings for leveraging in other markets. This can be harmful to the consumers in form of less privacy, less choice, and stifling innovation, as seen in the cases of Facebook Cambridge Analytica, Google Shopping, and Google Android. Therefore, the article aims to provide a legal framework wherein the data protection law and competition law can come together to provide a balance in regulating digital markets. The issue has become more relevant in light of the Facebook decision by German competition authority, where it was held that Facebook had abused its dominant position by not complying with data protection rules, which constituted an exploitative practice. The paper looks into the jurisdictional boundaries that the data protection and competition authorities can work from and suggests ex ante regulation through data protection law and ex post regulation through competition law. It further suggests a change in the consumer welfare standard where harm to privacy should be considered as an indicator of low quality.

Keywords: data protection, dominance, ex ante regulation, ex post regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 45