Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 82

Search results for: Syria

82 Responsibility to Protect in Practice: Libya and Syria

Authors: Guram Esakia, Giorgi Goguadze


The following paper is written due to overview the concept of R2P, this new dimension in International Relations field. Paper contains the general description of previously mentioned concept, its advantages and disadvantages. We also compare each other R2P and“humanitarian intervention“, trying to make clear division between these two approaches in conflict solution. There is also discussed R2P in real action, successful one in Libya and yet failed in Syria. Essay doesn’t claim to be the part of scientific chain and is based only on personal subjection as well on information gathered from various scholars and UN resolutions.

Keywords: the concept of R2P, humanitarian intervention, Libya, Syria

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81 The Orthodox Church's Heritage in Syria and the Journey of Syriac Music between Originality and Renewal

Authors: Marilyn Maksoud


This article discusses the heritage of the Orthodox Church, additionally it describes the origins, composition, and characteristics of the Orthodox Christian cultural identity in Syria and the liturgical traditions of the Church in the literature. Also, the eight tunes and their original use, the historical and anthropological importance of the most important Orthodox churches in Syria, were discussed. Finally, the role and works of the composer Nuri Iskandar in reviving Christian music were mentioned. "Cultural dialogue" methodology based on the recognition of equal cultures, practical and bibliographic sources of books and articles in many languages German, French, Arabic, and English, in addition to my practical experience in chanting the Syriac Aramaic language in some churches in Syria and Russia. This study concluded that the roots of the characteristics of Orthodox Christian culture in Syria go back to the original eight Syriac melodies. Additionally, The originality of Major and Minor scales were tracked as an extension of Syriac Christian melodies originated thousands of years ago in Syrian land.

Keywords: church culture in Syria, Syriac orthodox music, Syriac orthodox church, Aramaic semitic language, Syriac, Syrian church melodies

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
80 Order vs. Justice: The Cases of Libya and Syria from the Perspective of the English School Theory

Authors: A. Gün Güneş


This study aims to explicate the functionality of the responsibility to protect (R2P) in terms of order and justice within the context of the main traditions of the English School theory. The conflicts in Libya and Syria and the response of the international society to these crises are analyzed in the pluralism-solidarism dichotomy of the English School. In this regard, the intervention under R2P in Libya exemplifies the solidaristic side emphasizing justice, while the non-intervention in Syria exemplifies the pluralistic side emphasizing order. This study discusses the cases of Libya and Syria on the basis of Great Powers.

Keywords: English school theory, international society, order, justice, responsibility to protect

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79 A Faunistic Comparative Study of Families Hesperiidae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) of Syrian Arab Republic and Republic of Armenia

Authors: N. Zarikian


Comparative analysis of the fauna of two families of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) – Hesperiidae and Nymphalidae were carried out. In general, 122 species of the families are recorded. among these 33 species belong to Hesperiidae and 89 to Nymphalidae. The numbers by countries are as follows: 72 species are found in Syria (including 24 Hesperiidae and 48 Nymphalidae) and 97 in Armenia (26 and 71 species, respectively). Two species of Hesperiidae are reported for Syrian fauna for the first time and one species is newly recorded for Armenia. From the species above mentioned 38 are common both for Syria and Armenia. For estimation of the similarity of faunas studied were used the Jaccard index. By families the index is rather different, consisting for Hesperiidae 0.5151 and for Nymphalidae 0.337.

Keywords: Armenia, fauna, Hesperiidae, Nymphalidae, (Rhopalocera: Lepidoptera), Syria

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78 From Arab Spring to Arabian Nightmare: State Failure and Identity in the Middle East

Authors: Kenneth Christie


Syria and Iraq are Arabian nightmares at the local, the regional and global levels in terms of human security and the protection of the vulnerable. Wracked by civil war, ethnic and political violence in the last 5 years in the case of Syria and 13 years in the case of Iraq, the body count now is staggering; the humanitarian crisis continues and there appears no end to this. A crisis that has claimed the lives of 200,000 people so far in Syria, sparked a humanitarian catastrophe fuelled violent Islamic extremism and exposed serious splits in the international community who appear to have no consensus. The international community’s failure to act is simply another sign of the desperate situation which has developed over conflicts that appears unsolvable in the immediate future and may be intractable in the long range. Three things are really at stake I’m going to argue in these continuing crises and how it will affect the human security dimensions of the conflict. Firstly, the protection of vulnerable individuals and civilians in the war, 2ndly, the dire consequences for regional instability as a result and thirdly the risks for minority and ethnic identities who are caught up in this, within and across these volatile borders. This paper will examine these elements and the consequences of the conflict in terms of human security, migration and development.

Keywords: human security, migration, Syria and Iraq, conflict and development

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77 Responsibility to Protect and State Sovereignty: The Case of Syria

Authors: Renu Kumari


State sovereignty refers to the ability and power of a state to be independent and not to have any interference of external actors in its internal affairs. This phenomenon has been accepted by International Law, which gives rights to the state to maintain its autonomy and territorial integrity without the interference of other actors. In of 1980’s and 1990’s the world has witnessed the worst case of human rights violence for instance, Rwanda genocide, the conflict in former Yugoslavia, Kosovo, Burundi, and Chad so and so forth. Though human rights violence is not a new phenomenon, it has been present all over the world in different time and space. But in 1990’s after the devastation of these conflicts and violence the world community came up with the notion of humanitarian intervention in which some states took the responsibility of protecting human rights violations and on the in order to protect they can intervene in the internal matters of a state specifically during civil war where state is unable to protect its people. Later on these so-called world community realized that intervention itself is a negative term that was criticized also therefore they came up with a different notion that sounded positive which known as responsibility to protect. In 2005 onwards, the notion of responsibility to protect accepted and recognized by the United Nations and states at a larger level. In the case of Syria on the name of responsibility to protect foreign interventions took place and due to the internal war Syrian people were already facing many problems, the government was not able to protect them. External invasion caused many devastating outcomes to the country. This paper is an attempt to analyze various dimensions of invasion of external affairs of a particular state and the status of sovereignty. Firstly, it lays out the notion of humanitarian intervention and then the responsibility to protect. Secondly, it looks in the case of Syria since 2011, the conflict of Syria. Thirdly it focuses on various efforts made by international organizations and other actors. Lastly, it looks why and how other actors intervene in the internal matter of Syria.

Keywords: state sovereignty, external actors, intervention, responsibility to protect

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76 Assessment of the Tectonic Effects on Soil Radon Activity along the Margin of the Arabian Plate Boundary in Northwestern Syria

Authors: Mohamed Al-Hilal


The main purpose of the present study is to assess the role of active tectonics in influencing the emanation level of soil radon across two tectonically active structures of the Northern Dead Sea Fault (NDSF) in northwestern Syria: namely, the Qastoon and Al-Harif fault segments. The radon measurements were basically directed by the results drawn from earlier studies of archaeoseismic and paleoseismic investigation in Al-Harif, besides integrated geophysical and morphotectonic survey at the Qastoon site. In view of that, a total of 80 soil gas radon points were measured in this work with a sampling depth of 75 cm, using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000Pro radon detector. The background range of normal radon emission from local soil was determined in area located away from the influence of the tectonic disturbances. The obtained radon data were statistically analyzed, and the mean values have been standardized in terms of probability of magnitude, which enhances the comparison process and so facilitating the separation of normal radon variations from other anomalous or geotectonic related values. The overall results revealed remarkable occurrences of fault-associated radon anomalies with maximum peak values of ~6 to 7 times above the background, trending in accordance with the predicted traces of the fault ruptures at the Qastoon and Al-Harif, respectively.

Keywords: soil gas radon, active tectonic structure, northern dead sea fault, western Syria

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75 Victims and Violators: Open Source Information, Admissibility Standards, and War Crimes Investigations in Iraq and Syria

Authors: Genevieve Zingg


Modern technology and social media platforms have fundamentally altered the nature of war crimes investigations by providing new forms of data, evidence, and documentation, and pose a unique opportunity to expand the efficacy of international law. However, much of the open source information available is deemed inadmissible in subsequent legal proceedings and fails to function as evidence largely due to issues of reliability and verifiability. Focusing on current judicial investigations related to ongoing conflicts in Syria and Iraq, this paper will examine key challenges and opportunities for the effective use of open source information in securing justice. This paper will consider strategies and approaches that can be used to ensure that information collected by affected populations meets basic admissibility standards. This paper argues that the critical failure to equip civilian populations in conflict zones with knowledge and information regarding established admissibility standards and guidelines both jeopardizes the potential of open source information and compromises the ability of victims to participate effectively in justice and accountability processes. The ultimate purpose of this paper is, therefore, to examine how to maximize the value of open source information based on the rules of evidence in international, regional, and national courts, and how to maximize the participation of affected populations in holding their abusers to account.

Keywords: human rights, international criminal law, international justice, international law, Iraq, open source information, social media, Syria, transitional justice, war crimes

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74 Rescaling Global Health and International Relations: Globalization of Health in a Low Security Environment

Authors: F. Argurio, F. G. Vaccaro


In a global environment defined by ever-increasing health issues, in spite of the progress made by modern medicine, this paper seeks to readdress the question of global health in an international relations perspective. The research hypothesis is: the lower the security environment, the higher the spread of communicable diseases. This question will be channeled by re-scaling the connotation of 'global' and 'international' dimension through the theoretical lens of glocalization, a theory by Bauman that starts its analysis from simple systems to get to the most complex ones. Glocalization theory will be operationalized by analyzing health in an armed-conflict context. In this respect, the independent variable 'low security environment' translates into the cases of Syria and Yemen, which provide a clear example of the all-encompassing nature of conflict on national health and the effects on regional development. In fact, Syria and Yemen have been affected by poliomyelitis and cholera outbreaks respectively. The dependent variable will be constructed on said communicable diseases which belong to the families of sanitation-related and vaccine-preventable diseases. The research will be both qualitative and quantitative, based on primary (interviews) and secondary (WHO and other NGO’s reports) sources. The methodology is based on the assessment of the vaccine coverage and case-analysis in time and space using epidemiological data. Moreover, local health facilities’ functioning and efficiency will be studied. The article posits that the intervention and cooperation of international organizations with the local authorities becomes crucial to provide the local populations with their primary health needs. In Yemen, the majority of fatal cholera cases were in the regions controlled by the Houthi rebels, not officially accredited by the International Community. Similarly, the polio outbreak in Syria primarily affected the areas not controlled by the Syrian Arab Republic forces, recognized as the leading interlocutor by the WHO. The jeopardized possibilities to access these countries have been pivotal to the determining the problem in controlling sanitation-related and vaccine preventable diseases. This represents a potential threat to global health.

Keywords: health in conflict-affected areas, cholera, polio, Yemen, Syria, glocalization

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73 Acculturation Profiles of Syrian Refugees in Turkey

Authors: Abdurrahim Guler


Immigrants who came to a new country experience some socio-cultural difficulties which are different from theirs. The study aims to investigate how Syrian Refugees manage their life in Turkey and the relationship between acculturation profiles and demographic background of Syrian refugees who came to Turkey after civil war has intensified in Syria. Data are collected from 280 adult Syrian refugees who were born in Syria. The study adopts bi-dimensional acculturation approach stating that both heritage and dominant host cultures can live together. Results suggest that demographic backgrounds, religion, and religiosity are significantly linked to both heritage and dominant host culture. Syrian refugees who are not affiliated with Islam are found to significantly preserve their ethnic/heritage culture. Generally, Syrian refugees are more willing to integrate Turkish society but not to assimilate. The results also confirmed acculturation process as a bi-dimensional, not a zero-sum game since we found a significant positive correlation between the heritage and the dominant host cultures which assume the independence and orthogonal of involvements in the dominant host and heritage cultures.

Keywords: acculturation, demographic backgrounds, heritage culture, religion, Syrian refugees

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72 ISIS after the Defeat of the Islamic Caliphate: The Rise of Cyber-Jihad

Authors: Spyridon Plakoudas


After the capture of Al-Raqqah and the defeat of the short-lived Islamic Caliphate in 2017, everyone predicted the end of ISIS. However, ISIS proved far more resilient than initially thought. The militant group quickly regrouped from its defeat and started a low-intensity guerrilla campaign in central Iraq (near Kirkuk and Mosul) and north-eastern Syria (near Deir ez-Zorr). At the same time, ISIS doubled down on its cyber-campaign; actually, ISIS is as active on the cyber-domain as during the peak of its power in 2015. This paper, a spin-off paper from a co-authored book on the Syrian Civil War (due to be published by Rowman and Littlefield), intends to examine how ISIS operates in the cyber-domain and how this "Cyber-Caliphate" under re-construction is associated with its post-2017 strategy. This paper will draw on the discipline of War Studies (with an emphasis on Cyber-Security and Insurgency / Counter-Insurgency) and will benefit from the insights of interviewed experts on the field (e.g., Hassan Hasssan). This paper will explain how the successful operation of ISIS in the cyber-space preserves the myth of the “caliphate” amongst its worldwide followers (against the odds) and sustains the group’s ongoing insurgency in Syria and Iraq; in addition, this paper will suggest how this cyber-threat can be countered best.

Keywords: ISIS, cyber-jihad, Syrian Civil War, cyber-terrorism, insurgency and counter-insurgency

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71 Climate Change and Human Migration

Authors: Sungwoo Park


The paper attempts to investigate the correlation between climate change and migration that has caused violent disputes in some regions of the world. Recently, NGOs and educational institutions have proposed claims that migratory patterns and violent uprisings are intertwined with climate change. Thus, the paper is primarily concerned with collecting evidences provided from scholars, validating this significant connection between climate change and migration, and evaluating and suggesting current and future research approaches respectively to enhance the acknowledgment and protection of environmental refugees. In order to examine the linkage of environmental migration, primary sources, such as political speeches, and secondary sources like theses from environmental policy analysts, books, and reports are used. More specifically, the investigation focuses on an civil war in Syria to draw a connection between environmental migration and violent dispute that threatens the global security. The examination undertaken specifically analyzes examples where forced migration occurred due to climate change. In Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Kiribati, residents have been at risk of fleeing their countries because of abnormal climate patterns, such as the rise of sea level or an excessive heat stress. As the brutal uprising in Syria has proven that climate change can pose a significant threat to global security, correlation between climate change and migration is surely worth delving into.

Keywords: climate change, climate migration, global security, refugee crisis

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70 Mental Health and Psychosocial Needs of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon and Syria

Authors: Cosette Maiky


Background: In the context of the Syrian crisis, the past few years have witnessed an exponential growth in the number of refugee mental health studies, which have essentially focused either on the affected Syrian population and/or host communities. However, the Palestinian communities in the region did not receive sufficient that much of attention. Aim: The study aimed at identifying trends and patterns of mental health and and psychosocial conditions among Palestinian refugees in the context of the Syrian crisis, including the recognition of gaps in appropriate services. Methods: The research model comprised a systematic documentary review, a mapping of available contextual analyses, a quantitative survey, focus group discussions as well as key informant interviews (with relevant stakeholders and beneficiaries). Findings: Content analysis revealed multiple effects of transgenerational transmission of trauma among Palestinian refugees in the context of the Syrian crisis, which showed to be neither linear nor one-dimensional occurrence. In addition to highlights on exposure to traumatic events and psychological sequelae, the review outlines the most prevailing coping mechanisms and essential protective factors. Conclusion: Away from a trauma-centered or symptom-focused exercise, practitioners may take account of the present study to better focus research and intervention methodologies.

Keywords: Palestine refugees, Syria crisis, psychosocial, mental health

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69 From Reform to Revolt: Bashar al-Assad and the Arab Tribes in Syria

Authors: Haian Dukhan


The death of Hafez al-Assad and the ascension of his son, Bashar, to rule brought an end to the state-society dynamics that his father worked on for decades. Hafez al-Assad built an authoritarian state that rests on patronage networks that connected his regime to the society. During Bashar’s reign, these patronage relationships have been affected by the policies of privatization and liberalization. Privatization and liberalisation of the economy have created new economic and social players that transformed the populist nature of the authoritarian regime into a regime that is connected mainly with bourgeoisie and the upper class neglecting the rural tribal constituency that was a vital part of Hafez al-Assad’s authoritarian state. Drawing on different data gathered through interviews as well as written literature, this paper will explore the policies that Bashar al-Assad carried out towards the Arab tribes in the period extended from 2000 until 2010. The paper starts by outlining how Bashar al-Assad narrowed the coalition of his rule to depend mainly on his family, the city merchants excluding the lower and middle strata in the periphery. It will then trace the disintegration of the social contract between the regime and the Arab tribe as a result of the latter’s failure to deliver adequate development services in their regions. Losing the support of the tribes undermined the stability of the regime resulting in different clashes between the tribes themselves, the tribes and the Kurds, the tribes and the druze (a sect of Islam situated in Southern Syria), which will be investigated in detail in this paper. In similar policies adopted by his father who used the tribes as leverage against the Islamists and the Kurds, Bashar al-Assad’s regime encouragement of Syrian tribal youth to join the Iraqi insurgency against the Americans will be explored in detail. The regime’s tolerance of Iran missionary activities in the tribal regions and its accommodation of Islamists group’s activities in those regions have erased the regime’s secular foundation. This paper will argue that Bashar al-Assad’s policies towards the Arab tribes have chipped away the regime’s ideological pillars and threatened the longer-term cohesion of its social base which paved the way for the uprising to start in the tribal regions.

Keywords: Syria, tribes, uprising, regime

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68 Greed and Grievance Revisisted: The Case of ISIL

Authors: Amjed Rasheed


Rebellions are driven by several incentives. They do not often occur because of historical grievances or political exclusion. They can be driven by the desire to control over natural resources, or by both. In the case of the Islamic State (ISIL), greed and grievance are both drive this radical group to operate in Iraq and Syria. This article aims to show that grievance was the trigger to the emergence of ISIL. It also aims to demonstrate that ISIL is using oil as a tool, to implements its political ends, than a purpose per se. In other words, the emergence of ISIL is based on socio-political conditions, which are domestically driven, and oil is not ISIL’s aim but a source of revenue to finance its activities. This paper applies conflict analysis methodology to analyse the conflict in Iraq and Syria, with a specific highlight to ISIL. By doing so, it gives ahistorical background on emergence of ISIL. It also provides an insightful explanation on the main dynamics and the tactics this organisation applies. It also delivers a sufficient explanation on how it recruits its members, both local and international. It concludes that tackling ISIL needs a more sophisticated approach than the one Obama administration has adopted. It is more a political issue to be tackled by political means, than a military one to be tackled by military means. The current war is an Intra-Sunni war, and therefore, Sunni states have to be on board to crackdown ISIL. Besides, the article finishes with the argument that democratisation is not necessarily the key answer to bring stability to the region, but a sort of governance that provides security and material needs to individuals.

Keywords: ISIL, Iraq, domestic politics, Islamic radicalisation

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67 Zeolite Origin within the Pliocene Sedimentary-Pyroclastic Deposits in the Southwestern Part of Syria

Authors: Abdulsalam Turkmani, Mohammed Khaled Yezbek, Farouk Al Imadi


Geological surveys in the southwestern part of Syria showed the presence of sedimentary-pyroclastic deposits, volcanic tuff, to the age of the Upper Pliocene and contain the following minerals according petrographical study and XRD, SEM, XRF analysis and surface properties. X-Ray diffraction results indicate the presence of analcime, phillipsite and chabazite in in all the studied localities. There are also amorphous materials and clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite. The non-zeolite constituents include olivine, clinopyroxene orthopyroxene and spinel, and less of magnetite and feldspar. Some major oxides were determined through XRF geochemical analyses which include SiO₂, Al₂O₃, K₂O, Fe₂O₃, and CaO for volcanic tuff and zeolite. The formation of these depositions can be summarized in the following stages during the Pliocene: Volcanic activity at the edges of Al Rutba uplift and Jabal Al Arab depression was a rich by tuff bearing ultra basic and basic xenoliths plus second phase by scoria, during the early Pliocene. Volcanic calm with the activity of erosion and form lakes in which deposition of a set of wastes, including olivine resulting from the disintegration of xenoliths during the middle Pliocene. Zeolites minerals form later, which make up about 15-20% and increase and decrease in reverse relation with the olivine sand. Zeolite is formed from volcanic glass, and the results of SEM show that the zeolites minerals very well crystallized.

Keywords: minerals, origin, pyroclastic, zeolite

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66 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of the Success of the First Crusade in Modern Arab and Western Historiography

Authors: Oleg Sokolov


Despite the fact that the epoch of the Crusades ended more than 700 years ago, its legacy still remains relevant both in the Middle East and in the West. There was made a comparison of the positions of the most prominent Western and Arab medievalists of XX-XXI centuries, using the example of their interpretations of the success of the First Crusade. The analyzed corpus consists of 70 works. In the modern Arab Historiography, it is often pointed out that the Seljuks' struggle against the crusaders of the First Crusade was seriously hampered by the raids of the Arab Bedouin tribes of Jazira. At the same time, it is emphasized that the Arab rulers of Northern Syria were ‘pleased’ with the defeats of the Turks and made peace with the Crusaders, refusing to fight them. At the same time it is usually underlined that the Fatimid aggression against the Turks led both the first and the second to defeat from the Crusaders and became one of the main reasons for the success of the First Crusade and the Muslims' loss of Jerusalem in 1099. The position of Western historians about the reasons for the success of the First Crusade differs significantly. First of all, in the Western Historiography, it is noted that the deaths of the Fatimid and Abbasid Caliphs and the Seljuk Sultan between 1092 and 1094 years created political vacuum just before the crusaders appeared in the Middle East political arena. In 1097-1099, when the Crusaders advanced through Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine to Jerusalem, there was an active internecine struggle between the parts of the Seljuq state that had broken up by that time, and the crusaders were not perceived as a general threat of all Muslims of this region at that time. It is also pointed out that the main goals of the Crusaders - Antioch, Edessa, and Jerusalem - were at that time periphery since the main struggle for power in the Middle East was at this time in Iran. Thus, Arab historians see the lack of support from Arabs of Syria and Jazira and the aggression from Egypt as a crucial factors preventing the Seljuks from defeating the Crusaders, while their Western counterparts consider the internal power struggle between the Seljuks as a more important reason for the success of the First Crusade. The reason for this divergence in the treatment of the events of the First Crusade is probably the prevailing in much of Arab historiography, the idea of the Franks as an enemy of all peoples and religions of the Middle East. At the same time, in contemporary Western Historiography, the crusaders are described only as one of the many military and political forces that operated in this region at the end of the eleventh century.

Keywords: Arabs, Crusades, historiography, Turks

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65 Lower Cretaceous Clay in Anti-Lebanon Mountains, Syria and their Importance in Ceramic Manufacturing

Authors: Abdul Salam Turkmani


The Lower Cretaceous rocks are exposed only in the mountains regions of Syria, such as the Anti- Lebanon mountain on the western side of Damascus. The lower cretaceous sequences are made up of different rocks. The upper and middle parts of the section are composed mainly of carbonate sediments and, less frequently, gypsum and anhydrite. The lower beds are mainly composed of sandstone, conglomerate and clay. Clay samples were collected from the study area, which is located about 45 km west of the city of Damascus, near the border village of Kfer Yabous and to the left of the Damascus -Beirut International Road, within the lower Cretaceous upper Aptian deposits. The properties of clay were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Thermal Analysis (DTA-TG-DSC) techniques. The studied samples of clay were mainly composed of kaolinite, quartz, illite. Chemical analysis shows the content of SiO₂ varied between 46.06 to 73 % Al₂O₃ 14.55-26.56%, about the staining oxides (Fe₂O₃ + TiO₂), the total content is about 4.3 to 12.5%. The physical properties were determined by studying the behavior of the body before and after firing, showed low bending strength values (22.5 kg/cm²) after drying, and (about 247 kg/cm²) after firing at 1180°C, water absorption value was about 10%. The cubic thermal expansion coefficient at 1140°C is 213.77 x 10-7 /°C. All of the presented results confirm the suitability of this clay for the ceramic industry.

Keywords: anti-Lebanon, Damascus, ceramic, clay, thermal analysis, thermal expansion coefficient

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64 The Misuse of Social Media in Order to Exploit "Generation Y"; The Tactics of IS

Authors: Ali Riza Perçin, Eser Bingül


Internet technologies have created opportunities with which people share their ideologies, thoughts and products. This virtual world, named social media has given the chance of gathering individual users and people from the world's remote locations and establishing an interaction between them. However, to an increasingly higher degree terrorist organizations today use the internet and most notably social-network media to create the effects they desire through a series of on-line activities. These activities, designed to support their activities, include information collection (intelligence), target selection, propaganda, fundraising and recruitment to name a few. Meanwhile, these have been used as the most important tool for recruitment especially from the different region of the world, especially disenfranchised youth, in the West in order to mobilize support and recruit “foreign fighters.” The recruits have obtained the statue, which is not accessible in their society and have preferred the style of life that is offered by the terrorist organizations instead of their current life. Like other terrorist groups, for a while now the terrorist organization Islamic State (IS) in Iraq and Syria has employed a social-media strategy in order to advance their strategic objectives. At the moment, however, IS seems to be more successful in their on-line activities than other similar organizations. IS uses social media strategically as part of its armed activities and for the sustainability of their military presence in Syria and Iraq. In this context, “Generation Y”, which could exist at the critical position and undertake active role, has been examined. Additionally, the explained characteristics of “Generation Y” have been put forward and the duties of families and society have been stated as well.

Keywords: social media, "generation Y", terrorist organization, islamic state IS

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63 Comparison of Phynotypic Traits of Three Arabian Horse Strains

Authors: Saria Almarzook, Monika Reissmann, Gudrun Brockmann


Due to its history, occurrence in different ecosystems and diverse using, the modern horse (Equus caballus) shows large variability in size, appearance, behavior and habits. At all times, breeders try to create groups (breeds, strains) representing high homology but showing clear differences in comparison to other groups. A great interest of analyzing phenotypic and genetic traits looking for real diversity and genetic uniqueness existents for Arabian horses in Syria. 90 Arabian horses from governmental research center of Arabian horses in Damascus were included. The horses represent three strains (Kahlawi, Saklawi, Hamdani) originated from different geographical zones. They were raised on the same farm, under stable conditions. Twelve phenotypic traits were measured: wither height (WH), croup width (CW), croup height (CH), neck girth (NG), thorax girth (TG), chest girth (ChG), chest depth (ChD), chest width (ChW), back line length (BLL), body length (BL), fore cannon length (FCL) and hind cannon length (HCL). The horses were divided into groups according to age (less than 2 years, 2-4 years, 4-9 years, over 9 years) and to sex (male, female). The statistical analyzes show that age has significant influence of WH while the strain has only a very limited effect. On CW, NG, BLL, FCL and HCL, there is only a significant influence of sex. Age has significant effect on CH and BL. All sources of classes have a significant effect on TG, ChG, ChD and ChW. Strain has a significant effect on the BL. These results provide first information for real biodiversity in and between the strains and can be used to develop the breeding work in the Arabian horse breed.

Keywords: Arabian horse, phenotypic traits, strains, Syria

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62 Ribosomal Protein S4 Gene: Exploring the Presence in Syrian Strain of Leishmania Tropica Genome, Sequencing it and Evaluating Immune Response of pCI-S4 DNA Vaccine

Authors: Alyaa Abdlwahab


Cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a serious health problem in Syria; this problem has become noticeably aggravated after the civil war in the country. Leishmania tropica parasite is the main cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria. In order to control the disease, we need an effective vaccine against leishmania parasite. DNA vaccination remains one of the favorable approaches that have been used to face cutaneous leishmaniasis. Ribosomal protein S4 is responsible for important roles in Leishmania parasite life. DNA vaccine based on S4 gene has been used against infections by many species of Leishmania parasite but leishmania tropica parasite, so this gene represents a good candidate for DNA vaccine construction. After proving the existence of ribosomal protein S4 gene in a Syrian strain of Leishmania tropica (LCED Syrian 01), sequencing it and cloning it into pCI plasmid, BALB/C mice were inoculated with pCI-S4 DNA vaccine. The immune response was determined by monitoring the lesion progression in inoculated BALB/C mice for six weeks after challenging mice with Leishmania tropica (LCED Syrian 01) parasites. IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-4 were quantified in draining lymph nodes (DLNa) of the immunized BALB/C mice by using the RT-qPCR technique. The parasite burden was calculated in the final week for the footpad lesion and the DLNs of the mice. This study proved the existence and the expression of the ribosomal protein S4 gene in Leishmania tropica (LCED Syrian 01) promastigotes. The sequence of ribosomal protein cDNA S4 gene was determined and published in Genbank; the gene size was 822 bp. Expression was also demonstrated at the level of cDNA. Also, this study revealed that pCI-S4 DNA vaccine induces TH1\TH2 response in immunized mice; this response prevents partially developing a dermal lesion of Leishmania.

Keywords: ribosomal protein S4, DNA vaccine, Leishmania tropica, BALB\c

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61 The Re-Emergence of Russia Foreign Policy (Case Study: Middle East)

Authors: Maryam Azish


Russia, as an emerging global player in recent years, has projected a special place in the Middle East. Despite all the challenges it has faced over the years, it has always considered its presence in various fields with a strategy that has defined its maneuvering power as a level of competition and even confrontation with the United States. Therefore, its current approach is considered important as an influential actor in the Middle East. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, when the Russians withdrew completely from the Middle East, the American scene remained almost unrivaled by the Americans. With the start of the US-led war in Iraq and Afghanistan and the subsequent developments that led to the US military and political defeat, a new chapter in regional security was created in which ISIL and Taliban terrorism went along with the Arab Spring to destabilize the Middle East. Because of this, the Americans took every opportunity to strengthen their military presence. Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan have always been the three areas where terrorism was shaped, and the countries of the region have each reacted to this evil phenomenon accordingly. The West dealt with this phenomenon on a case-by-case basis in the general circumstances that created the fluid situation in the Arab countries and the region. Russian President Vladimir Putin accused the US of falling asleep in the face of ISIS and terrorism in Syria. In fact, this was an opportunity for the Russians to revive their presence in Syria. This article suggests that utilizing the recognition policy along with the constructivism theory will offer a better knowledge of Russia’s endeavors to endorse its international position. Accordingly, Russia’s distinctiveness and its ambitions for a situation of great power have played a vital role in shaping national interests and, subsequently, in foreign policy, in Putin's era in particular. The focal claim of the paper is that scrutinize Russia’s foreign policy with realistic methods cannot be attained. Consequently, with an aim to fill the prevailing vacuum, this study exploits the politics of acknowledgment in the context of constructivism to examine Russia’s foreign policy in the Middle East. The results of this paper show that the key aim of Russian foreign policy discourse, accompanied by increasing power and wealth, is to recognize and reinstate the position of great power in the universal system. The Syrian crisis has created an opportunity for Russia to unite its position in the developing global and regional order after ages of dynamic and prevalent existence in the Middle East as well as contradicting US unilateralism. In the meantime, the writer thinks that the question of identifying Russia’s position in the global system by the West has played a foremost role in serving its national interests.

Keywords: constructivism, foreign Policy, middle East, Russia, regionalism

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60 Evaluation of Oligocene-Miocene Clay from the Northern Part of Palmyra Region (Syria) for Industrial Ceramic Applications

Authors: Abdul Salam Turkmani


Clay of the northern Palmyra region is one of the most important raw materials used in the Syrian ceramics industry. This study is focused on the evaluation of various laboratory analyses such as chemical analysis (XRF), mineral X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and semi-industrial tests carried out on samples collected on two representative locations of the upper Oligocene in AlMkamen valley (MK) and lower Miocene in AlZukara valley (ZR) of the northern part of Palmyra, Syria. Chemical results classify the (MK) and (ZR) clays as semi-plastic red clay slightly carbonate and (eliminate probable) illite-chlorite clays with a very fine particle size distribution. Content of SiO₂ between 46.28-57.66%, Al2O3 13.81-25.2%, Fe₂O₃ 3.47-11.58%, CaO 1.15-7.19%, Na₂O+K₂O varied between 3.34-3.71%. Based on clay chemical composition and iron and carbonate content, these deposits can be considered as red firing clays. Their mineralogical composition is mainly represented by illite, kaolinite and quartz, and accessories minerals such as calcite, feldspar, phillipsite, and goethite. The results of the DTA test confirm the presence of gypsum and quartz phases in (MK) clay. Ceramic testing shows good green and dry bending strength values, which varied between 9-14 kg/cm², at 1160°C to 1180°C. Water absorption moves from 14.6 % at 1120°C to 2.2% at 1180°C to 1.6% at 1200°C. Breaking load after firing changes from 400 to 590 kg/cm². At 1200°C (MK), clay reaches perfect vitrification. After firing, the color of the clay changes from orange-hazel to red-brown at 1180°C. Technological results confirmed the suitability of the studied clays to produce floor and wall ceramic tiles. Using one of the two types of clay into the ceramic body or both types together gave satisfactory industrial results.

Keywords: ceramic, clay, industry , Palmyra

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59 Rethinking Modernization Strategy of Muslim Society: The Need for Value-Based Approach

Authors: Louay Safi


The notion of secular society that evolved over the last two centuries was initially intended to free the public sphere from religious imposition, before it assumed the form a comprehensive ideology whose aim is to prevent any overt religious expression from the public space. The negative view of religious expression, and the desire by political elites to purge the public space from all forms of religious expressions were first experienced in the Middle East in the last decades of the twentieth century in relation to Islam, before it manifests itself in the twentieth century Europe. Arab regimes were encouraged by European democracies to marginalize all forms of religious expressions in the public as part of the secularization process that was deemed necessary for modernization and progress. The prohibition of Islamic symbols and outlawing the headscarf was first undertaken to Middle Eastern republics, such as Turkey in 1930s and Syria in 1970s, before it is implemented recently in France. Secularization has been perceived by European powers as the central aspect of social and political liberalization, and was given priority over democratization and human rights, so much so that European elites were willing to entrust the task of nurturing liberal democracy to Arab autocrats and dictators. Not only did the strategy of empowering autocratic regimes to effect liberal democratic culture failed, but it contributed to the rise of Islamist extremism and produced failed states in Syria and Iraq that undermine both national and global peace and stability. The paper adopts the distinction made by John Rawls between political and comprehensive liberalism to argue that the modernization via secularization in Muslim societies is counterproductive and has subverted early successful efforts at democratization and reform in the Middle East. Using case studies that illustrate the role of the secularization strategy in Syria, Iran, and Egypt in undermining democratic and reformist movements in those countries, the paper calls for adopting a different approach rooted in liberal and democratic values rather than cultural practices and lifestyle. The paper shows that Islamic values as articulated by reform movements support a democratic and pluralist political order, and emphasizes the need to legitimize and support social forces that advocate democracy and human rights. Such an alternative strategy allows for internal competition among social groups for popular support, and therefore enhances the chances that those with inclusive and forward-looking political principles and policies would create a democratic and pluralist political order more conducive to meaningful national and global cooperation, and respectful of human dignity.

Keywords: democracy, Islamic values, political liberalism, secularization

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58 Phylogenetic Analysis Based On the Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS2) Sequences of Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Populations Reveals Significant Adaptive Evolution

Authors: Ebraheem Al-Jouri, Youssef Abu-Ahmad, Ramasamy Srinivasan


The parasitoid, Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is one of the most effective exotic parasitoids of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella in the lowland areas of Homs, Syria. Molecular evolution studies are useful tools to shed light on the molecular bases of insect geographical spread and adaptation to new hosts and environment and for designing better control strategies. In this study, molecular evolution analysis was performed based on the 42 nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) sequences representing the D. semiclausum and eight other Diadegma spp. from Syria and worldwide. Possible recombination events were identified by RDP4 program. Four potential recombinants of the American D. insulare and D. fenestrale (Jeju) were detected. After detecting and removing recombinant sequences, the ratio of non-synonymous (dN) to synonymous (dS) substitutions per site (dN/dS=ɷ) has been used to identify codon positions involved in adaptive processes. Bayesian techniques were applied to detect selective pressures at a codon level by using five different approaches including: fixed effects likelihood (FEL), internal fixed effects likelihood (IFEL), random effects method (REL), mixed effects model of evolution (MEME) and Program analysis of maximum liklehood (PAML). Among the 40 positively selected amino acids (aa) that differed significantly between clades of Diadegma species, three aa under positive selection were only identified in D. semiclausum. Additionally, all D. semiclausum branches tree were highly found under episodic diversifying selection (EDS) at p≤0.05. Our study provide evidence that both recombination and positive selection have contributed to the molecular diversity of Diadegma spp. and highlights the significant contribution of D. semiclausum in adaptive evolution and influence the fitness in the DBM parasitoid.

Keywords: diadegma sp, DBM, ITS2, phylogeny, recombination, dN/dS, evolution, positive selection

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57 Interactions and Integration: Implications of Victim-Agent Portrayals for Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Germany

Authors: Denise Muro


Conflict in Syria, producing over 11 million displaced persons, has incited global attention to displacement. Although neighboring countries have borne the largest part of the displacement burden, due to the influx of refugees into Europe, the so-called ‘refugee crisis’ is taking place on two fronts: Syria’s neighboring countries, with millions of refugees, and Europe, a destination goal for so many that European states face unprecedented challenges. With increasing attention to displacement, forcibly displaced persons are consistently portrayed as either un-agentic victims, or as dangerous free agents. Recognizing that these dominant portrayals involve discourses of power and inequality, this research investigates the extent to which this victim-agent dichotomy affects refugees and organizations that work closely with them during initial integration processes in Berlin, Germany. The research measures initial integration based on German policy measures regarding integration juxtaposed with the way refugees and those who work with them understand integration. Additionally, the study examines day-to-day interactions of refugees in Germany as a way to gauge social integration in a bottom-up approach. This study involved a discourse analysis of portrayals of refugees and participant observation and interviews with refugees and those who work closely with them, which took place during fieldwork in Berlin in the summer of 2016. Germany is unique regarding their migration history and lack of successful integration, in part due to the persistent refrain, ‘Wir sind kein einwanderungsland’ (‘We are not an immigration country’). Still, their accepted asylum seeker population has grown exponentially in the past few years. Findings suggest that the victim-agent dichotomy is present and impactful in the process of refugees entering and integrating into Germany. Integration is hindered due to refugees either being patronized or criminalized to such an extent that, despite being constantly told that they must integrate, they cannot become part of German society.

Keywords: discourse analysis, Germany, integration, refugee crisis

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56 Applying Napoleoni's 'Shell-State' Concept to Jihadist Organisations's Rise in Mali, Nigeria and Syria/Iraq, 2011-2015

Authors: Francesco Saverio Angiò


The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant / Syria (ISIL/S), Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad, also known as ‘Boko Haram’ (BH), have fought successfully against Syria and Iraq, Mali, Nigeria’s government, respectively. According to Napoleoni, the ‘shell-state’ concept can explain the economic dimension and the financing model of the ISIL insurgency. However, she argues that AQIM and BH did not properly plan their financial model. Consequently, her idea would not be suitable to these groups. Nevertheless, AQIM and BH’s economic performances and their (short) territorialisation suggest that their financing models respond to a well-defined strategy, which they were able to adapt to new circumstances. Therefore, Napoleoni’s idea of ‘shell-state’ can be applied to the three jihadist armed groups. In the last five years, together with other similar entities, ISIL/S, AQIM and BH have been fighting against governments with insurgent tactics and terrorism acts, conquering and ruling a quasi-state; a physical space they presented as legitimate territorial entity, thanks to a puritan version of the Islamic law. In these territories, they have exploited the traditional local economic networks. In addition, they have contributed to the development of legal and illegal transnational business activities. They have also established a justice system and created an administrative structure to supply services. Napoleoni’s ‘shell-state’ can describe the evolution of ISIL/S, AQIM and BH, which has switched from an insurgency to a proto or a quasi-state entity, enjoying a significant share of power over territories and populations. Napoleoni first developed and applied the ‘Shell-state’ concept to describe the nature of groups such as the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), before using it to explain the expansion of ISIL. However, her original conceptualisation emphasises on the economic dimension of the rise of the insurgency, focusing on the ‘business’ model and the insurgents’ financing management skills, which permits them to turn into an organisation. However, the idea of groups which use, coordinate and grab some territorial economic activities (at the same time, encouraging new criminal ones), can also be applied to administrative, social, infrastructural, legal and military levels of their insurgency, since they contribute to transform the insurgency to the same extent the economic dimension does. In addition, according to Napoleoni’s view, the ‘shell-state’ prism is valid to understand the ISIL/S phenomenon, because the group has carefully planned their financial steps. Napoleoni affirmed that ISIL/S carries out activities in order to promote their conversion from a group relying on external sponsors to an entity that can penetrate and condition local economies. On the contrary, ‘shell-state’ could not be applied to AQIM or BH, which are acting more like smugglers. Nevertheless, despite its failure to control territories, as ISIL has been able to do, AQIM and BH have responded strategically to their economic circumstances and have defined specific dynamics to ensure a flow of stable funds. Therefore, Napoleoni’s theory is applicable.

Keywords: shell-state, jihadist insurgency, proto or quasi-state entity economic planning, strategic financing

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55 The Radicalization of Islam in the Syrian Conflict: A Systematic Review from the Interreligious Dialogue Perspective

Authors: Cosette Maiky


Seven years have passed since the crisis erupted and the list of challenges to peacebuilding and interreligious dialogue is still growing ever more discouraging: Violence, displacement, sectarianism, discrimination, radicalisation, fragmentation, and collapse of various social and economic infrastructure have notoriously plagued the war-torn country. As the situation in Syria and neighbouring countries is still creating a real concern about the future of the social cohesion and the coexistence in the region, in her function as Field Expert on Arab Countries at King Abdullah bin Abdelaziz Centre for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue, the author shall present a systematic review paper that focuses on the radicalization of Islam in Syria. The exercise was based on a series of research questions that guided both the review of literature as well as the interviews. Their relative meaningfulness shall be assessed and trade-offs discussed in each case to ensure that key questions were addressed and to avoid unnecessary effort. There was an element of flexibility, as the assessment progressed, to further provide and inject additional generic questions. The main sources for the information were: Documents and literature with a direct bearing on the issues of relevance collected in all available formats and information collected through key informant interviews. This latter was particularly helpful to understand what some of the capacity constraints are, as well as the gaps, enablers and barriers. Respondents were selected among those who are engaged in IRD activities clearly linked to peacebuilding (i.e. religious leaders, leaders in religious communities, peace actors, religious actors, conflict parties, minority groups, women initiatives, youth initiatives, civil society organizations, academia, etc.), with relevant professional qualifications and work experience. During the research process, the Consultant carefully took account of sensitivities around terminologies as well as a highly insecure and dynamic context. The Consultant (Arabic native speaker), therefore, adapted terminologies while conducting interviews according to the area and respondent. Findings revealed: the deep ideological polarization and lack of trust dividing communities and preventing meaningful dialogue opportunities; the challenge of prioritizing IRD and peacebuilding work in the context of such a severe humanitarian crisis facing the country; the need to engage religious leaders and institutions in peacebuilding processes and initiatives, the need to have institutions with specific IRD mandate, which can have a sustainable influence on peace through various levels of interventions (from grassroots level to policy and research), and lastly, the need to address stigma in media representation of Muslims and Islam. While religion and religious agendas have been massively used for political issues and power play in the Middle East – and elsewhere, more extensive policy and research efforts are needed to highlight the positive role of religion and religious actors in dialogue and peacebuilding processes.

Keywords: radicalisation, Islam, Syria, conflict

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54 Saudi State Arabia’s Struggle for a Post-Rentier Regional Order

Authors: Omair Anas


The Persian Gulf has been in turmoil for a long time since the colonial administration has handed over the role to the small and weak kings and emirs who were assured of protection in return of many economic and security promises to them. The regional order, Saudi Arabia evolved was a rentier regional order secured by an expansion of rentier economy and taking responsibility for much of the expenses of the regional order on behalf of relatively poor countries. The two oil booms helped the Saudi state to expand the 'rentier order' driven stability and bring the countries like Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Palestine under its tutelage. The disruptive misadventure, however, came with Iran's proclamation of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 which it wanted to be exported to its 'un-Islamic and American puppet' Arab neighbours. For Saudi Arabia, even the challenge presented by the socialist-nationalist Arab dictators like Gamal Abdul Nasser and Hafez Al-Assad was not that much threatening to the Saudi Arabia’s then-defensive realism. In the Arab uprisings, the Gulf monarchies saw a wave of insecurity and Iran found it an opportune time to complete the revolutionary process it could not complete after 1979. An alliance of convenience and ideology between Iran and Islamist groups had the real potential to challenge both Saudi Arabia’s own security and its leadership in the region. The disruptive threat appeared at a time when the Saudi state had already sensed an impending crisis originating from the shifts in the energy markets. Low energy prices, declining global demands, and huge investments in alternative energy resources required Saudi Arabia to rationalize its economy according to changing the global political economy. The domestic Saudi reforms remained gradual until the death of King Abdullah in 2015. What is happening now in the region, the Qatar crisis, the Lebanon crisis and the Saudi-Iranian proxy war in Iraq, Syria, and Yemen has combined three immediate objectives, rationalising Saudi economy and most importantly, the resetting the Saudi royal power for Saudi Arabia’s longest-serving future King Mohammad bin Salman. The Saudi King perhaps has no time to wait and watch the power vacuum appearing because of Iran’s expansionist foreign policy. The Saudis appear to be employing an offensive realism by advancing a pro-active regional policy to counter Iran’s threatening influence amid disappearing Western security from the region. As the Syrian civil war is coming to a compromised end with ceding much ground to Iran-controlled militias, Hezbollah and Al-Hashad, the Saudi state has lost much ground in these years and the threat from Iranian proxies is more than a reality, more clearly in Bahrain, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen. This paper attempts to analyse the changing Saudi behaviour in the region, which, the author understands, is shaped by an offensive-realist approach towards finding a favourable security environment for the Saudi-led regional order, a post-rentier order perhaps.

Keywords: terrorism, Saudi Arabia, Rentier State, gulf crisis

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53 The Lasting Legacy of Six-Day War: How Six Days Changed the Life of Palestinians, Israelis and Their Relationship

Authors: Ziling Chen


Within six days in June 1967, Israeli armies defeated the combined forces of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. This war was later named the Six-Day War, or Third Arab-Israeli War. This paper examines the lasting legacy of the Six-Day War in the life of Palestinians and Israelis economically, politically, and religiously. The long-term Israeli occupation resulted in Palestinian displacement, impeded the development of the Palestinian economy, as well as a created division within Israeli society. Although the war ended, the conflicts persist, most notably in the Old City of Jerusalem. Due to its sacred nature, the Old City became the center of religious conflicts after the Six-Day War.

Keywords: Israelis, Jerusalem, Palestinians, Six-Day War

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