Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: sociability

21 Elements of Usability and Sociability in Activity Management System for e-Masjid

Authors: Hidayah bt Rahmalan, Marhazli Kipli, Muhammad Suffian Sikandar Ghani, Maisarah Abu, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Norlizam Md Sukiban


This study presents an example of activity management system for e-Masjid implementing elements of usability and sociability. It is expected to resolve the shortcomings of the most e-Masjid that provide lot of activities to their community. However, the data on handling a lot of activities or events in which involve a lot of people will be difficult to manipulate. Thus, this paper presents the usability and sociability element on an activity management system that not only eases the job for the user but being practical for future when the community join any events. For the time being, this activity management system was only applied for Sayyidina Abu Bakar Mosque in Utem, Malacca.

Keywords: e-masjid, usability, sociability, activity management system

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20 Relationship between Stress and Personality in Young Adults

Authors: Sneha Sadana


Human beings are unique and so are their reactions towards varied stimuli. This study focuses on the impact personality has on how one deals with stressful situations. It can be intriguing to know how big of an impact our personality has on the way we react and how it is wired in us to respond to things in a particular manner all because of our personality and the traits which make us who we are. The study was done on 150 college going students, 75 males and 75 females mainly from Ahmedabad, India pursuing a variety of different streams and subjects. The questionnaire consists of two standardized questionnaires which measure stress and personality. The Student Stress Scale by Manju Agarwal evaluates stress of subjects and the big five personality locator by Norman.
The findings showed that there exists a positive relationship between stress and neuroticism and an inverse relationship between stress and sociability, stress and openness, stress and agreeableness and stress and conscientiousness.
And on doing a further comparative analysis on personality types of the same sample it was found out that females were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, sociability, openness, and neuroticism. In males, however, it was observed that males were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, neuroticism, sociability, and openness

Keywords: college students, personality, stress, theories of personality

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19 The Positive Effects of Social Distancing on Individual Work Outcomes in the Context of COVID-19

Authors: Fan Wei, Tang Yipeng


The outbreak of COVID-19 in early 2020 has been raging around the world, which has severely affected people's work and life. In today's post-pandemic era, although the pandemic has been effectively controlled, people still need to maintain social distancing at all times to prevent the further spread of the virus. Based on this, social distancing in the context of the pandemic has aroused widespread attention from scholars. At present, most studies exploring the influencing factors of social distancing are studying the negative impact of social distancing on the physical and mental state of special groups from the inter-individual level, and their more focus on the forced complete social distancing during the severe period of the pandemic. Few studies have focused on the impact of social distancing on working groups in the post-pandemic era from the within-individual level. In order to explore this problem, this paper constructs a cross-level moderating model based on resource conservation theory from the perspective of psychological resources. A total of 81 subjects were recruited to fill in the three-stage questionnaires each day for 10 working days, and 661valid questionnaires were finally obtained. Through the empirical tests, the following conclusions were finally obtained: (1) At the within-individual level, daily social distancing is positively correlated with the second day’s recovery, and the individual’s low sociability regulates the relationship between social distancing and recovery. The indirect effect of daily social distancing through recovery has positive relationship employees’ work engagement and work-goal progress only when the individual has low sociability. For individuals with high sociability, none of these paths are significant. (2) At the within-individual level, there is a significant relationship between individual's recovery and work engagement and work-goal progress, indicating that the recovery of resources can produce positive work outcomes. According to the results, this study believes that in the post-pandemic era, social distancing can not only effectively prevent and control the pandemic but also have positive impacts. Employees can use the time and energy originally saved for social activities through social distancing to invest in things that can provide resources and help them recover.

Keywords: social distancing, recovery, work engagement, work goal progress, sociability

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18 Illustrative Effects of Social Capital on Perceived Health Status and Quality of Life among Older Adult in India: Evidence from WHO-Study on Global AGEing and Adults Health India

Authors: Himansu, Bedanga Talukdar


The aim of present study is to investigate the prevalence of various health outcomes and quality of life and analyzes the moderating role of social capital on health outcomes (i.e., self-rated good health (SRH), depression, functional health and quality of life) among elderly in India. Using WHO Study on Global AGEing and adults health (SAGE) data, with sample of 6559 elderly between 50 and above (Mage=61.81, SD=9.00) age were selected for analysis. Multivariate analysis accessed the prevalence of SRH, depression, functional limitation and quality of life among older adults. Logistic regression evaluates the effect of social capital along with other co-founders on SRH, depression, and functional limitation, whereas linear regression evaluates the effect of social capital with other co-founders on quality of life (QoL) among elderly. Empirical results reveal that (74%) of respondents were married, (70%) having low social action, (46%) medium sociability, (45%) low trust-solidarity, (58%) high safety, (65%) medium civic engagement and 37% reported medium psychological resources. The multivariate analysis, explains (SRH) is associated with age, female, having education, higher social action great trust, safety and greater psychological resources. Depression among elderly is greatly related to age, sex, education and higher wealth, higher sociability, having psychological resources. QoL is negatively associated with age, sex, being Muslim, whereas positive associated with higher education, currently married, civic engagement, having wealth, social action, trust and solidarity, safeness, and strong psychological resources.

Keywords: depressive symptom, functional limitation, older adults, quality of life, self rated health, social capital

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17 The Role of Hemoglobin in Psychological Well Being and Academic Achievement of College Female Students

Authors: Ramesh Adsul, Vikas Minchekar


The present study attempts to explore the differences in academic achievement and psychological well being and its components – satisfaction, efficiency, sociability, mental health, interpersonal relations in low and moderate level of hemoglobin of college female students. It also tries to find out how hemoglobin, psychological well –being and academic achievement correlate to each other. For this study 200 (100 low hemoglobin level and 100 moderate hemoglobin level) college female students were selected by random sampling method. This sample is collected from the project ‘Health awareness and hemoglobin improvement programme’, which is being collaboratively conducted by ‘Akshyabhasha, MESA, U.S.A. and Smt. M.G. Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Psychological Well-Being Scale was used to collect the data. Students’ academic achievement was collected through college record, and hemoglobin level of female students was collected from project record. Data was analyzed by using independent ‘t’ test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The finding of the study revealed significant differences between low hemoglobin and moderate hemoglobin groups regarding efficiency and mental health. No significant difference was observed on satisfaction, sociability and interpersonal relations. It is also found that there is significant difference between low hemoglobin and moderate hemoglobin groups on academic achievement. The study revealed positive correlation between hemoglobin and academic achievement and psychological well-being and academic achievement. Moderate hemoglobin level create more efficiency, better mental health and good academic achievement in female students. One could say that there is significant role hemoglobin plays in psychological well being and academic achievement of college female students. Anemia is widely prevalent in all the states if India among all age groups. In India, college girls contribute major portion of population. It has been reported that 80% female population has hemoglobin deficiency, due to illiteracy of female, family structure, status of women, diet habits, gender discrimination and various superstitions. The deficiency of hemoglobin affects physical and mental health, general behavior and academic performance of students. This study is useful to educational managements, counselors, parents, students and Government also. In the development of personality physical as well as psychological health is essential. This research findings will create awareness about physical and mental health among people and society.

Keywords: academic achievement, college female students, hemoglobin, psychological well-being

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16 A Study of Mental Health of Higher Secondary School Going Children in Rural Area

Authors: Tanmay L. Joshi


The Mental health allows children and young people to develop the resilience to cope with whatever life throws at them and grow into well-rounded, healthy adults. In urban area, many health professionals are working for the well being for younger population. There is so much of potential in rural area. However, the rural population is somehow neglected. Apart from lack of availability of basic needs like transport, electricity, telecommunication etc; the Psychological health is also overlooked in such area. There are no mental health professionals like Psychologists, counselors etc. So the researcher tries to throw some light on the mental health of Higher Secondary School going children in rural area. The current research tries to study the Mental Health (Confidence, Sociability and Neurotic Tendency) of Higher Secondary School going children. Researchers have used the tool Vyaktitva Shodhika (a personality inventory) by Dr. U. Khire (JPIP,Pune). The Sample size is 45 (N= 40, 24 boys/21 girls). The present study may provide a good support to inculcate emotional-management programs for higher secondary school going children in rural areas.

Keywords: mental health, neurotic tendency, rural area, school going children

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15 Social Impact Evaluation in the Housing Sector

Authors: Edgard Barki, Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira, Felipe Zambaldi


The social enterprise sector can be characterized as organizations that aim to solve social problems with financial sustainability and using market mechanisms. This sector has shown an increasing interest worldwide. Despite the growth and relevance of the sector, there is still a gap regarding the assessment of the social impact resulting from the initiatives of the organizations in this field. A number of metrics have been designed worldwide to evaluate the impact of social enterprises (e.g., IRIS, GIIRS, BACO), as well as some ad hoc studies that have been carried out, mainly in the microcredit sector, but there is still a gap to be filled in the development of research in social impact evaluation. Therefore, this research seeks to evaluate the social impact of two social enterprises (Terra Nova and Vivenda) in the area of housing in Brazil. To evaluate these impacts and their dimensions, we conducted an exploratory research, through three focus groups, thirty in-depth interviews and a survey with beneficiaries of both organizations. The results allowed us to evaluate how the two organizations were able to create a deep social impact in the populations served. Terra Nova has a more collective perspective, with a clear benefit of social inclusion and improvement of the community’s infrastructure, while Vivenda has a more individualized perspective, improving self-esteem, sociability and family coexistence.

Keywords: Brazil, housing, social enterprise, social impact evaluation

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14 Affective Communities of Women in the Classic Spanish-Mexican-Argentinian Cinema. A Comparative Perspective from a South-South Gaze

Authors: Invernizzi Agostina


From the 1930s, it is possible to find a phenomenon that persists through to the sixties in the national filmographies of different southern latitudes (Spain, Mexico, Argentina): the proliferation of ensemble films of groups of women who serve base to elaborate broader social conflicts and to construct imaginaries of the nation and of genders. This paper will address the modes of figuration of some affective imaginaries among women where the forms of sociability and the bonds of sisterhood are determined by the spaces in which the women are grouped. In these films, there are forms of affectivity that dispute the meanings of the patriarchal order of the time. One of the hypotheses is that these films formulate communities of women that carry out a reconfiguration of affective and transnational spaces. This research presents a multidisciplinary approach that simultaneously combines film and audiovisual studies, gender studies, decolonial feminist theories, and affects theories. The study of this phenomenon will provide us with keys for articulating with current problematics, such as the genealogies of women's movements, of which the cinema offers echoes and is a privileged medium for reflection and social change, as well as the international contact flows between these three geographical points, their migratory processes and cultural exchanges, transnationalism and integration.

Keywords: affects, feminisms, film studies, gender

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13 Zebrafish Larvae Model: A High Throughput Screening Tool to Study Autism

Authors: Shubham Dwivedi, Raghavender Medishetti, Rita Rani, Aarti Sevilimedu, Pushkar Kulkarni, Yogeeswari Perumal


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder of early onset, characterized by impaired sociability, cognitive function and stereotypies. There is a significant urge to develop and establish new animal models with ASD-like characteristics for better understanding of underlying mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to develop a cost and time effective zebrafish model with quantifiable parameters to facilitate mechanistic studies as well as high-throughput screening of new molecules for autism. Zebrafish embryos were treated with valproic acid and a battery of behavioral tests (anxiety, inattentive behavior, irritability and social impairment) was performed on larvae at 7th day post fertilization, followed by study of molecular markers of autism. This model shows a significant behavioural impairment in valproic acid treated larvae in comparison to control which was again supported by alteration in few marker genes and proteins of autism. The model also shows a rescue of behavioural despair with positive control drugs. The model shows robust parameters to study behavior, molecular mechanism and drug screening approach in a single frame. Thus we postulate that our 7 days zebrafish larval model for autism can help in high throughput screening of new molecules on autism.

Keywords: autism, zebrafish, valproic acid, neurodevelopment, behavioral assay

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12 Post-Pandemic Public Space, Case Study of Public Parks in Kerala

Authors: Nirupama Sam


COVID-19, the greatest pandemic since the turn of the century, presents several issues for urban planners, the most significant of which is determining appropriate mitigation techniques for creating pandemic-friendly and resilient public spaces. The study is conducted in four stages. The first stage consisted of literature reviews to examine the evolution and transformation of public spaces during pandemics throughout history and the role of public spaces during pandemic outbreaks. The second stage is to determine the factors that influence the success of public spaces, which was accomplished by an analysis of current literature and case studies. The influencing factors are categorized under comfort and images, uses and activity, access and linkages, and sociability. The third stage is to establish the priority of identified factors for which a questionnaire survey of stakeholders is conducted and analyzing of certain factors with the help of GIS tools. COVID-19 has been in effect in India for the last two years. Kerala has the highest daily COVID-19 prevalence due to its high population density, making it more susceptible to viral outbreaks. Despite all preventive measures taken against COVID-19, Kerala remains the worst-affected state in the country. Finally, two live case studies of the hardest-hit localities, namely Subhash bose park and Napier Museum park in the Ernakulam and Trivandrum districts of Kerala, respectively, were chosen as study areas for the survey. The responses to the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS for determining the weights of the influencing factors. The spatial success of the selected case studies was examined using the GIS interpolation model. Following the overall assessment, the fourth stage is to develop strategies and guidelines for planning public spaces to make them more efficient and robust, which further leads to improved quality, safety and resilience to future pandemics.

Keywords: urban design, public space, covid-19, post-pandemic, public spaces

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11 Psychological Well Being of Female Prisoners

Authors: Sujata Gupta Kedar, J. N. Tulika


Early researchers suggested that imprisonment had negative psychological and physical effects on its inmates, leading to psychological deterioration. The term “prisons” in the Consensus Statement of WHO is intended to denote, as those institutions which hold people who have been sentenced to a period of imprisonment by the courts for offences against the law. Thus “prisons” if local circumstances justify it, may also be taken to include secure institutions holding on a compulsory basis on any of the following categories of people: remand prisoners; civil prisoners; juvenile detainees; immigration detainees; some categories of mentally disordered patients; asylum seekers; refugees; people detained pending expulsion, deportation, exile, exclusion or any other form of compulsory transfer to other countries or areas of the country; people detained in police cells; and any other compulsorily detained group. Prisons are aimed to cure the criminal and their behavior but their records are not encouraging. Instead the imprisonment affects all prisoners in different way. From withstanding the shock of entry to the new culture, which is very different from their own, prisoners must try to determine how to spend the time in prison, since the hours appears to be endless in prisons. There is also the fear of deterioration. This article aims to provide an overview of the psychological well being of female prisoners in the prison environment in five areas- satisfaction, efficiency, sociability, mental health and interpersonal relations. Research was done on two different types of imprisonment- under trial prisoner and convict. Total sample included 22 female prisoners of Nagaon Special Jail of Assam. The instrument used for the study was based on Psychological Well Being Scale. Statistical analysis was done with t-test and one way anova test. The result demonstrated that there is no significant difference in the psychological wellbeing of female prisoners in the prison and that there is no significant difference in the psychological well being of different types of female prisoners involved in different crimes but there is significant difference in the mental health of the female prisoners in prison.

Keywords: psychological effect, female prisoners, prison, well being of prisoners

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10 Fibromyalgia and Personality: A Review of the Different Personality Types Identified

Authors: Lize Tibiriçá, Ronnie Lee, Samantha Behbahani


Fibromyalgia (FM) is a musculoskeletal disorder affecting men and women of different ages and cultures. The cause of this disorder is unknown; however, studies suggest an etiology that involves biological and psychosocial factors. Few studies have shown that a personality type such as neuroticism is associated with chronic pain conditions. Past research has explored whether patients with FM present with a specific personality trait. However, studies have used different methods (i.e. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS) and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire or Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Karolinska scale of personality, Big Five Inventory or NEO Personality Inventory) to explore the connection between FM and a personality type. They have identified personality types that present similar characteristics but vary in the name (i.e. high harm avoidance and low novelty seeking, psychasthenia/muscular tension/somatic anxiety, neuroticism). Although Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire and the Big Five Inventory differ in terms of content and structure, both of them identify neuroticism as the personality type of FM patients, and the former also identifies these patients as having a low sociability personality trait. Previous research also shows a trend of sociotropic personality style with FM patients that also suffer from Major Depressive Disorder. Participants in these studies were, for the most part, adult female and researchers have recognized that as a limitation and whether their findings can be generalized to men and younger patients with FM. Furthermore, most studies reviewed were conducted in Europe (i.e. Spain) and had a cross-sectional design. Future research should replicate past studies in different countries and consider conducting a longitudinal study. Although it is suspected that FM course is modulated by FM patients’ personality, it is not known whether individuals with similar personalities will develop FM. This review sought to explain the differences and similarities between the personality types identified. Limitations in the studies reviewed were addressed, and considerations for future research and treatment were discussed.

Keywords: chronic pain, fibromyalgia, neuroticism, personality type

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9 Emotional and Personal Characteristics of Children in Relation to the Parental Attitudes

Authors: Svetlana S. Saveysheva, Victoria E. Vasilenko


The purpose of the research was to study the emotional and personal characteristics of preschool children in relation to the characteristics of child-parent interaction and deviant parental attitudes. The study involved 172 mothers and 172 children (85 boys and 87 girls) aged 4,5 to 7 years (mean age 6 years) living in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods used were, demographic questionnaire, projective drawing method 'House-Tree-Man', Test of anxiety (Temml, Dorki, Amen), technique of studying self-esteem 'Ladder', expert evaluation of sociability and aggressiveness, questionnaire for children-parent emotional interaction (E.I. Zaharova) and questionnaire 'Analysis of family relationships' (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitsky). Results. The greatest number of links with personal characteristics have received such parental deviant attitudes as overprotection and characteristics of authoritarian style (prohibitions, sanctions). If the mother has such peculiarities of the parental relationship, the child is characterized by lower self-esteem, increased anxiety, distrust of themselves and hostility. Children have more pronounced manifestations of aggression in a conniving and unstable style of parenting. The sensitivity of the mother is positively associated with children’s self-esteem. Unconditional acceptance of the child, the predominance of a positive emotional background, orientation to the state of the child during interaction promote the development of communication skills and reduce of aggressiveness. But the excessive closeness of the mother with the child can make it difficult to develop the communicative skills. Conclusions. The greatest influence on emotional and personal characteristics is provided by such features of the parental relation as overprotection, characteristics of authoritarian style, underdevelopment of the sphere of parental feelings, sensitivity of mother and behavioral manifestations of emotional interaction. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.

Keywords: characteristics of personality, child-parent interaction, children, deviant parental attitudes

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8 Anticipating the Change: Visions and Perspectives towards a Post-Car World

Authors: Farzaneh Bahrami


Different indicators, such as modal shares in mobility practices or car ownership, may suggest that the century of car dominance - at least in Europe and North America - is already behind us. If the emergence of the car had radical spatial and social consequences, what would be the implications of its gradual disappearance - which could be expected in the context of ecological consciousness, economic and energetic constraints as a result of both urban policies as well as lifestyle choices? To what extend shall urban experts account for this limited but visible transition from car-dominated systems towards alternative models of mobility in which the individual-motorized mobility (car) is not central; what models of urbanity could be imagined to support such a transformation? We have examined a selection of projects at different scales and within different contexts - new planned cities, dense urban areas or territories of dispersion – whose visions involve a significant shift from the current car system. We have been looking into their tools, strategies and different measures of car reduction, as well as their varied approaches to public space as an inevitable corollary to this change. The car’s dominance was formerly questioned by advocates of public space, rather than through interests in ecological urban design or other urban planning concerns. In the 60s already a universal longing for the qualities of traditional urban space led to a critique of the proliferation of fast roads, and thus the car’s colonization of everyday life. Reclamation of public space as the city’s quintessential social territory reappears today in contemporary discourses and reinforces the shift-provoking trends towards a new urbanity freed from car dominance. In a hypothetical process of the progressive phasing-out of the car, we shall expect fundamental transformations in spatial practices of the city, accompanied by the physical configuration of its public spaces. What will be the main characteristics of the new emerging spaces of sociability and where shall we encounter them? This contribution is an ongoing research within the framework of Post-Car World, an interdisciplinary project that explores the future of mobility through the role of the car.

Keywords: mobility, urbanity, future visions, public space

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7 Alcohol Rituals and Active Ageing: A Thematic Analysis of Semi-Structured Interviews with Retirees in the West of Scotland

Authors: Deborah Nicholson, Fiona McCormack, Pete Seaman, Karen Bell


This paper explores alcohol consumption amongst retirees in the West of Scotland in the context of active and healthy ageing discourses. The public health consequences of alcohol use are well documented and of growing concern to policy makers in Scotland and elsewhere. However, alcohol occupies a prominent position in a range of cultural and social practices and has associated meanings for users related to conviviality, leisure, sociability, and inclusion- features closely tied to active and healthy ageing. These perceived positive and negative meanings place alcohol in an ambiguous and contradictory position in relation to the Scottish Government’s key health policy initiatives aimed at healthy ageing and the reduction of alcohol-related ill-health. This paper explores these positive and negative associations through an examination of the meanings which retirees attach to alcohol and the routines and rituals they develop to navigate wider health concerns. Methods: participants were recruited from the West of Scotland area using a quota sampling design based around gender, age, and socioeconomic position. Forty participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and qualitative techniques. The interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Results: Alcohol use amongst retirees in Scotland was widely varied with marked differences noted in terms of gender and age group, but with less clear variance by socioeconomic position. A range of strategies was employed to limit alcohol use by time, context, location and/or volume and these strategies clearly drew on a perception of alcohol use in retirement as potentially more problematic than at earlier stage of life. Thus, the retirees in the sample used these limiting strategies to navigate the positive and negative meanings they attached to alcohol use.

Keywords: alcohol, health, retirement, routines

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6 “I” on the Web: Social Penetration Theory Revised

Authors: Dr. Dionysis Panos Dpt. Communication, Internet Studies Cyprus University of Technology


The widespread use of New Media and particularly Social Media, through fixed or mobile devices, has changed in a staggering way our perception about what is “intimate" and "safe" and what is not, in interpersonal communication and social relationships. The distribution of self and identity-related information in communication now evolves under new and different conditions and contexts. Consequently, this new framework forces us to rethink processes and mechanisms, such as what "exposure" means in interpersonal communication contexts, how the distinction between the "private" and the "public" nature of information is being negotiated online, how the "audiences" we interact with are understood and constructed. Drawing from an interdisciplinary perspective that combines sociology, communication psychology, media theory, new media and social networks research, as well as from the empirical findings of a longitudinal comparative research, this work proposes an integrative model for comprehending mechanisms of personal information management in interpersonal communication, which can be applied to both types of online (Computer-Mediated) and offline (Face-To-Face) communication. The presentation is based on conclusions drawn from a longitudinal qualitative research study with 458 new media users from 24 countries for almost over a decade. Some of these main conclusions include: (1) There is a clear and evidenced shift in users’ perception about the degree of "security" and "familiarity" of the Web, between the pre- and the post- Web 2.0 era. The role of Social Media in this shift was catalytic. (2) Basic Web 2.0 applications changed dramatically the nature of the Internet itself, transforming it from a place reserved for “elite users / technical knowledge keepers" into a place of "open sociability” for anyone. (3) Web 2.0 and Social Media brought about a significant change in the concept of “audience” we address in interpersonal communication. The previous "general and unknown audience" of personal home pages, converted into an "individual & personal" audience chosen by the user under various criteria. (4) The way we negotiate the nature of 'private' and 'public' of the Personal Information, has changed in a fundamental way. (5) The different features of the mediated environment of online communication and the critical changes occurred since the Web 2.0 advance, lead to the need of reconsideration and updating the theoretical models and analysis tools we use in our effort to comprehend the mechanisms of interpersonal communication and personal information management. Therefore, is proposed here a new model for understanding the way interpersonal communication evolves, based on a revision of social penetration theory.

Keywords: new media, interpersonal communication, social penetration theory, communication exposure, private information, public information

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5 Technological Exploitation and User Experience in Product Innovation: The Case Study of the High-Tech Mask

Authors: Venere Ferraro, Silvia Ferraris


We live in a world pervaded by new advanced technologies that have been changing the way we live and experience the surrounded. Besides, new technologies enable product innovation at different levels. Nevertheless, innovation does not lie just in the technological development and in its hard aspects but also in the meaningful use of it for the final user. In order to generate innovative products, a new perspective is needed: The shift from an instrument-oriented view of the technology towards a broader view that includes aspects like aesthetics, acceptance, comfort, and sociability. In many businesses, the user experience of the product is considered the key battlefield to achieve product innovation. (Holland 2011) The use of new technologies is indeed useless without paying attention to the user experience. This paper presents a workshop activity conducted at Design School of Politecnico di Milano in collaboration with Chiba University and aimed at generating innovative design concepts of high-tech mask. The students were asked to design the user experience of a new mask by exploiting emerging technologies such as wearable sensors and information communication technology (ICT) for a chosen field of application: safety or sport. When it comes to the user experience, the mask is a very challenging design product, because it covers aspects of product interaction and, most important, psychological and cultural aspects related to the impact on the facial expression. Furthermore, since the mask affects the face expression quite a lot, it could be a barrier to hide with, or it could be a mean to enhance user’s communication to others. The main request for the students was to take on a user-centered approach: To go beyond the instrumental aspects of product use and usability and focus on the user experience by shaping the technology in a desirable and meaningful way for the user reasoning on the metaphorical and cultural level of the product. During the one-week workshop students were asked to face the design process through (i) the research phase: an in-deep analysis of the user and field of application (safety or sport) to set design spaces (brief) and user scenario; (ii) the idea generation, (iii) the idea development. This text will shortly go through the meaning of the product innovation, the use and application of wearable technologies and will then focus on the user experience design in contrast with the technology-driven approach in the field of product innovation. Finally authors will describe the workshop activity and the concepts developed by the students stressing the important role of the user experience design in new product development.

Keywords: product innovation, user experience, technological exploitation, wearable technologies

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4 Women's Parliamentary Representation in Uganda: A Relative Analysis of the Pathways of Women on the Open vs. Affirmative Action Seat

Authors: Doreen Chemutai


While women's parliamentary representation has increased over the years, most women contest the affirmative action seat (A.A). There is a lack of knowledge on why women prefer the affirmative seat vis- a- vis the open seat. This study argues that comparing women's path on the reserved and open seat to parliamentary representation enables us to pass judgment on why this trend continues. This paper provides a narrative analysis of women members of parliament's (MPs) trajectory in the open seat and Affirmative Action seat to parliamentary representation. Purposive sampling was used to select participants from the Northern Uganda districts of Kitgum, Pader, Oyam, Agago, and Gulu. The eight women MPs chosen for the study completed in-depth interviews exploring their qualifications, careers, and experiences before joining the political office, their party affiliation, and the kind of seat they currently occupy in the 10th parliament. Findings revealed similarities between women on the open and reserved to include; women generally irrespective of the seat they choose to contest for find it difficult to win elections because voters doubt women's effectiveness as leaders. All women as incumbents find it difficult to be re-elected because their evaluation is harsher than that for men. Findings also revealed that women representatives are motivated by their personal lived experiences, community work, educational leadership, and local leadership. The study establishes that the popularity of the party in a given geographical location and the opponents' quality will determine the success of the parliamentary candidate in question irrespective of whether one is contesting on the open or Affirmative seat. However, the study revealed differences between MPs' experiences in the quest for the parliamentary seat, females on the open seat are subjected to gender discrimination in elections by party leadership, stereotyped, and are victims of propaganda in the initial contesting stages. Women who win elections in the open seat have to be superior to their male opponents. In other circumstances where a woman emerges successful, she may be voted for due to other reasons beyond capability, such as physical appearance or sociability. On the other hand, MPs' revelations on affirmative action seats show that the political terrain is smoother despite larger constituencies. Findings show that women on the Affirmative Action seat do not move to the open seat because of the comfort associated with the seat and maintain consistency, since the constituencies doubt the motives of representatives who change from one seat to another. The study concludes that women MPs who contest on the open seat are likely to suffer structural barriers such as gender discrimination and political recruitment bias instead of women on the affirmative seat. This explains why the majority of women contest on the affirmative seat.

Keywords: affirmative action seats, open seats, parliamentary representation, pathways

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3 Nurse Participation for the Economical Effectiveness in Medical Organizations

Authors: Alua Masalimova, Dameli Sulubecova, Talgat Isaev, Raushan Magzumova


The usual relation to nurses of heads of medical organizations in Kazakhstan is to use them only for per performing medical manipulations, but new economic conditions require the introduction of nursing innovations. There is an increasing need for managers of hospital departments and regions of ambulatory clinics to ensure comfortable conditions for doctors, nurses, aides, as well as monitoring marketing technology (the needs and satisfaction of staff work, the patient satisfaction of the department). It is going to the past the nursing activities as physician assistant performing his prescriptions passively. We are suggesting a model for the developing the head nurse as the manager on the example of Blood Service. We have studied in the scientific-production center of blood transfusion head nurses by the standard method of interviewing for involvement in coordinating the flow of information, promoting the competitiveness of the department. Results: the average age of the respondents 43,1 ± 9,8, female - 100%; manager in the Organization – 9,3 ± 10,3 years. Received positive responses to the knowledge of the nearest offices in providing similar medical service - 14,2%. The cost of similar medical services in other competitive organizations did not know 100%, did a study of employee satisfaction Division labour-85,7% answered negatively, the satisfaction donors work staff studied in 50.0% of cases involved in attracting paid Services Division showed a 28.5% of the respondent. Participation in management decisions medical organization: strategic planning - 14,2%, forming analysis report for the year – 14,2%, recruitment-30.0%, equipment-14.2%. Participation in the social and technical designing workplaces Division staff showed 85,0% of senior nurses. Participate in the cohesion of the staff of the Division method of the team used the 10.0% of respondents. Further, we have studied the behavioral competencies for senior sisters: customer focus – 20,0% of respondents have attended, the ability to work in a team – 40,0%. Personal qualities senior nurses were apparent: sociability – 80,0%, the ability to manage information – 40,0%, to make their own decisions - 14,2%, 28,5% creativity, the desire to improve their professionalism – 50,0%. Thus, the modern market conditions dictate this organization, which works for the rights of economic management; include the competence of the post of the senior nurse knowledge and skills of Marketing Management Department. Skills to analyses the information collected and use of management offers superior medical leadership organization. The medical organization in the recruitment of the senior nurse offices take into account personal qualities: flexibility, fluency of thinking, communication skills and ability to work in a team. As well as leadership qualities, ambition, high emotional and social intelligence, that will bring out the medical unit on competitiveness within the country and abroad.

Keywords: blood service, head nurse, manager, skills

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2 Fuzzy Data, Random Drift, and a Theoretical Model for the Sequential Emergence of Religious Capacity in Genus Homo

Authors: Margaret Boone Rappaport, Christopher J. Corbally


The ancient ape ancestral population from which living great ape and human species evolved had demographic features affecting their evolution. The population was large, had great genetic variability, and natural selection was effective at honing adaptations. The emerging populations of chimpanzees and humans were affected more by founder effects and genetic drift because they were smaller. Natural selection did not disappear, but it was not as strong. Consequences of the 'population crash' and the human effective population size are introduced briefly. The history of the ancient apes is written in the genomes of living humans and great apes. The expansion of the brain began before the human line emerged. Coalescence times for some genes are very old – up to several million years, long before Homo sapiens. The mismatch between gene trees and species trees highlights the anthropoid speciation processes, and gives the human genome history a fuzzy, probabilistic quality. However, it suggests traits that might form a foundation for capacities emerging later. A theoretical model is presented in which the genomes of early ape populations provide the substructure for the emergence of religious capacity later on the human line. The model does not search for religion, but its foundations. It suggests a course by which an evolutionary line that began with prosimians eventually produced a human species with biologically based religious capacity. The model of the sequential emergence of religious capacity relies on cognitive science, neuroscience, paleoneurology, primate field studies, cognitive archaeology, genomics, and population genetics. And, it emphasizes five trait types: (1) Documented, positive selection of sensory capabilities on the human line may have favored survival, but also eventually enriched human religious experience. (2) The bonobo model suggests a possible down-regulation of aggression and increase in tolerance while feeding, as well as paedomorphism – but, in a human species that remains cognitively sharp (unlike the bonobo). The two species emerged from the same ancient ape population, so it is logical to search for shared traits. (3) An up-regulation of emotional sensitivity and compassion seems to have occurred on the human line. This finds support in modern genetic studies. (4) The authors’ published model of morality's emergence in Homo erectus encompasses a cognitively based, decision-making capacity that was hypothetically overtaken, in part, by religious capacity. Together, they produced a strong, variable, biocultural capability to support human sociability. (5) The full flowering of human religious capacity came with the parietal expansion and smaller face (klinorhynchy) found only in Homo sapiens. Details from paleoneurology suggest the stage was set for human theologies. Larger parietal lobes allowed humans to imagine inner spaces, processes, and beings, and, with the frontal lobe, led to the first theologies composed of structured and integrated theories of the relationships between humans and the supernatural. The model leads to the evolution of a small population of African hominins that was ready to emerge with religious capacity when the species Homo sapiens evolved two hundred thousand years ago. By 50-60,000 years ago, when human ancestors left Africa, they were fully enabled.

Keywords: genetic drift, genomics, parietal expansion, religious capacity

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1 The Impact of Neighborhood Effects on the Economic Mobility of the Inhabitants of Three Segregated Communities in Salvador (Brazil)

Authors: Stephan Treuke


The paper analyses the neighbourhood effects on the economic mobility of the inhabitants of three segregated communities of Salvador (Brazil), in other words, the socio-economic advantages and disadvantages affecting the lives of poor people due to their embeddedness in specific socio-residential contexts. Recent studies performed in Brazilian metropolis have concentrated on the structural dimensions of negative externalities in order to explain neighbourhood-level variations in a field of different phenomena (delinquency, violence, access to the labour market and education) in spatial isolated and socially homogeneous slum areas (favelas). However, major disagreement remains whether the contiguity between residents of poor neighbourhoods and higher-class condominio-dwellers provides structures of opportunities or whether it fosters socio-spatial stigmatization. Based on a set of interviews, investigating the variability of interpersonal networks and their activation in the struggle for economic inclusion, the study confirms that the proximity of Nordeste de Amaralina to middle-/upper-class communities affects positively the access to labour opportunities. Nevertheless, residential stigmatization, as well as structures of social segmentation, annihilate these potentials. The lack of exposition to individuals and groups extrapolating from the favela’s social, educational and cultural context restricts the structures of opportunities to local level. Therefore, residents´ interpersonal networks reveal a high degree of redundancy and localism, based on bonding ties connecting family and neighbourhood members. The resilience of segregational structures in Plataforma contributes to the naturalization of social distance patters. It’s embeddedness in a socially homogeneous residential area (Subúrbio Ferroviário), growing informally and beyond official urban politics, encourages the construction of isotopic patterns of sociability, sharing the same values, social preferences, perspectives and behaviour models. Whereas it’s spatial isolation correlates with the scarcity of economic opportunities, the social heterogeneity of Fazenda Grande II interviewees and the socialising effects of public institutions mitigate the negative repercussions of segregation. The networks’ composition admits a higher degree of heterophilia and a greater proportion of bridging ties accounting for the access to broader information actives and facilitating economic mobility. The variability observed within the three different scenarios urges to reflect about the responsability of urban politics when it comes to the prevention or consolidation of the social segregation process in Salvador. Instead of promoting the local development of the favela Plataforma, public housing programs priorize technocratic habitational solutions without providing the residents’ socio-economic integration. The impact of negative externalities related to the homogeneously poor neighbourhood is potencialized in peripheral areas, turning its’ inhabitants socially invisible, thus being isolated from other social groups. The example of Nordeste de Amaralina portrays the failing interest of urban politics to bridge the social distances structuring the brazilian society’s rigid stratification model, founded on mecanisms of segmentation (unequal access to labour market and education system, public transport, social security and law protection) and generating permanent conflicts between the two socioeconomically distant groups living in geographic contiguity. Finally, in the case of Fazenda Grande II, the public investments in both housing projects and complementary infrastructure (e.g. schools, hospitals, community center, police stations, recreation areas) contributes to the residents’ socio-economic inclusion.

Keywords: economic mobility, neighborhood effects, Salvador, segregation

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