Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2375

Search results for: sheet moulding compounds

2375 Proposition Model of Micromechanical Damage to Predict Reduction in Stiffness of a Fatigued A-SMC Composite

Authors: Houssem Ayari

Abstract:

Sheet molding compounds (SMC) are high strength thermoset moulding materials reinforced with glass treated with thermocompression. SMC composites combine fibreglass resins and polyester/phenolic/vinyl and unsaturated acrylic to produce a high strength moulding compound. These materials are usually formulated to meet the performance requirements of the moulding part. In addition, the vinyl ester resins used in the new advanced SMC systems (A-SMC) have many desirable features, including mechanical properties comparable to epoxy, excellent chemical resistance and tensile resistance, and cost competitiveness. In this paper, a proposed model is used to take into account the Young modulus evolutions of advanced SMC systems (A-SMC) composite under fatigue tests. The proposed model and the used approach are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: composites SFRC, damage, fatigue, Mori-Tanaka

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
2374 Pedestrian Safe Bumper Design from Commingled Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Reinforced Sandwich Composites

Authors: L. Onal

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to optimize manufacturing process for thermoplastic sandwich composite structures for the pedestrian safety of automobiles subjected to collision condition. In particular, cost-effective manufacturing techniques for sandwich structures with commingled GF/PP skins and low-density foam cores are being investigated. The performance of these structures under bending load is being studied. Samples are manufactured using compression moulding technique. The relationship of this performance to processing parameters such as mould temperature, moulding time, moulding pressure and sequence of the layers during moulding is being investigated. The results of bending tests are discussed in the light of the moulding conditions and conclusions are given regarding optimum set of processing conditions using the compression moulding route

Keywords: twintex, flexural properties, automobile composites, sandwich structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
2373 Multi-Scale Damage and Mechanical Behavior of Sheet Molding Compound Composites Subjected to Fatigue, Dynamic, and Post-Fatigue Dynamic Loadings

Authors: M. Shirinbayan, J. Fitoussi, N. Abbasnezhad, A. Lucas, A. Tcharkhtchi

Abstract:

Sheet Molding Compounds (SMCs) with special microstructures are very attractive to use in automobile structures especially when they are accidentally subjected to collision type accidents because of their high energy absorption capacity. These are materials designated as standard SMC, Advanced Sheet Molding Compounds (A-SMC), Low-Density SMC (LD-SMC) and etc. In this study, testing methods have been performed to compare the mechanical responses and damage phenomena of SMC, LD-SMC, and A-SMC under quasi-static and high strain rate tensile tests. The paper also aims at investigating the effect of an initial pre-damage induced by fatigue on the tensile dynamic behavior of A-SMC. In the case of SMCs and A-SMCs, whatever the fibers orientation and applied strain rate are, the first observed phenomenon of damage corresponds to decohesion of the fiber-matrix interface which is followed by coalescence and multiplication of these micro-cracks and their propagations. For LD-SMCs, damage mechanisms depend on the presence of Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) and fibers orientation.

Keywords: SMC, Sheet Molding Compound, LD-SMC, Low-Density SMC, A-SMC, Advanced Sheet Molding Compounds, HGM, Hollow Glass Microspheres, damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
2372 An Innovation and Development System for a New Hybrid Composite Technology in Aerospace Industry

Authors: M. Fette, J. P. Wulfsberg, A. Herrmann, R. H. Ladstaetter

Abstract:

Present and future lightweight design represents an important key to successful implementation of energy-saving, fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly means of transport in the aerospace and automotive industry. In this context the use of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) which are distinguished by their outstanding mechanical properties at relatively low weight, promise significant improvements. Due to the reduction of the total mass, with the resulting lowered fuel or energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the operational phase, commercial aircraft and future vehicles will increasingly be made of CFRP. An auspicious technology for the efficient and economic production of high performance thermoset composites and hybrid structures for future lightweight applications is the combination of carbon fibre sheet moulding compound (SMC), tailored continuous carbon fibre reinforcements and metallic components in a one-shot pressing and curing process. This paper deals with a new hybrid composite technology for aerospace industries, which was developed with the help of a universal innovation and development system. This system supports the management of idea generation, the methodical development of innovative technologies and the achievement of the industrial readiness of these technologies.

Keywords: development system, hybrid composite, innovation system, prepreg, sheet moulding compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2371 Design and Finite Element Analysis of Clamp Cylinder for Capacity Augmentation of Injection Moulding Machine

Authors: Vimal Jasoliya, Purnank Bhatt, Mit Shah

Abstract:

The Injection Moulding is one of the principle methods of conversions of plastics into various end products using a very wide range of plastics materials from commodity plastics to specialty engineering plastics. Injection Moulding Machines are rated as per the tonnage force applied. The work present includes Design & Finite Element Analysis of a structure component of injection moulding machine i.e. clamp cylinder. The work of the project is to upgrade the 1300T clamp cylinder to 1500T clamp cylinder for injection moulding machine. The design of existing clamp cylinder of 1300T is checked. Finite Element analysis is carried out for 1300T clamp cylinder in ANSYS Workbench, and the stress values are compared with acceptance criteria and theoretical calculation. The relation between the clamp cylinder diameter and the tonnage capacity has been derived and verified for 1300T clamp cylinder. The same correlation is used to find out the thickness for 1500T clamp cylinder. The detailed design of 1500T cylinder is carried out based on calculated thickness.

Keywords: clamp cylinder, fatigue analysis, finite element analysis, injection moulding machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2370 Strong Antiferromagnetic Super Exchange in AgF2

Authors: Wojciech Grochala

Abstract:

AgF2 is an important two-dimensional antiferromagnet and an analogue of [CuO2]2– sheet. However, the strength of magnetic superexchange as well as magnetic dimensionality have not been explored before . Here we report our recent Raman and neutron scattering experiments which led to better understanding of the magnetic properties of the title compound. It turns out that intra-sheet magnetic superexchange constant reaches 70 meV, thus some 2/3 of the value measured for parent compounds of oxocuprate superconductors which is over 100 meV. The ratio of intra-to-inter-sheet superexchange constants is of the order of 102 rendering AgF2 a quasi-2D material, similar to the said oxocuprates. The quantum mechanical calculations reproduce the abovementioned values quite well and they point out to substantial covalence of the Ag–F bonding. After 3 decades of intense research on layered oxocuprates, AgF2 now stands as a second-to-none analogue of these fascinating systems. It remains to be seen whether this 012 parent compound may be doped in order to achieve superconductivity.

Keywords: antiferromagnets, superexchange, silver, fluorine

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2369 Effect of Injection Moulding Process Parameter on Tensile Strength of Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Gurjeet Singh, M. K. Pradhan, Ajay Verma

Abstract:

The plastic industry plays very important role in the economy of any country. It is generally among the leading share of the economy of the country. Since metals and their alloys are very rarely available on the earth. So to produce plastic products and components, which finds application in many industrial as well as household consumer products is beneficial. Since 50% plastic products are manufactured by injection moulding process. For production of better quality product, we have to control quality characteristics and performance of the product. The process parameters plays a significant role in production of plastic, hence the control of process parameter is essential. In this paper the effect of the parameters selection on injection moulding process has been described. It is to define suitable parameters in producing plastic product. Selecting the process parameter by trial and error is neither desirable nor acceptable, as it is often tends to increase the cost and time. Hence optimization of processing parameter of injection moulding process is essential. The experiments were designed with Taguchi’s orthogonal array to achieve the result with least number of experiments. Here Plastic material polypropylene is studied. Tensile strength test of material is done on universal testing machine, which is produced by injection moulding machine. By using Taguchi technique with the help of MiniTab-14 software the best value of injection pressure, melt temperature, packing pressure and packing time is obtained. We found that process parameter packing pressure contribute more in production of good tensile plastic product.

Keywords: injection moulding, tensile strength, poly-propylene, Taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
2368 Characterization of Surface Suction Grippers for Continuous-Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Semi-Finished Parts of an Automated Handling and Preforming Operation

Authors: Jürgen Fleischer, Woramon Pangboonyanon, Dominic Lesage

Abstract:

Non-metallic lightweight materials such as fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) become very significant at present. Prepregs e.g. SMC and unidirectional tape (UD-tape) are one of raw materials used to produce FRP. This study concerns with the manufacturing steps of handling and preforming of this UD-SMC and focuses on the investigation of gripper characteristics regarding gripping forces in normal and lateral direction, in order to identify suitable operating pressures for a secure gripping operation. A reliable handling and preforming operation results in a higher adding value of the overall process chain. As a result, the suitable operating pressures depending on travelling direction for each material type could be shown. Moreover, system boundary conditions regarding allowable pulling force in normal and lateral directions during preforming could be measured.

Keywords: continuous-discontinuous fiber reinforced plastics, UD-SMC-prepreg, handling, preforming, prepregs, sheet moulding compounds, surface suction gripper

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
2367 Simulation of the Effect of Sea Water using Ground Tank to the Flexural Capacity of GFRP Sheet Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Arbain Tata, Rita Irmawaty

Abstract:

The study conducted a simulation of the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the concrete beams using a simulation tank. As it well known that, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has been applied to many purposes for civil engineering structures not only for new structures but also for strengthening of the deteriorated structures. The FRP has advantages such as its corrosion resistance, as well as high tensile strength, to weight ratio. Glass composed FRP (GFRP) sheet is most commonly used due to its relatively lower cost compared to the other FRP materials. GFRP sheet is applied externally by bonding it on the concrete surface. Many studies have been done to investigate the bonding of GFRP sheet. However, it is still very rarely studies on the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the strengthened beams due to flexural loadings. This is important to be clarified for the wider application of GFRP sheet especially on the flexural structure that directly contact to the sea environment. To achieve the objective of the study, a series of concrete beams strengthened with GFRP sheet on extreme tension surface were prepared. The beams then were stored on the sea water tank for six months. Results indicated the bonding capacity decreased after six months exposed to the sea water.

Keywords: GFRP sheet, sea water, concrete beams, bonding

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
2366 Towards a Complete Automation Feature Recognition System for Sheet Metal Manufacturing

Authors: Bahaa Eltahawy, Mikko Ylihärsilä, Reino Virrankoski, Esko Petäjä

Abstract:

Sheet metal processing is automated, but the step from product models to the production machine control still requires human intervention. This may cause time consuming bottlenecks in the production process and increase the risk of human errors. In this paper we present a system, which automatically recognizes features from the CAD-model of the sheet metal product. By using these features, the system produces a complete model of the particular sheet metal product. Then the model is used as an input for the sheet metal processing machine. Currently the system is implemented, capable to recognize more than 11 of the most common sheet metal structural features, and the procedure is fully automated. This provides remarkable savings in the production time, and protects against the human errors. This paper presents the developed system architecture, applied algorithms and system software implementation and testing.

Keywords: feature recognition, automation, sheet metal manufacturing, CAD, CAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
2365 Part Performance Improvement through Design Optimisation of Cooling Channels in the Injection Moulding Process

Authors: M. A. Alhubail, A. I. Alateyah, D. Alenezi, B. Aldousiri

Abstract:

In this study conformal cooling channel (CCC) was employed to dissipate heat of, Polypropylene (PP) parts injected into the Stereolithography (SLA) insert to form tensile and flexural test specimens. The direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to fabricate a mould with optimised CCC, while optimum parameters of injection moulding were obtained using Optimal-D. The obtained results show that optimisation of the cooling channel layout using a DMLS mould has significantly shortened cycle time without sacrificing the part’s mechanical properties. By applying conformal cooling channels, the cooling time phase was reduced by 20 seconds, and also defected parts were eliminated.

Keywords: optimum parameters, injection moulding, conformal cooling channels, cycle time

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
2364 Experimental Study and Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector with Various Reflectors

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Balram Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

A solar powered air heating system using parabolic trough collector was experimentally investigated. In this experimental setup, the reflected solar radiations were focused on absorber tube which was placed at focal length of the parabolic trough. In this setup, air was used as working fluid which collects the heat from absorber tube. To enhance the performance of parabolic trough, collector with different type of reflectors were used. It was observed for aluminum sheet maximum temperature is 52.3ºC, which 24.22% more than steel sheet as reflector and 8.5% more than aluminum foil as reflector, also efficiency by using Aluminum sheet as reflector compared to steel sheet as reflector is 61.18% more. Efficiency by using aluminum sheet as reflector compared to aluminum foil as reflector is 18.98% more.

Keywords: parabolic trough collector, reflectors, air flow rates, solar power, aluminum sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
2363 Quality Improvement of the Sand Moulding Process in Foundries Using Six Sigma Technique

Authors: Cindy Sithole, Didier Nyembwe, Peter Olubambi

Abstract:

The sand casting process involves pattern making, mould making, metal pouring and shake out. Every step in the sand moulding process is very critical for production of good quality castings. However, waste generated during the sand moulding operation and lack of quality are matters that influences performance inefficiencies and lack of competitiveness in South African foundries. Defects produced from the sand moulding process are only visible in the final product (casting) which results in increased number of scrap, reduced sales and increases cost in the foundry. The purpose of this Research is to propose six sigma technique (DMAIC, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) intervention in sand moulding foundries and to reduce variation caused by deficiencies in the sand moulding process in South African foundries. Its objective is to create sustainability and enhance productivity in the South African foundry industry. Six sigma is a data driven method to process improvement that aims to eliminate variation in business processes using statistical control methods .Six sigma focuses on business performance improvement through quality initiative using the seven basic tools of quality by Ishikawa. The objectives of six sigma are to eliminate features that affects productivity, profit and meeting customers’ demands. Six sigma has become one of the most important tools/techniques for attaining competitive advantage. Competitive advantage for sand casting foundries in South Africa means improved plant maintenance processes, improved product quality and proper utilization of resources especially scarce resources. Defects such as sand inclusion, Flashes and sand burn on were some of the defects that were identified as resulting from the sand moulding process inefficiencies using six sigma technique. The courses were we found to be wrong design of the mould due to the pattern used and poor ramming of the moulding sand in a foundry. Six sigma tools such as the voice of customer, the Fishbone, the voice of the process and process mapping were used to define the problem in the foundry and to outline the critical to quality elements. The SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) Diagram was also employed to ensure that the material and process parameters were achieved to ensure quality improvement in a foundry. The process capability of the sand moulding process was measured to understand the current performance to enable improvement. The Expected results of this research are; reduced sand moulding process variation, increased productivity and competitive advantage.

Keywords: defects, foundries, quality improvement, sand moulding, six sigma (DMAIC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
2362 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar

Abstract:

In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: OMR, image processing, hough circle trans-form, interpolation, detection, binary thresholding

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2361 Interface Analysis of Annealed Al/Cu Cladded Sheet

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by Differential Speed Rolling (DSR) process were studied by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100°C with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400°C for 30 to 120 min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.

Keywords: aluminium/copper clad sheet, differential speed rolling, interface layer, microstructure, annealing, electron back scattered diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
2360 Study on the Non-Contact Sheet Resistance Measuring of Silver Nanowire Coated Film Using Terahertz Wave

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Wan-Ho Chung, Hak-Sung Kim

Abstract:

In this work, non-destructive evaluation was conducted to measure the sheet resistance of silver nanowire coated film and find a damage of that film using terahertz (THz) wave. Pulse type THz instrument was used, and the measurement was performed under transmission and pitch-catch reflection modes with 30 degree of incidence angle. In the transmission mode, the intensity of the THz wave was gradually increased as the conductivity decreased. Meanwhile, the intensity of THz wave was decreased as the conductivity decreased in the pitch-catch reflection mode. To confirm the conductivity of the film, sheet resistance was measured by 4-point probe station. Interaction formula was drawn from a relation between the intensity and the sheet resistance. Through substituting sheet resistance to the formula and comparing the resultant value with measured maximum THz wave intensity, measurement of sheet resistance using THz wave was more suitable than that using 4-point probe station. In addition, the damage on the silver nanowire coated film was detected by applying the THz image system. Therefore, the reliability of the entire film can be also be ensured. In conclusion, real-time monitoring using the THz wave can be applied in the transparent electrodes with detecting the damaged area as well as measuring the sheet resistance.

Keywords: terahertz wave, sheet resistance, non-destructive evaluation, silver nanowire

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
2359 An Automatic Feature Extraction Technique for 2D Punch Shapes

Authors: Awais Ahmad Khan, Emad Abouel Nasr, H. M. A. Hussein, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

Abstract:

Sheet-metal parts have been widely applied in electronics, communication and mechanical industries in recent decades; but the advancement in sheet-metal part design and manufacturing is still behind in comparison with the increasing importance of sheet-metal parts in modern industry. This paper presents a methodology for automatic extraction of some common 2D internal sheet metal features. The features used in this study are taken from Unipunch ™ catalogue. The extraction process starts with the data extraction from STEP file using an object oriented approach and with the application of suitable algorithms and rules, all features contained in the catalogue are automatically extracted. Since the extracted features include geometry and engineering information, they will be effective for downstream application such as feature rebuilding and process planning.

Keywords: feature extraction, internal features, punch shapes, sheet metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 521
2358 A Note on MHD Flow and Heat Transfer over a Curved Stretching Sheet by Considering Variable Thermal Conductivity

Authors: M. G. Murtaza, E. E. Tzirtzilakis, M. Ferdows

Abstract:

The mixed convective flow of MHD incompressible, steady boundary layer in heat transfer over a curved stretching sheet due to temperature dependent thermal conductivity is studied. We use curvilinear coordinate system in order to describe the governing flow equations. Finite difference solutions with central differencing have been used to solve the transform governing equations. Numerical results for the flow velocity and temperature profiles are presented as a function of the non-dimensional curvature radius. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number at the surface of the curved sheet are discussed as well.

Keywords: curved stretching sheet, finite difference method, MHD, variable thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
2357 Bearing Capacity of Sheet Hanger Connection to the Trapezoidal Metal Sheet

Authors: Kateřina Jurdová

Abstract:

Hanging to the trapezoidal sheet by decking hanger is a very widespread solution used in civil engineering to lead the distribution of energy, sanitary, air distribution system etc. under the roof or floor structure. The trapezoidal decking hanger is usually a part of the whole installation system for specific distribution medium. The leading companies offer installation systems for each specific distribution e.g. pipe rings, sprinkler systems, installation channels etc. Every specific part is connected to the base connector which is decking hanger. The own connection has three main components: decking hanger, threaded bar with nuts and web of trapezoidal sheet. The aim of this contribution is determinate the failure mechanism of each component in connection. Load bearing capacity of most components in connection could be calculated by formulas in European codes. This contribution is focused on problematic of bearing resistance of threaded bar in web of trapezoidal sheet. This issue is studied by experimental research and numerical modelling. This contribution presented the initial results of experiment which is compared with numerical model of specimen.

Keywords: decking hanger, concentrated load, connection, load bearing capacity, trapezoidal metal sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
2356 Characterization of the Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymeric Composites

Authors: Abir Abdessalem, Sahbi Tamboura, J. Fitoussi, Hachmi Ben Daly, Abbas Tcharkhtchi

Abstract:

Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is one of the most used experimental techniques to investigate the temperature and frequency dependence of the mechanical behavior of viscoelastic materials. The measured data are generally shifted by the application of the principle of the time– temperature superposition (TTS) to obtain the viscoelastic system’s master curve. The aim of this work is to show the methodology to define the horizontal shift factor to be applied to the storage modulus measured in order to indicate the validity of (TTS) principle for this material system. This principle was successfully used to determine the long-term properties of the Sheet Moulding Compound (SMC) composites.

Keywords: composite material, dynamic mechanical analysis, SMC composites, viscoelastic behavior, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
2355 Hard Sludge Formation and Consolidation in Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generators: An Experimental Study

Authors: R. Fernandez-Saavedra, M. B. Gomez-Mancebo, D. Gomez-Briceno

Abstract:

The gradual corrosion of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) feedwater, condensate and drain systems results in the inevitable liberation of corrosion products, principally metallic oxides, to the secondary circuit. In addition, other contaminants and impurities are introduced into the makeup water, auxiliary feedwater and by condenser leaks. All these compounds circulating in the secondary flow can eventually be transported to steam generators and be transformed into deposits on their surfaces. Deposits that accumulate on the tube sheet are known as sludge piles and when they consolidate and harden become into hard sludge. Hard sludge is especially detrimental because it favors tube deformation or denting at the top of tube sheet and further stress corrosion cracking (SCC). These failures affect the efficiency of nuclear power plants. In a recent work, a model for the formation and consolidation of hard sludge has been formulated, highlighting the influence of aluminum and silicon compounds in the initial formation of hard sludge. In this work, an experimental study has been performed in order to get a deeper understanding of the behavior of Al and Si species in hard sludge formation and consolidation. For this purpose, the key components of hard sludge (magnetite, aluminum and/or silicon sources) have been isothermally autoclaved in representative secondary circuit conditions during one week, and the resulting products have been chemically and structurally characterized by XRF and XRD techniques, respectively.

Keywords: consolidation, hard sludge, secondary circuit, steam generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
2354 Porous Titanium Scaffolds Fabricated by Metal Injection Moulding Using Potassium-Chloride and Space Holder

Authors: Ali Dehghan Manshadi, David H. StJohn, Matthew S. Dargusch, M. Qian

Abstract:

Biocompatible, highly porous titanium scaffolds were manufactured by metal injection moulding of spherical titanium powder (powder size: -45 µm) with potassium chloride (powder size: -250 µm) as a space holder. Property evaluation of scaffolds confirmed a high level of compatibility between their mechanical properties and those of human cortical bone. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 1250°C producing scaffolds with more than 90% interconnected pores in the size range of 200-250 µm, yield stress of 220 MPa and Young’s modulus of 7.80 GPa, all of which are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Increasing the sintering temperature to 1300°C increased the Young’s modulus to 22.0 GPa while reducing the temperature to 1150°C reduced the yield stress to 120 MPa due to incomplete sintering. The residual potassium chloride was determined vs. sintering temperature. A comparison was also made between the porous titanium scaffolds fabricated in this study and the additively manufactured titanium lattices of similar porosity reported in the literature.

Keywords: titanium, metal injection moulding, mechanical properties, scaffolds

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
2353 Hydro-Mechanical Forming of AZ31 Sheet

Authors: Yong-Nam Kwon

Abstract:

In the present study, we have designed the hydro-mechanical forming in which AZ31 sheet was drawn to a kind of preform step following gas blow forming for accurate geometry. In order to judge a formability enhancement of AZ31 sheet, model geometry came from a practical automotive part which had quite depth with complicated curvatures, which was proven that a single sheet forming could not gave a successful part. Experimentally, we succeeded to make the model part with accurate dimension. The optimum forming conditions for respective forming steps were considered most important technical features of this hydro-mechanical and would be discussed in details. Also, the effort to avoid detrimental abnormal grain growth was given and discussed for a practical application.

Keywords: hydro-mechanical forming, AZ31, abnormal grain growth, model geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
2352 Parametrical Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Process to Control the Localized Thinning

Authors: Hatem Mrad, Alban Notin, Mohamed Bouazara

Abstract:

Sheet metal forming process has a multiple successive steps starting from sheets fixation to sheets evacuation. Often after forming operation, the sheet has defects requiring additional corrections steps. For example, in the drawing process, the formed sheet may have several defects such as springback, localized thinning and bends. All these defects are directly dependent on process, geometric and material parameters. The prediction and elimination of these defects requires the control of most sensitive parameters. The present study is concerned with a reliable parametric study of deep forming process in order to control the localized thinning. The proposed approach will be based on stochastic finite element method. Especially, the polynomial Chaos development will be used to establish a reliable relationship between input (process, geometric and material parameters) and output variables (sheet thickness). The commercial software Abaqus is used to conduct numerical finite elements simulations. The automatized parametrical modification is provided by coupling a FORTRAN routine, a PYTHON script and input Abaqus files.

Keywords: sheet metal forming, reliability, localized thinning, parametric simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2351 Flow and Heat Transfer over a Shrinking Sheet: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak

Abstract:

The characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer over a permeable shrinking sheet is studied. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the suction parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

Keywords: dual solutions, heat transfer, shrinking sheet, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
2350 Effect of Gas Boundary Layer on the Stability of a Radially Expanding Liquid Sheet

Authors: Soumya Kedia, Puja Agarwala, Mahesh Tirumkudulu

Abstract:

Linear stability analysis is performed for a radially expanding liquid sheet in the presence of a gas medium. A liquid sheet can break up because of the aerodynamic effect as well as its thinning. However, the study of the aforementioned effects is usually done separately as the formulation becomes complicated and is difficult to solve. Present work combines both, aerodynamic effect and thinning effect, ignoring the non-linearity in the system. This is done by taking into account the formation of the gas boundary layer whilst neglecting viscosity in the liquid phase. Axisymmetric flow is assumed for simplicity. Base state analysis results in a Blasius-type system which can be solved numerically. Perturbation theory is then applied to study the stability of the liquid sheet, where the gas-liquid interface is subjected to small deformations. The linear model derived here can be applied to investigate the instability for sinuous as well as varicose modes, where the former represents displacement in the centerline of the sheet and the latter represents modulation in sheet thickness. Temporal instability analysis is performed for sinuous modes, which are significantly more unstable than varicose modes, for a fixed radial distance implying local stability analysis. The growth rates, measured for fixed wavenumbers, predicated by the present model are significantly lower than those obtained by the inviscid Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and compare better with experimental results. Thus, the present theory gives better insight into understanding the stability of a thin liquid sheet.

Keywords: boundary layer, gas-liquid interface, linear stability, thin liquid sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
2349 A Mathematical Based Prediction of the Forming Limit of Thin-Walled Sheet Metals

Authors: Masoud Ghermezi

Abstract:

Studying the sheet metals is one of the most important research areas in the field of metal forming due to their extensive applications in the aerospace industries. A useful method for determining the forming limit of these materials and consequently preventing the rupture of sheet metals during the forming process is the use of the forming limit curve (FLC). In addition to specifying the forming limit, this curve also delineates a boundary for the allowed values of strain in sheet metal forming; these characteristics of the FLC along with its accuracy of computation and wide range of applications have made this curve the basis of research in the present paper. This study presents a new model that not only agrees with the results obtained from the above mentioned theory, but also eliminates its shortcomings. In this theory, like in the M-K theory, a thin sheet with an inhomogeneity as a gradient thickness reduction with a sinusoidal function has been chosen and subjected to two-dimensional stress. Through analytical evaluation, ultimately, a governing differential equation has been obtained. The numerical solution of this equation for the range of positive strains (stretched region) yields the results that agree with the results obtained from M-K theory. Also the solution of this equation for the range of negative strains (tension region) completes the FLC curve. The findings obtained by applying this equation on two alloys with the hardening exponents of 0.4 and 0.24 indicate the validity of the presented equation.

Keywords: sheet metal, metal forming, forming limit curve (FLC), M-K theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
2348 Music Note Detection and Dictionary Generation from Music Sheet Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Ammar, Talha Ali, Abdul Basit, Bakhtawar Rajput, Zobia Sohail

Abstract:

Music note detection is an area of study for the past few years and has its own influence in music file generation from sheet music. We proposed a method to detect music notes on sheet music using basic thresholding and blob detection. Subsequently, we created a notes dictionary using a semi-supervised learning approach. After notes detection, for each test image, the new symbols are added to the dictionary. This makes the notes detection semi-automatic. The experiments are done on images from a dataset and also on the captured images. The developed approach showed almost 100% accuracy on the dataset images, whereas varying results have been seen on captured images.

Keywords: music note, sheet music, optical music recognition, blob detection, thresholding, dictionary generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
2347 Investigation of Mutagenicity and DNA Binding Properties of Metal-Free and Metallophthalocyanines Containing α-Napththolbenzein Groups on the Peripheral Positions

Authors: Meltem Betül Sağlam, Halil İbrahim Güler, Aykut Sağlam

Abstract:

In this work, phthalocyanine compounds containing α-naphtholbenzeinunits have been synthesized. Mutagenicity and DNA binding properties of the compounds were investigated by Salmonella/Microsome Assay and spectrophotometer. According to the results of the preliminary range finding tests, the compounds gave no toxic effect to all tester strain S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 at doses of 500, 1100, 350, 500 and 750 µg/plate in the presence and absence of S9, respectively. This study showed that all compounds exhibited efficient DNA-binding activity. In conclusion, these non-toxic compounds may be used as effective DNA dyes for molecular biology studies.

Keywords: dye, mutagenicity, phthalocyanine, toxicity

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2346 Automated Resin Transfer Moulding of Carbon Phenolic Composites

Authors: Zhenyu Du, Ed Collings, James Meredith

Abstract:

The high cost of composite materials versus conventional materials remains a major barrier to uptake in the transport sector. This is exacerbated by a shortage of skilled labour which makes the labour content of a hand laid composite component (~40 % of total cost) an obvious target for reduction. Automation is a method to remove labour cost and improve quality. This work focuses on the challenges and benefits to automating the manufacturing process from raw fibre to trimmed component. It will detail the experimental work required to complete an automation cell, the control strategy used to integrate all machines and the final benefits in terms of throughput and cost.

Keywords: automation, low cost technologies, processing and manufacturing technologies, resin transfer moulding

Procedia PDF Downloads 212