Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Dominic Lesage

31 Characterization of Surface Suction Grippers for Continuous-Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Semi-Finished Parts of an Automated Handling and Preforming Operation

Authors: Jürgen Fleischer, Woramon Pangboonyanon, Dominic Lesage


Non-metallic lightweight materials such as fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) become very significant at present. Prepregs e.g. SMC and unidirectional tape (UD-tape) are one of raw materials used to produce FRP. This study concerns with the manufacturing steps of handling and preforming of this UD-SMC and focuses on the investigation of gripper characteristics regarding gripping forces in normal and lateral direction, in order to identify suitable operating pressures for a secure gripping operation. A reliable handling and preforming operation results in a higher adding value of the overall process chain. As a result, the suitable operating pressures depending on travelling direction for each material type could be shown. Moreover, system boundary conditions regarding allowable pulling force in normal and lateral directions during preforming could be measured.

Keywords: continuous-discontinuous fiber reinforced plastics, UD-SMC-prepreg, handling, preforming, prepregs, sheet moulding compounds, surface suction gripper

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30 An E-Assessment Website to Implement Hierarchical Aggregate Assessment

Authors: M. Lesage, G. Raîche, M. Riopel, F. Fortin, D. Sebkhi


This paper describes a Web server implementation of the hierarchical aggregate assessment process in the field of education. This process describes itself as a field of teamwork assessment where teams can have multiple levels of hierarchy and supervision. This process is applied everywhere and is part of the management, education, assessment and computer science fields. The E-Assessment website named “Cluster” records in its database the students, the course material, the teams and the hierarchical relationships between the students. For the present research, the hierarchical relationships are team member, team leader and group administrator appointments. The group administrators have the responsibility to supervise team leaders. The experimentation of the application has been performed by high school students in geology courses and Canadian army cadets for navigation patrols in teams. This research extends the work of Nance that uses a hierarchical aggregation process similar as the one implemented in the “Cluster” application.

Keywords: e-learning, e-assessment, teamwork assessment, hierarchical aggregate assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
29 Using Tyre Ash as Ground Resistance Improvement Material-Health and Environmental Perspective

Authors: George Eduful, Dominic Yeboah, Kingsford Joseph A. Atanga


The use of tyre ash as backfill material for ground electrode has been found to provide ultra-low and stable ground resistance value for grounding systems. However, health and environmental concerns have been expressed regarding its application. To address these concerns, the paper investigates chemical contents of the tyre ash and compares them to levels considered non-hazardous to health and the environment. It was found that the levels of the pollutant agents in the tyre ash were within the recommended safety margins. The rate of ground electrode corrosion in tyre ash material was also investigated. It was found that the effect of corrosion and the life of electrode can be extended if the tyre ash is mixed with cement. For best results, a ratio of 10 portions of tyre ash to 1 portion of cement is recommended.

Keywords: tyre ash, scrapped tyre, ground resistance reducing agent, rate of corrosion

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28 Modeling Approach to Better Control Fouling in a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor for Wastewater Treatment: Development of Analytical Expressions in Steady-State Using ASM1

Authors: Benaliouche Hana, Abdessemed Djamal, Meniai Abdessalem, Lesage Geoffroy, Heran Marc


This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model of activated sludge which is able to predict the formation and degradation kinetics of SMP (Soluble microbial products) in membrane bioreactor systems. The model is based on a calibrated version of ASM1 with the theory of production and degradation of SMP. The model was calibrated on the experimental data from MBR (Mathematical modeling Membrane bioreactor) pilot plant. Analytical expressions have been developed, describing the concentrations of the main state variables present in the sludge matrix, with the inclusion of only six additional linear differential equations. The objective is to present a new dynamic mathematical model of activated sludge capable of predicting the formation and degradation kinetics of SMP (UAP and BAP) from the submerged membrane bioreactor (BRMI), operating at low organic load (C / N = 3.5), for two sludge retention times (SRT) fixed at 40 days and 60 days, to study their impact on membrane fouling, The modeling study was carried out under the steady-state condition. Analytical expressions were then validated by comparing their results with those obtained by simulations using GPS-X-Hydromantis software. These equations made it possible, by means of modeling approaches (ASM1), to identify the operating and kinetic parameters and help to predict membrane fouling.

Keywords: Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1), mathematical modeling membrane bioreactor, soluble microbial products, UAP, BAP, Modeling SMP, MBR, heterotrophic biomass

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27 A Computational Study of the Effect of Intake Design on Volumetric Efficiency for Best Performance in Motorsport

Authors: Dominic Wentworth-Linton, Shian Gao


This project was aimed at investigating the effect of velocity stacks on the intakes of internal combustion engines for motorsport applications. The intake systems in motorsport are predominantly fuel injection with a plate mounted for the stacks. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics software, the relationship between the stack length and power and torque delivery across the engine’s rev range was investigated and the results were used to choose the best option for its intended motorsport discipline. The test results are expected to vary with engine geometry and its natural manufacturer characteristics. The test was also relevant in bridging between computational data and real simulation as the results show flow, pressure and velocity readings but the behaviour of the engine is inferred from the nature of each test. The results of the data analysis were tested in a real-life simulation on a dynamometer to prove the theory of stack length on power and torque delivery, which helps determine the most suitable stack for the Vauxhall engine for rallying in the Caribbean.

Keywords: CFD simulation, Internal combustion engine, Intake system, Dynamometer test

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26 Maintaining Organizational Harmony: The Way Forward in Ghanaian Basic Schools

Authors: Dominic Kwaku Danso Mensah


The study examined conflict management strategies among head teachers and teachers in selected basic schools in Okai-Koi sub metro in the greater region of Ghana. In all, 270 participants were engaged in the study, comprising 237 teachers, 32 head teachers, and one officer in charge of the Metropolis. The study employed descriptive survey while using purposive and simple random sampling techniques to sample participants. Interview guides and questionnaires were the main instruments used for gathering primary data. The study found that conflict is inevitable in the schools. Conflicts in schools are usually subtle and hardly noticed by outsiders even though they occur on daily basis. The causes of conflict include among other things, high expectation from head teachers, inability to attain goals set, communication from head teachers and power struggle. The study found out that, in managing and resolving conflicts, issues such as identifying and focusing on the problem, building of trust and cooperation, clarifying goals and objectives were seen to be effective means of managing conflict and recommended that management should design and develop conflict management strategies to quickly resolve conflict.

Keywords: basic education, conflict management, organizational harmony, power

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25 Effects of Peakedness of Bimodal Waves on Overtopping of Sloping Seawalls

Authors: Stephen Orimoloye, Jose Horrillo-Caraballo, Harshinie Karunarathna, Dominic E. Reeve


Prediction of wave overtopping is an essential component of coastal seawall designing and management. Not only that excessive overtopping is reported for impermeable seawalls under bimodal waves, but overtopping is also showing a high sensitivity to the peakedness of the random wave propagation patterns. In the present study, we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of peakedness of bimodal wave patterns of the overtopping of sloping seawalls. An energy-conserved bimodal spectrum with four different spectra peak periods and swell percentages was applied to estimate wave overtopping in both numerical and experimental flumes. Results of incident surface elevations and bimodal spectra were accurately captured across the flume domain using sets of well-positioned resistant-type wave gauges. Peakedness characteristics of the wave patterns were extracted to derive a relationship between the non-dimensional overtopping and the peakedness across the wave groups in the wave series. The full paper will briefly describe the development of the spectrum and present a comprehensive results analysis leading to the derivation of the relationship between dimensionless overtopping and peakedness of bimodal waves.

Keywords: wave overtopping, peakedness, bimodal waves, swell percentages

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24 Lessons-Learned in a Post-Alliance Framework

Authors: Olubukola Olumuyiwa Tokede, Dominic D. Ahiaga-Dagbui, John Morrison


The project environment in construction has been widely criticised for its inability to learn from experience effectively. As each project is bespoke, learning is ephemeral, as it is often confined within its bounds and seldom assimilated with others that are being delivered in the project environment. To engender learning across construction projects, collaborative contractual arrangements, such as alliancing and partnering, have been embraced to aid the transferability of lessons across projects. These cooperative arrangements, however, tend to be costly, and hence construction organisations could revert to less expensive traditional procurement approaches after successful collaborative project delivery. This research, therefore, seeks to assess the lessons-learned in a post-alliance contractual framework. Using a case-study approach, we examine the experiences of a public sector authority who engaged a project facilitator to foster learning during the delivery of a significant piece of critical infrastructure. It was found that the facilitator enabled optimal learning outcomes in post-alliance contractual frameworks by attenuating the otherwise adversarial relationship between clients and contractors. Further research will seek to assess the effectiveness of different knowledge-brokering agencies in construction projects.

Keywords: facilitation, knowledge-brokering, learning, projects

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23 Gawa Gawa Lang ‘Yan: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Mental Health between Generations X and Z in Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Pierre Angelo Alino, Rafael Alejandro Ang, Maria Carmela Espanol, Dominic Gerard Ferreol, Jendrietch Adrian Lopez


This study aims to explore the differences in perception between Generation X and Generation Z towards mental health and mental health illnesses. Through this study, the researchers seek to identify and explore the differences that exist in the generational perception and determine the possible factors that influence the difference in perception. In order to achieve this, we conducted two focus group discussions (FGD), one composed of Generation X and the other composed of Generation Z. Participants for both focus group discussions were recruited through purposive sampling and online recruitment methods. In these discussions, they were asked questions relating to their personal history, experiences with mental health, and related illnesses, as well as their opinions regarding the subject matter. Afterwhich, we analyzed our data through a thematic analysis. Our study’s findings indicate notable differences in the perception of mental health as well as mental illness between the members of Generations X and Z. Additionally, factors such as culture, personal history, and intimate relationships influence the perceptions of mental health between generation groups.

Keywords: generational difference, mental health, mental health illness, perception

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22 The Money Supply Effect on Hong Kong’s Post-1997 Asian Financial Crisis Property Market

Authors: Keith Dominic T. Li


The soaring prices of residential properties in Hong Kong has become a social problem that even the middle class is having dif?iculties in purchasing homes. In making policies to curb the prices, it is important to determine the factors that contribute to the property in?lation. Many researches attribute this in?lation to macroeconomic factors especially the interest rate. However, it is important to remember that Hong Kong is under a Currency Board system which makes its interest rate exogenously determined. This research aims to show the signi?icance of the money supply on Hong Kong residential property prices in post-1997 Asian Financial Crisis period. Using money supply data, macroeconomic fundamentals, and demographic variables from 2000Q1 to 2013Q2, the factors contributed to residential property price in?lation are estimated to calculate the share of each explanatory variable in disparity. It is found that the Hong Kong property market is mainly driven by investment and that the in?lation on Hong Kong residential property prices can explained by the increase in the Hang Seng Index and in the money supply M2.

Keywords: real estate, Hong Kong, property market, monetary economics, monetary policy

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21 A Study on Shock Formation over a Transonic Aerofoil

Authors: M. Fowsia, Dominic Xavier Fernando, Vinojitha, Rahamath Juliyana


Aerofoil is a primary element to be designed during the initial phase of creating any new aircraft. It is the component that forms the cross-section of the wing. The wing is used to produce lift force that balances the weight which is acting downwards. The lift force is created due to pressure difference over the top and bottom surface which is caused due to velocity variation. At sub-sonic velocities, for a real fluid, we obtain a smooth flow of air over both the surfaces. In this era of high speed travel, commercial aircraft that can travel faster than speed of sound barrier is required. However transonic velocities cause the formation of shock waves which can cause flow separation over the top and bottom surfaces. In the transonic range, shock waves move across the top and bottom surfaces of the aerofoil, until both the shock waves merge into a single shock wave that is formed near the leading edge of theaerofoil. In this paper, a transonic aerofoil is designed and its aerodynamic properties at different velocities in the Transonic range (M = 0.8; 0.9; 1; 1.1; 1.2) are studied with the help of CFD. The Pressure and Velocity distributions over the top and bottom surfaces of aerofoil are studied and the variations of shock patterns, at different velocities, are analyzed. The analysis can be used to determine the effect of drag divergence on the lift created by the aerofoil.

Keywords: transonic aerofoil, cfd, drag divergence, shock formation, viscous flow

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20 Effect of Environmental Parameters on the Water Solubility of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Derivatives using Taguchi Experimental Design Methodology

Authors: Pranudda Pimsee, Caroline Sablayrolles, Pascale De Caro, Julien Guyomarch, Nicolas Lesage, Mireille Montréjaud-Vignoles


The MIGR’HYCAR research project was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spill drifts in continental waters. These tools aim to serve in the decision-making process once oil spill pollution occurs and/or as reference tools to study scenarios of potential impacts of pollutions on a given site. This paper focuses on the study of the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivatives from oil spill in water as function of environmental parameters. Eight petroleum oils covering a representative range of commercially available products were tested. 41 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivate, among them 16 EPA priority pollutants were studied by dynamic tests at laboratory scale. The chemical profile of the water soluble fraction was different from the parent oil profile due to the various water solubility of oil components. Semi-volatile compounds (naphtalenes) constitute the major part of the water soluble fraction. A large variation in composition of the water soluble fraction was highlighted depending on oil type. Moreover, four environmental parameters (temperature, suspended solid quantity, salinity, and oil: water surface ratio) were investigated with the Taguchi experimental design methodology. The results showed that oils are divided into three groups: the solubility of Domestic fuel and Jet A1 presented a high sensitivity to parameters studied, meaning they must be taken into account. For gasoline (SP95-E10) and diesel fuel, a medium sensitivity to parameters was observed. In fact, the four others oils have shown low sensitivity to parameters studied. Finally, three parameters were found to be significant towards the water soluble fraction.

Keywords: mornitoring, PAHs, water soluble fraction, SBSE, Taguchi experimental design

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19 High Power Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications Using Phase Change Material Slurry

Authors: Anastasia Stamatiou, Markus Odermatt, Dominic Leemann, Ludger J. Fischer, Joerg Worlitschek


The successful integration of thermal energy storage in industrial processes is expected to play an important role in the energy turnaround. Latent heat storage technologies can offer more compact thermal storage at a constant temperature level, in comparison to conventional, sensible thermal storage technologies. The focus of this study is the development of latent heat storage solutions based on the Phase Change Slurry (PCS) concept. Such systems promise higher energy densities both as refrigerants and as storage media while presenting better heat transfer characteristics than conventional latent heat storage technologies. This technology is expected to deliver high thermal power and high-temperature stability which makes it ideal for storage of process heat. An evaluation of important batch processes in industrial applications set the focus on materials with a melting point in the range of 55 - 90 °C. Aluminium ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate (NH₄Al(SO₄)₂·12H₂O) was chosen as the first interesting PCM for the next steps of this study. The ability of this material to produce slurries at the relevant temperatures was demonstrated in a continuous mode in a laboratory test-rig. Critical operational and design parameters were identified.

Keywords: esters, latent heat storage, phase change materials, thermal properties

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18 Cerebral Pulsatility Mediates the Link Between Physical Activity and Executive Functions in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Longitudinal NIRS Study

Authors: Hanieh Mohammadi, Sarah Fraser, Anil Nigam, Frederic Lesage, Louis Bherer


A chronically higher cerebral pulsatility is thought to damage cerebral microcirculation, leading to cognitive decline in older adults. Although it is widely known that regular physical activity is linked to improvement in some cognitive domains, including executive functions, the mediating role of cerebral pulsatility on this link remains to be elucidated. This study assessed the impact of 6 months of regular physical activity upon changes in an optical index of cerebral pulsatility and the role of physical activity for the improvement of executive functions. 27 older adults (aged 57-79, 66.7% women) with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) were enrolled in the study. The participants completed the behavioral Stroop test, which was extracted from the Delis-Kaplan executive functions system battery at baseline (T0) and after 6 months (T6) of physical activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied for an innovative approach to indexing cerebral pulsatility in the brain microcirculation at T0 and T6. The participants were at standing rest while a NIRS device recorded hemodynamics data from frontal and motor cortex subregions at T0 and T6. The cerebral pulsatility index of interest was cerebral pulse amplitude, which was extracted from the pulsatile component of NIRS data. Our data indicated that 6 months of physical activity was associated with a reduction in the response time for the executive functions, including inhibition (T0: 56.33± 18.2 to T6: 53.33± 15.7,p= 0.038)and Switching(T0: 63.05± 5.68 to T6: 57.96 ±7.19,p< 0.001) conditions of the Stroop test. Also, physical activity was associated with a reduction in cerebral pulse amplitude (T0: 0.62± 0.05 to T6: 0.55± 0.08, p < 0.001). Notably, cerebral pulse amplitude was a significant mediator of the link between physical activity and response to the Stroop test for both inhibition (β=0.33 (0.61,0.23),p< 0.05)and switching (β=0.42 (0.69,0.11),p <0.01) conditions. This study suggests that regular physical activity may support cognitive functions through the improvement of cerebral pulsatility in older adults with CVRF.

Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy, cerebral pulsatility, physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, executive functions

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17 Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Razali Adul Hamid, Mohd Saidin Misman, Dominic Ileyemi Ajayi, Taki Eddine Seghier


Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.

Keywords: construction industry, safety measures, accident, prevention

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16 Assessment of the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken Fern) Invasion on the Grassland Plateau in Nyika National Park

Authors: Andrew Kanzunguze, Lusayo Mwabumba, Jason K. Gilbertson, Dominic B. Gondwe, George Z. Nxumayo


Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution of invasive plants in protected areas provides a base from which hypotheses explaining proliferation of plant invasions can be made alongside development of relevant invasive plant monitoring programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of bracken fern on the grassland plateau of Nyika National Park over the past 30 years (1986-2016) as well as to determine the current extent of the invasion. Remote sensing, machine learning, and statistical modelling techniques (object-based image analysis, image classification and linear regression analysis) in geographical information systems were used to determine both the spatial and temporal distribution of bracken fern in the study area. Results have revealed that bracken fern has been increasing coverage on the Nyika plateau at an estimated annual rate of 87.3 hectares since 1986. This translates to an estimated net increase of 2,573.1 hectares, which was recorded from 1,788.1 hectares (1986) to 4,361.9 hectares (2016). As of 2017 bracken fern covered 20,940.7 hectares, approximately 14.3% of the entire grassland plateau. Additionally, it was observed that the fern was distributed most densely around Chelinda camp (on the central plateau) as well as in forest verges and roadsides across the plateau. Based on these results it is recommended that Ecological Niche Modelling approaches be employed to (i) isolate the most important factors influencing bracken fern proliferation as well as (ii) identify and prioritize areas requiring immediate control interventions so as to minimize bracken fern proliferation in Nyika National Park.

Keywords: bracken fern, image classification, Landsat-8, Nyika National Park, spatio-temporal distribution

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15 X-Ray Diffraction and Crosslink Density Analysis of Starch/Natural Rubber Polymer Composites Prepared by Latex Compounding Method

Authors: Raymond Dominic Uzoh


Starch fillers were extracted from three plant sources namely amora tuber (a wild variety of Irish potato), sweet potato and yam starch and their particle size, pH, amylose, and amylopectin percentage decomposition determined accordingly by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The starch was introduced into natural rubber in liquid phase (through gelatinization) by the latex compounding method and compounded according to standard method. The prepared starch/natural rubber composites was characterized by Instron Universal testing machine (UTM) for tensile mechanical properties. The composites was further characterized by x-ray diffraction and crosslink density analysis. The particle size determination showed that amora starch granules have the highest particle size (156 × 47 μm) followed by yam starch (155× 40 μm) and then the sweet potato starch (153 × 46 μm). The pH test also revealed that amora starch has a near neutral pH of 6.9, yam 6.8, and sweet potato 5.2 respectively. Amylose and amylopectin determination showed that yam starch has a higher percentage of amylose (29.68), followed by potato (22.34) and then amora starch with the lowest value (14.86) respectively. The tensile mechanical properties testing revealed that yam starch produced the best tensile mechanical properties followed by amora starch and then sweet potato starch. The structure, crystallinity/amorphous nature of the product composite was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, while the nature of crosslinking was confirmed by swelling test in toluene solvent using the Flory-Rehner approach. This research study has rendered a workable strategy for enhancing interfacial interaction between a hydrophilic filler (starch) and hydrophobic polymeric matrix (natural rubber) yielding moderately good tensile mechanical properties for further exploitation development and application in the rubber processing industry.

Keywords: natural rubber, fillers, starch, amylose, amylopectin, crosslink density

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14 Chiral Amine Synthesis and Recovery by Using High Molecular Weight Amine Donors

Authors: Claudia Matassa, Matthias Hohne, Dominic Ormerod, Yamini Satyawali


Chiral amines integrate the backbone of several active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) used in modern medicine for the treatment of a vast range of diseases. Despite the demand, their synthesis remains challenging. Besides a range of chemicals and enzymatical methods, chiral amine synthesis using transaminases (EC 2.6.1.W) represents a useful alternative to access this important class of compounds. Even though transaminases exhibit excellent stereo and regioselectivity and the potential for high yield, the reaction suffers from a number of challenges, including the thermodynamic equilibrium, product inhibition, and low substrate solubility. In this work, we demonstrate a membrane assisted strategy for addressing these challenges. It involves the use of high molecular weight (HMW) amine donors for the transaminase-catalyzed synthesis of 4-phenyl-2-butylamine in both aqueous and organic solvent media. In contrast to common amine donors such as alanine or isopropylamine, these large molecules, provided in excess for thermodynamic equilibrium shifting, are easily retained by commercial nanofiltration membranes; thus a selective permeation of the desired smaller product amine is possible. The enzymatic transamination in aqueous media, combined with selective product removal shifted the equilibrium enhancing substrate conversion by an additional 25% compared to the control reaction. Along with very efficient amine product removal, there was undesirable loss of ketone substrate and low product concentration was achieved. The system was therefore further improved by performing the reaction in organic solvent (n-heptane). Coupling the reaction system with membrane-assisted product removal resulted in a highly concentrated and relatively pure ( > 97%) product solution. Moreover, a product yield of 60% was reached, compared to 15% without product removal.

Keywords: amine donor, chiral amines, in situ product removal, transamination

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13 River Catchment’s Demography and the Dynamics of Access to Clean Water in the Rural South Africa

Authors: Yiseyon Sunday Hosu, Motebang Dominic Vincent Nakin, Elphina N. Cishe


Universal access to clean and safe drinking water and basic sanitation is one of the targets of the 6th Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This paper explores the evidence-based indicators of Water Rights Acts (2013) among households in the rural communities in the Mthatha River catchment of OR Tambo District Municipality of South Africa. Daily access to minimum 25 litres/person and the factors influencing clean water access were investigated in the catchment. A total number of 420 households were surveyed in the upper, peri-urban, lower and coastal regions of Mthatha Rivier catchment. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted on the data collected from the households to elicit vital information on domestic water security among rural community dwellers. The results show that approximately 68 percent of total households surveyed have access to the required minimum 25 litre/person/day, with 66.3 percent in upper region, 76 per cent in the peri-urban, 1.1 percent in the lower and 2.3 percent in the coastal regions. Only 30 percent among the total surveyed households had access to piped water either in the house or public taps. The logistic regression showed that access to clean water was influenced by lack of water infrastructure, proximity to urban regions, daily flow of pipe-borne water, household size and distance to public taps. This paper recommends that viable integrated rural community-based water infrastructure provision strategies between NGOs and local authority and the promotion of point of use (POU) technologies to enhance better access to clean water.

Keywords: domestic water, household technology, water security, rural community

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12 Fact-checking and Political Polarization in an Emerging Democracy

Authors: Eric Agyekum, Dominic Asitanga


Ghana is widely considered asa beacon of democracy in sub-Saharan Africa. With a relatively free media, the country was ranked30thin the world and third in Africaon the 2021 Press Freedom Index. Despite the democratic gains, itis one of the most politically polarized nations in the world. Ghana’spolitical division is evident in the current hunglegislature, where each of the two dominant political parties has 137 members, with an independent member occupying the remaining one seat. Misinformation and fake newsthrive in systems with acuteideological and political differences(Imelda et al, 2021; Azzimonti&Fernandes, 2018; Spohr, 2017) and Ghana is no exception. The information disorder problem has been exacerbatedby the COVID-19 pandemic, with its attendant conspiracy theories and speculations, making it difficult for the media and fact-checking organizations to verifyall claims and flag false information. In Ghana, fact-checking agencies like Ghana Fact, Dubawa Ghana, and some mainstream news media organizations have been fact-checking political claims, COVID-19 conspiracy theories, and many others. However, it is not clear if the audience consumeand attach prominence to these fact-checked stories or even visit the websites of the fact-checking agencies to read the content. Nekmat (2020) opine that though the literature on fact-checking suggest that fact-checked stories can alter readers’ beliefs, very few studies have investigated the patronage and the potential of fact-checks to deter users from sharing false news with others, particularly on social media. In response to Nekmat, this study has been initiated to examine the perception and attitude of the audience in Ghana towards fact-checks. Anchored on the principles of the nudge theory, this study will investigate how fact-checked stories alters readers’ behavioural patterns. A survey will be conducted to collect data from sampled members of the Ghanaian society.

Keywords: fact-checking, information disorder, nudge theory, political polarization

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11 Thomas Kuhn, the Accidental Theologian: An Argument for the Similarity of Science and Religion

Authors: Dominic McGann


Applying Kuhn’s model of paradigm shifts in science to cases of doctrinal change in religion has been a common area of study in recent years. Few authors, however, have sought an explanation for the ease with which this model of theory change in science can be applied to cases of religious change. In order to provide such an explanation of this analytic phenomenon, this paper aims to answer one central question: Why is it that a theory that was intended to be used in an analysis of the history of science can be applied to something as disparate as the doctrinal history of religion with little to no modification? By way of answering this question, this paper begins with an explanation of Kuhn’s model and its applications in the field of religious studies. Following this, Massa’s recently proposed explanation for this phenomenon, and its notable flaws will be explained by way of framing the central proposal of this article, that the operative parts of scientific and religious changes function on the same fundamental concept of changes in understanding. Focusing its argument on this key concept, this paper seeks to illustrate its operation in cases of religious conversion and in Kuhn’s notion of the incommensurability of different scientific paradigms. The conjecture of this paper is that just as a Pagan-turned-Christian ceases to hear Thor’s hammer when they hear a clap of thunder, so too does a Ptolemaic-turned-Copernican-astronomer cease to see the Sun orbiting the Earth when they view a sunrise. In both cases, the agent in question has undergone a similar change in universal understanding, which provides us with a fundamental connection between changes in religion and changes in science. Following an exploration of this connection, this paper will consider the implications that such a connection has for the concept of the division between religion and science. This will, in turn, lead to the conclusion that religion and science are more alike than they are opposed with regards to the fundamental notion of understanding, thereby providing an answer to our central question. The major finding of this paper is that Kuhn’s model can be applied to religious cases so easily because changes in science and changes in religion operate on the same type of change in understanding. Therefore, in summary, science and religion share a crucial similarity and are not as disparate as they first appear.

Keywords: Thomas Kuhn, science and religion, paradigm shifts, incommensurability, insight and understanding, philosophy of science, philosophy of religion

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10 Smart Construction Sites in KSA: Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Ahmad Mohammad Sharqi, Mohamed Hechmi El Ouni, Saleh Alsulamy


Due to the emerging technologies revolution worldwide, the need to exploit and employ innovative technologies for other functions and purposes in different aspects has become a remarkable matter. Saudi Arabia is considered one of the most powerful economic countries in the world, where the construction sector participates effectively in its economy. Thus, the construction sector in KSA should convoy the rapid digital revolution and transformation and implement smart devices on sites. A Smart Construction Site (SCS) includes smart devices, artificial intelligence, the internet of things, augmented reality, building information modeling, geographical information systems, and cloud information. This paper aims to study the level of implementation of SCS in KSA, analyze the obstacles and challenges of adopting SCS and find out critical success factors for its implementation. A survey of close-ended questions (scale and multi-choices) has been conducted on professionals in the construction sector of Saudi Arabia. A total number of twenty-nine questions has been prepared for respondents. Twenty-four scale questions were established, and those questions were categorized into several themes: quality, scheduling, cost, occupational safety and health, technologies and applications, and general perception. Consequently, the 5-point Likert scale tool (very low to very high) was adopted for this survey. In addition, five close-ended questions with multi-choice types have also been prepared; these questions have been derived from a previous study implemented in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Dominic Republic (DR), these questions have been rearranged and organized to fit the structured survey in order to place the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in comparison with the United Kingdom (UK) as well as the Dominican Republic (DR). A total number of one hundred respondents have participated in this survey from all regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: southern, central, western, eastern, and northern regions. The drivers, obstacles, and success factors for implementing smart devices and technologies in KSA’s construction sector have been investigated and analyzed. Besides, it has been concluded that KSA is on the right path toward adopting smart construction sites with attractive results comparable to and even better than the UK in some factors.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, construction projects management, internet of things, smart construction sites, smart devices

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9 A Disappearing Radiolucency of the Mandible Caused by Inadvertent Trauma Following IMF Screw Placement

Authors: Anna Ghosh, Dominic Shields, Ceri McIntosh, Stephen Crank


A 29-year-old male was a referral to the maxillofacial unit following a referral from his general dental practitioner via a routine pathway regarding a large periapical lesion on the LR4 with root resorption. The patient was asymptomatic, the LR4 vital and unrestored, and this was an incidental finding at a routine check-up. The patient's past medical history was unremarkable. Examination revealed no extra or intra-oral pathology and non-mobile teeth. No focal neurology was detected. An orthopantogram demonstrated a well-defined unilocular corticated radiolucency associated with the LR4. The root appeared shortened with the radiolucency between the root and a radio-opacity, possibly representing the displacement of the apical tip of the tooth. It was recommended that the referring general practitioner should proceed with orthograde root canal therapy, after which time exploration, enucleation, and retrograde root filling of the LR4 would be carried out by a maxillofacial unit. The patient was reviewed six months later where, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the patient had been unable to access general dental services for the root canal treatment. He was still entirely asymptomatic. A one-year review was planned in the hope this would allow time for the orthograde root canal therapy to be completed. At this review, the orthograde root canal therapy had still not been completed. Interestingly, a repeat orthopantogram revealed a significant reduction in size with good bony infill and a significant reduction in the size of the lesion. Due to the ongoing delays with primary care dental therapy, the patient was subsequently internally referred to the restorative dentistry department for care. The patient was seen again by oral and maxillo-facial surgery in mid-2022 where he still reports this tooth as asymptomatic with no focal neurology. The patient's history was fully reviewed, and noted that 15 years previously, the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation of a left angle of mandible fracture. Temporary IMF involving IMF screws and fixation wires were employed to maintain occlusion during plating and subsequently removed post-operatively. It is proposed that the radiolucency was, as a result of the IMF screw placement, penetrating the LR4 root resulting in resorption of the tooth root and development of a radiolucency. This case highlights the importance of careful screw size and physical site location, and placement of IMF screws, as there can be permeant damage to a patient’s dentition.

Keywords: facial trauma, inter-maxillary fixation, mandibular radiolucency, oral and maxillo-facial surgery

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8 Design, Simulation and Construction of 2.4GHz Microstrip Patch Antenna for Improved Wi-Fi Reception

Authors: Gabriel Ugalahi, Dominic S. Nyitamen


This project seeks to improve Wi-Fi reception by utilizing the properties of directional microstrip patch antennae. Where there is a dense population of Wi-Fi signal, several signal sources transmitting on the same frequency band and indeed channel constitutes interference to each other. The time it takes for request to be received, resolved and response given between a user and the resource provider is increased considerably. By deploying a directional patch antenna with a narrow bandwidth, the range of frequency received is reduced and should help in limiting the reception of signal from unwanted sources. A rectangular microstrip patch antenna (RMPA) is designed to operate at the Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band (2.4GHz) commonly used in Wi-Fi network deployment. The dimensions of the antenna are calculated and these dimensions are used to generate a model on Advanced Design System (ADS), a microwave simulator. Simulation results are then analyzed and necessary optimization is carried out to further enhance the radiation quality so as to achieve desired results. Impedance matching at 50Ω is also obtained by using the inset feed method. Final antenna dimensions obtained after simulation and optimization are then used to implement practical construction on an FR-4 double sided copper clad printed circuit board (PCB) through a chemical etching process using ferric chloride (Fe2Cl). Simulation results show an RMPA operating at a centre frequency of 2.4GHz with a bandwidth of 40MHz. A voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 1.0725 is recorded on a return loss of -29.112dB at input port showing an appreciable match in impedance to a source of 50Ω. In addition, a gain of 3.23dBi and directivity of 6.4dBi is observed during far-field analysis. On deployment, signal reception from wireless devices is improved due to antenna gain. A test source with a received signal strength indication (RSSI) of -80dBm without antenna installed on the receiver was improved to an RSSI of -61dBm. In addition, the directional radiation property of the RMPA prioritizes signals by pointing in the direction of a preferred signal source thus, reducing interference from undesired signal sources. This was observed during testing as rotation of the antenna on its axis resulted to the gain of signal in-front of the patch and fading of signals away from the front.

Keywords: advanced design system (ADS), inset feed, received signal strength indicator (RSSI), rectangular microstrip patch antenna (RMPA), voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)

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7 Quantifying the Effects of Canopy Cover and Cover Crop Species on Water Use Partitioning in Micro-Sprinkler Irrigated Orchards in South Africa

Authors: Zanele Ntshidi, Sebinasi Dzikiti, Dominic Mazvimavi


South Africa is a dry country and yet it is ranked as the 8th largest exporter of fresh apples (Malus Domestica) globally. Prime apple producing regions are in the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces of the country where all the fruit is grown under irrigation. Climate change models predict increasingly drier future conditions in these regions and the frequency and severity of droughts is expected to increase. For the sustainability and growth of the fruit industry it is important to minimize non-beneficial water losses from the orchard floor. The aims of this study were firstly to compare the water use of cover crop species used in South African orchards for which there is currently no information. The second aim was to investigate how orchard water use (evapotranspiration) was partitioned into beneficial (tree transpiration) and non-beneficial (orchard floor evaporation) water uses for micro-sprinkler irrigated orchards with different canopy covers. This information is important in order to explore opportunities to minimize non-beneficial water losses. Six cover crop species (four exotic and two indigenous) were grown in 2 L pots in a greenhouse. Cover crop transpiration was measured using the gravimetric method on clear days. To establish how water use was partitioned in orchards, evapotranspiration (ET) was measured using an open path eddy covariance system, while tree transpiration was measured hourly throughout the season (October to June) on six trees per orchard using the heat ratio sap flow method. On selected clear days, soil evaporation was measured hourly from sunrise to sunset using six micro-lysimeters situated at different wet/dry and sun/shade positions on the orchard floor. Transpiration of cover crops was measured using miniature (2 mm Ø) stem heat balance sap flow gauges. The greenhouse study showed that exotic cover crops had significantly higher (p < 0.01) average transpiration rates (~3.7 L/m2/d) than the indigenous species (~ 2.2 L/m²/d). In young non-bearing orchards, orchard floor evaporative fluxes accounted for more than 60% of orchard ET while this ranged from 10 to 30% in mature orchards with a high canopy cover. While exotic cover crops are preferred by most farmers, this study shows that they use larger quantities of water than indigenous species. This in turn contributes to a larger orchard floor evaporation flux. In young orchards non-beneficial losses can be minimized by adopting drip or short range micro-sprinkler methods that reduce the wetted soil fraction thereby conserving water.

Keywords: evapotranspiration, sap flow, soil evaporation, transpiration

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6 A Comparison of Two and Three Dimensional Motion Capture Methodologies in the Analysis of Underwater Fly Kicking Kinematics

Authors: Isobel M. Thompson, Dorian Audot, Dominic Hudson, Martin Warner, Joseph Banks


Underwater fly kick is an essential skill in swimming, which can have a considerable impact upon overall race performance in competition, especially in sprint events. Reduced wave drags acting upon the body under the surface means that the underwater fly kick will potentially be the fastest the swimmer is travelling throughout the race. It is therefore critical to understand fly kicking techniques and determining biomechanical factors involved in the performance. Most previous studies assessing fly kick kinematics have focused on two-dimensional analysis; therefore, the three-dimensional elements of the underwater fly kick techniques are not well understood. Those studies that have investigated fly kicking techniques using three-dimensional methodologies have not reported full three-dimensional kinematics for the techniques observed, choosing to focus on one or two joints. There has not been a direct comparison completed on the results obtained using two-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis, and how these different approaches might affect the interpretation of subsequent results. The aim of this research is to quantify the differences in kinematics observed in underwater fly kicks obtained from both two and three-dimensional analyses of the same test conditions. In order to achieve this, a six-camera underwater Qualisys system was used to develop an experimental methodology suitable for assessing the kinematics of swimmer’s starts and turns. The cameras, capturing at a frequency of 100Hz, were arranged along the side of the pool spaced equally up to 20m creating a capture volume of 7m x 2m x 1.5m. Within the measurement volume, error levels were estimated at 0.8%. Prior to pool trials, participants completed a landside calibration in order to define joint center locations, as certain markers became occluded once the swimmer assumed the underwater fly kick position in the pool. Thirty-four reflective markers were placed on key anatomical landmarks, 9 of which were then removed for the pool-based trials. The fly-kick swimming conditions included in the analysis are as follows: maximum effort prone, 100m pace prone, 200m pace prone, 400m pace prone, and maximum pace supine. All trials were completed from a push start to 15m to ensure consistent kick cycles were captured. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional kinematics are calculated from joint locations, and the results are compared. Key variables reported include kick frequency and kick amplitude, as well as full angular kinematics of the lower body. Key differences in these variables obtained from two-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis are identified. Internal rotation (up to 15º) and external rotation (up to -28º) were observed using three-dimensional methods. Abduction (5º) and adduction (15º) were also reported. These motions are not observed in the two-dimensional analysis. Results also give an indication of different techniques adopted by swimmers at various paces and orientations. The results of this research provide evidence of the strengths of both two dimensional and three dimensional motion capture methods in underwater fly kick, highlighting limitations which could affect the interpretation of results from both methods.

Keywords: swimming, underwater fly kick, performance, motion capture

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5 Freight Time and Cost Optimization in Complex Logistics Networks, Using a Dimensional Reduction Method and K-Means Algorithm

Authors: Egemen Sert, Leila Hedayatifar, Rachel A. Rigg, Amir Akhavan, Olha Buchel, Dominic Elias Saadi, Aabir Abubaker Kar, Alfredo J. Morales, Yaneer Bar-Yam


The complexity of providing timely and cost-effective distribution of finished goods from industrial facilities to customers makes effective operational coordination difficult, yet effectiveness is crucial for maintaining customer service levels and sustaining a business. Logistics planning becomes increasingly complex with growing numbers of customers, varied geographical locations, the uncertainty of future orders, and sometimes extreme competitive pressure to reduce inventory costs. Linear optimization methods become cumbersome or intractable due to a large number of variables and nonlinear dependencies involved. Here we develop a complex systems approach to optimizing logistics networks based upon dimensional reduction methods and apply our approach to a case study of a manufacturing company. In order to characterize the complexity in customer behavior, we define a “customer space” in which individual customer behavior is described by only the two most relevant dimensions: the distance to production facilities over current transportation routes and the customer's demand frequency. These dimensions provide essential insight into the domain of effective strategies for customers; direct and indirect strategies. In the direct strategy, goods are sent to the customer directly from a production facility using box or bulk trucks. In the indirect strategy, in advance of an order by the customer, goods are shipped to an external warehouse near a customer using trains and then "last-mile" shipped by trucks when orders are placed. Each strategy applies to an area of the customer space with an indeterminate boundary between them. Specific company policies determine the location of the boundary generally. We then identify the optimal delivery strategy for each customer by constructing a detailed model of costs of transportation and temporary storage in a set of specified external warehouses. Customer spaces help give an aggregate view of customer behaviors and characteristics. They allow policymakers to compare customers and develop strategies based on the aggregate behavior of the system as a whole. In addition to optimization over existing facilities, using customer logistics and the k-means algorithm, we propose additional warehouse locations. We apply these methods to a medium-sized American manufacturing company with a particular logistics network, consisting of multiple production facilities, external warehouses, and customers along with three types of shipment methods (box truck, bulk truck and train). For the case study, our method forecasts 10.5% savings on yearly transportation costs and an additional 4.6% savings with three new warehouses.

Keywords: logistics network optimization, direct and indirect strategies, K-means algorithm, dimensional reduction

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4 The Use of Telecare in the Re-design of Overnight Supports for People with Learning Disabilities: Implementing a Cluster-based Approach in North Ayrshire

Authors: Carly Nesvat, Dominic Jarrett, Colin Thomson, Wilma Coltart, Thelma Bowers, Jan Thomson


Introduction: Within Scotland, the Same As You strategy committed to moving people with learning disabilities out of long-stay hospital accommodation into homes in the community. Much of the focus of this movement was on the placement of people within individual homes. In order to achieve this, potentially excessive supports were put in place which created dependence, and carried significant ongoing cost primarily for local authorities. The greater focus on empowerment and community participation which has been evident in more recent learning disability strategy, along with the financial pressures being experienced across the public sector, created an imperative to re-examine that provision, particularly in relation to the use of expensive sleepover supports to individuals, and the potential for this to be appropriately scaled back through the use of telecare. Method: As part of a broader programme of redesigning overnight supports within North Ayrshire, a cluster of individuals living in close proximity were identified, who were in receipt of overnight supports, but who were identified as having the capacity to potentially benefit from their removal. In their place, a responder service was established (an individual staying overnight in a nearby service user’s home), and a variety of telecare solutions were placed within individual’s homes. Active and passive technology was connected to an Alarm Receiving Centre, which would alert the local responder service when necessary. Individuals and their families were prepared for the change, and continued to be informed about progress with the pilot. Results: 4 individuals, 2 of whom shared a tenancy, had their sleepover supports removed as part of the pilot. Extensive data collection in relation to alarm activation was combined with feedback from the 4 individuals, their families, and staff involved in their support. Varying perspectives emerged within the feedback. 3 of the individuals were clearly described as benefitting from the change, and the greater sense of independence it brought, while more concerns were evident in relation to the fourth. Some family members expressed a need for greater preparation in relation to the change and ongoing information provision. Some support staff also expressed a need for more information, to help them understand the new support arrangements for an individual, as well as noting concerns in relation to the outcomes for one participant. Conclusion: Developing a telecare response in relation to a cluster of individuals was facilitated by them all being supported by the same care provider. The number of similar clusters of individuals being identified within North Ayrshire is limited. Developing other solutions such as a response service for redesign will potentially require greater collaboration between different providers of home support, as well as continuing to explore the full range of telecare, including digital options. The pilot has highlighted the need for effective preparatory and ongoing engagement with staff and families, as well as the challenges which can accompany making changes to long-standing packages of support.

Keywords: challenges, change, engagement, telecare

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3 Tales of Two Cities: 'Motor City' Detroit and 'King Cotton' Manchester: Transatlantic Transmissions and Transformations, Flows of Communications, Commercial and Cultural Connections

Authors: Dominic Sagar


Manchester ‘King Cotton’, the first truly industrial city of the nineteenth century, passing on the baton to Detroit ‘Motor City’, is the first truly modern city. We are exploring the tales of the two cities, their rise and fall and subsequent post-industrial decline, their transitions and transformations, whilst alongside paralleling their corresponding, commercial, cultural, industrial and even agricultural, artistic and musical transactions and connections. The paper will briefly contextualize how technologies of the industrial age and modern age have been instrumental in the development of these cities and other similar cities including New York. However, the main focus of the study will be the present and more importantly the future, how globalisation and the advancements of digital technologies and industries have shaped the cities developments from AlanTuring and the making of the first programmable computer to the effect of digitalisation and digital initiatives. Manchester now has a thriving creative digital infrastructure of Digilabs, FabLabs, MadLabs and hubs, the study will reference the Smart Project and the Manchester Digital Development Association whilst paralleling similar digital and creative industrial initiatives now starting to happen in Detroit. The paper will explore other topics including the need to allow for zones of experimentation, areas to play, think and create in order develop and instigate new initiatives and ideas of production, carrying on the tradition of influential inventions throughout the history of these key cities. Other topics will be briefly touched on, such as urban farming, citing the Biospheric foundation in Manchester and other similar projects in Detroit. However, the main thread will focus on the music industries and how they are contributing to the regeneration of cities. Musically and artistically, Manchester and Detroit have been closely connected by the flow and transmission of information and transfer of ideas via ‘cars and trains and boats and planes’ through to the new ‘super highway’. From Detroit to Manchester often via New York and Liverpool and back again, these musical and artistic connections and flows have greatly affected and influenced both cities and the advancement of technology are still connecting the cities. In summary two hugely important industrial cities, subsequently both experienced massive decline in fortunes, having had their large industrial hearts ripped out, ravaged leaving dying industrial carcasses and car crashes of despair, dereliction, desolation and post-industrial wastelands vacated by a massive exodus of the cities’ inhabitants. To examine the affinity, similarity and differences between Manchester & Detroit, from their industrial importance to their post-industrial decline and their current transmutations, transformations, transient transgressions, cities in transition; contrasting how they have dealt with these problems and how they can learn from each other. With a view to framing these topics with regard to how various communities have shaped these cities and the creative industries and design [the new cotton/car manufacturing industries] are reinventing post-industrial cities, to speculate on future development of these themes in relation to Globalisation, digitalisation and how cities can function to develop solutions to communal living in cities of the future.

Keywords: cultural capital, digital developments, musical initiatives, zones of experimentation

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2 Assessment of Efficiency of Underwater Undulatory Swimming Strategies Using a Two-Dimensional CFD Method

Authors: Dorian Audot, Isobel Margaret Thompson, Dominic Hudson, Joseph Banks, Martin Warner


In competitive swimming, after dives and turns, athletes perform underwater undulatory swimming (UUS), copying marine mammals’ method of locomotion. The body, performing this wave-like motion, accelerates the fluid downstream in its vicinity, generating propulsion with minimal resistance. Through this technique, swimmers can maintain greater speeds than surface swimming and take advantage of the overspeed granted by the dive (or push-off). Almost all previous work has considered UUS when performed at maximum effort. Critical parameters to maximize UUS speed are frequently discussed; however, this does not apply to most races. In only 3 out of the 16 individual competitive swimming events are athletes likely to attempt to perform UUS with the greatest speed, without thinking of the cost of locomotion. In the other cases, athletes will want to control the speed of their underwater swimming, attempting to maximise speed whilst considering energy expenditure appropriate to the duration of the event. Hence, there is a need to understand how swimmers adapt their underwater strategies to optimize the speed within the allocated energetic cost. This paper develops a consistent methodology that enables different sets of UUS kinematics to be investigated. These may have different propulsive efficiencies and force generation mechanisms (e.g.: force distribution along with the body and force magnitude). The developed methodology, therefore, needs to: (i) provide an understanding of the UUS propulsive mechanisms at different speeds, (ii) investigate the key performance parameters when UUS is not performed solely for maximizing speed; (iii) consistently determine the propulsive efficiency of a UUS technique. The methodology is separated into two distinct parts: kinematic data acquisition and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. For the kinematic acquisition, the position of several joints along the body and their sequencing were either obtained by video digitization or by underwater motion capture (Qualisys system). During data acquisition, the swimmers were asked to perform UUS at a constant depth in a prone position (facing the bottom of the pool) at different speeds: maximum effort, 100m pace, 200m pace and 400m pace. The kinematic data were input to a CFD algorithm employing a two-dimensional Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The algorithm adopted was specifically developed in order to perform quick unsteady simulations of deforming bodies and is therefore suitable for swimmers performing UUS. Despite its approximations, the algorithm is applied such that simulations are performed with the inflow velocity updated at every time step. It also enables calculations of the resistive forces (total and applied to each segment) and the power input of the modeled swimmer. Validation of the methodology is achieved by comparing the data obtained from the computations with the original data (e.g.: sustained swimming speed). This method is applied to the different kinematic datasets and provides data on swimmers’ natural responses to pacing instructions. The results show how kinematics affect force generation mechanisms and hence how the propulsive efficiency of UUS varies for different race strategies.

Keywords: CFD, efficiency, human swimming, hydrodynamics, underwater undulatory swimming

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