Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: prepreg

24 Modeling of the Friction Behavior of Carbon/Epoxy Prepreg Composite

Authors: David Aveiga, Carlos Gonzalez

Abstract:

Thermoforming of pre-impregnated composites (prepreg) is the most employed process to build high-performance composite structures due to their visible advantage over alternative manufacturing techniques. This method allows easy shape moulding with a simple manufacturing system and a more refined outcome. The achievement of complex geometries can be exposed to undesired defects such as wrinkles. It is known that interply and ply-mould sliding behavior governs this defect generation. This work analyses interply and ply-mould friction coefficients for UD AS4/8552 Carbon/Epoxy prepreg. Friction coefficients are determined by a pull-out test method considering actual velocity, pressure and temperature conditions employed in a thermoforming process of an aeronautical composite component. A Stribeck curve is then constructed to find a mathematical expression that relates all the friction coefficients with the test variables through the Hersey number parameter. Two expressions are proposed to model ply-ply and ply-tool friction behaviors.

Keywords: friction, prepreg composite, stribeck curve, thermoforming.

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23 Complex Shaped Prepreg Part Drapability Using Vacuum Bagging

Authors: Saran Toure

Abstract:

Complex shaped parts manufactured using out of autoclave prepreg vacuum bagging has a high quality finish. This is not only due to in the control of resin to fibre ratio in prepregs, but also to a reduction in fibre misalignment, slippage and stresses occurring within plies during compaction. In a bid to further reduce deformation modes and control failure modes, we carried experiments where, we introduced wetted fabrics within a prepreg plybook during compaction. Here are presented the results obtained from the vacuum bagging of a complex shaped part. The shape is that of a turbine fan blade with smooth curves all throughout ending with sharp edged angles. The quality of the final part made from this blade is compared to that of the same blade made from standard vacuum bagging process of prepregs, without introducing wetted fabrics.

Keywords: complex shaped part, prepregs, drapability, vacuum bagging

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22 Fabrication and Analysis of Simplified Dragonfly Wing Structures Created Using Balsa Wood and Red Prepreg Fibre Glass for Use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles

Authors: Praveena Nair Sivasankaran, Thomas Arthur Ward, Rubentheren Viyapuri

Abstract:

Paper describes a methodology to fabricate a simplified dragonfly wing structure using balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass. These simplified wing structures were created for use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles (BMAV). Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated and possess complex vein structures. In order to mimic the wings function and retain its properties, a simplified version of the wing was designed. The simplified dragonfly wing structure was created using a method called spatial network analysis which utilizes Canny edge detection method. The vein structure of the wings were carved out in balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass. Balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass was chosen due to its ultra- lightweight property and hence, highly suitable to be used in our application. The fabricated structure was then immersed in a nanocomposite solution containing chitosan as a film matrix, reinforced with chitin nanowhiskers and tannic acid as a crosslinking agent. These materials closely mimic the membrane of a dragonfly wing. Finally, the wings were subjected to a bending test and comparisons were made with previous research for verification. The results had a margin of difference of about 3% and thus the structure was validated.

Keywords: dragonfly wings, simplified, Canny edge detection, balsa wood, red prepreg, chitin, chitosan, tannic acid

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21 Production and Mechanical Characterization of Ballistic Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: D. Korsacilar, C. Atas

Abstract:

In this study, first thermoplastic composite materials/plates that have high ballistic impact resistance were produced. For this purpose, the thermoplastic prepreg and the vacuum bagging technique were used to produce a composite material. Thermoplastic prepregs (resin-impregnated fiber) that are supplied ready to be used, namely high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was chosen as matrix and unidirectional glass fiber was used as reinforcement. In order to compare the fiber configuration effect on mechanical properties, unidirectional and biaxial prepregs were used. Then the microstructural properties of the composites were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Impact properties of the composites were examined by Charpy impact test and tensile mechanical tests and then the effects of ultraviolet irradiation were investigated on mechanical performance.

Keywords: ballistic, composite, thermoplastic, prepreg

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20 Out-of-Plane Bending Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Thermosetting Prepregs during Forming Processes

Authors: Hassan A. Alshahrani, Mehdi H. Hojjati

Abstract:

In order to predict and model wrinkling which is caused by out of plane deformation due to compressive loading in the plane of the material during composite prepregs forming, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the relative magnitude of the bending stiffness. This study aims to examine the bending properties of out-of-autoclave (OOA) thermosetting prepreg under vertical cantilever test condition. A direct method for characterizing the bending behavior of composite prepregs was developed. The results from direct measurement were compared with results derived from an image-processing procedure that analyses the captured image during the vertical bending test. A numerical simulation was performed using ABAQUS to confirm the bending stiffness value.

Keywords: Bending stiffness, out-of-autoclave prepreg, forming process, numerical simulation.

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19 Manufacturing Process of S-Glass Fiber Reinforced PEKK Prepregs

Authors: Nassier A. Nassir, Robert Birch, Zhongwei Guan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the fundamental science/technology related to novel S-glass fiber reinforced polyether- ketone-ketone (GF/PEKK) composites and to gain insight into bonding strength and failure mechanisms. Different manufacturing techniques to make this high-temperature pre-impregnated composite (prepreg) were conducted i.e. mechanical deposition, electrostatic powder deposition, and dry powder prepregging techniques. Generally, the results of this investigation showed that it was difficult to control the distribution of the resin powder evenly on the both sides of the fibers within a specific percentage. Most successful approach was by using a dry powder prepregging where the fibers were coated evenly with an adhesive that served as a temporary binder to hold the resin powder in place onto the glass fiber fabric.

Keywords: sry powder technique, PEKK, S-glass, thermoplastic prepreg

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18 Boron Nitride Nanoparticle Enhanced Prepreg Composite Laminates

Authors: Qiong Tian, Lifeng Zhang, Demei Yu, Ajit D. Kelkar

Abstract:

Low specific weight and high strength is the basic requirement for aerospace materials. Fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites are attractive materials for this purpose. Boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs) have good radiation shielding capacity, which is very important to aerospace materials. Herein a processing route for an advanced hybrid composite material is demonstrated by introducing dispersed BNNPs in standard prepreg manufacturing. The hybrid materials contain three parts: E-fiberglass, an aerospace-grade epoxy resin system, and BNNPs. A vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) was utilized in this processing. Two BNNP functionalization approaches are presented in this study: (a) covalent functionalization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550); (b) non-covalent functionalization with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The functionalized BNNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that BN powder was successfully functionalized via the covalent and non-covalent approaches without any crystal structure change and big agglomerate particles were broken into platelet-like nanoparticles (BNNPs) after functionalization. Compared to pristine BN powder, surface modified BNNPs could result in significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and compressive strength and modulus. CTAB functionalized BNNPs (CTAB-BNNPs) showed higher tensile and flexural strength but lower compressive strength than KH-550 functionalized BNNPs (KH550-BNNPs). These reinforcements are mainly attributed to good BNNPs dispersion and interfacial adhesion between epoxy matrix and BNNPs. This study reveals the potential in improving mechanical properties of BNNPs-containing composites laminates through surface functionalization of BNNPs.

Keywords: boron nitride, epoxy, functionalization, prepreg, composite

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17 Different Processing Methods to Obtain a Carbon Composite Element for Cycling

Authors: Maria Fonseca, Ana Branco, Joao Graca, Rui Mendes, Pedro Mimoso

Abstract:

The present work is focused on the production of a carbon composite element for cycling through different techniques, namely, blow-molding and high-pressure resin transfer injection (HP-RTM). The main objective of this work is to compare both processes to produce carbon composite elements for the cycling industry. It is well known that the carbon composite components for cycling are produced mainly through blow-molding; however, this technique depends strongly on manual labour, resulting in a time-consuming production process. Comparatively, HP-RTM offers a more automated process which should lead to higher production rates. Nevertheless, a comparison of the elements produced through both techniques must be done, in order to assess if the final products comply with the required standards of the industry. The main difference between said techniques lies in the used material. Blow-moulding uses carbon prepreg (carbon fibres pre-impregnated with a resin system), and the material is laid up by hand, piece by piece, on a mould or on a hard male. After that, the material is cured at a high temperature. On the other hand, in the HP-RTM technique, dry carbon fibres are placed on a mould, and then resin is injected at high pressure. After some research regarding the best material systems (prepregs and braids) and suppliers, an element was designed (similar to a handlebar) to be constructed. The next step was to perform FEM simulations in order to determine what the best layup of the composite material was. The simulations were done for the prepreg material, and the obtained layup was transposed to the braids. The selected material was a prepreg with T700 carbon fibre (24K) and an epoxy resin system, for the blow-molding technique. For HP-RTM, carbon fibre elastic UD tubes and ± 45º braids were used, with both 3K and 6K filaments per tow, and the resin system was an epoxy as well. After the simulations for the prepreg material, the optimized layup was: [45°, -45°,45°, -45°,0°,0°]. For HP-RTM, the transposed layup was [ ± 45° (6k); 0° (6k); partial ± 45° (6k); partial ± 45° (6k); ± 45° (3k); ± 45° (3k)]. The mechanical tests showed that both elements can withstand the maximum load (in this case, 1000 N); however, the one produced through blow-molding can support higher loads (≈1300N against 1100N from HP-RTM). In what concerns to the fibre volume fraction (FVF), the HP-RTM element has a slightly higher value ( > 61% compared to 59% of the blow-molding technique). The optical microscopy has shown that both elements have a low void content. In conclusion, the elements produced using HP-RTM can compare to the ones produced through blow-molding, both in mechanical testing and in the visual aspect. Nevertheless, there is still space for improvement in the HP-RTM elements since the layup of the braids, and UD tubes could be optimized.

Keywords: HP-RTM, carbon composites, cycling, FEM

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16 A Study on the Interlaminar Shear Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Depending on the Lamination Methods

Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Sun Ho Ko, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac

Abstract:

The prepreg process among the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) forming methods is the short term of ‘Pre-impregnation’, which is widely used for aerospace composites that require a high quality property such as a fiber-reinforced woven fabric, in which an epoxy hardening resin is impregnated. the reality is, however, that this process requires continuous researches and developments for its commercialization because the delamination characteristically develops between the layers when a great weight is loaded from outside. to supplement such demerit, three lamination methods among the prepreg lamination methods of CFRP were designed to minimize the delamination between the layers due to external impacts. Further, the newly designed methods and the existing lamination methods were analyzed through a mechanical characteristic test, Interlaminar Shear Strength test. The Interlaminar Shear Strength test result confirmed that the newly proposed three lamination methods, i.e. the Roll, Half and Zigzag laminations, presented more excellent strengths compared to the conventional Ply lamination. The interlaminar shear strength in the roll method with relatively dense fiber distribution was approximately 1.75% higher than that in the existing ply lamination method, and in the half method, it was approximately 0.78% higher.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced plastic(CFRP), pre-impregnation, laminating method, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS)

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15 Delamination Fracture Toughness Benefits of Inter-Woven Plies in Composite Laminates Produced through Automated Fibre Placement

Authors: Jayden Levy, Garth M. K. Pearce

Abstract:

An automated fibre placement method has been developed to build through-thickness reinforcement into carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates during their production, with the goal of increasing delamination fracture toughness while circumventing the additional costs and defects imposed by post-layup stitching and z-pinning. Termed ‘inter-weaving’, the method uses custom placement sequences of thermoset prepreg tows to distribute regular fibre link regions in traditionally clean ply interfaces. Inter-weaving’s impact on mode I delamination fracture toughness was evaluated experimentally through double cantilever beam tests (ASTM standard D5528-13) on [±15°]9 laminates made from Park Electrochemical Corp. E-752-LT 1/4” carbon fibre prepreg tape. Unwoven and inter-woven automated fibre placement samples were compared to those of traditional laminates produced from standard uni-directional plies of the same material system. Unwoven automated fibre placement laminates were found to suffer a mostly constant 3.5% decrease in mode I delamination fracture toughness compared to flat uni-directional plies. Inter-weaving caused significant local fracture toughness increases (up to 50%), though these were offset by a matching overall reduction. These positive and negative behaviours of inter-woven laminates were respectively found to be caused by fibre breakage and matrix deformation at inter-weave sites, and the 3D layering of inter-woven ply interfaces providing numerous paths of least resistance for crack propagation.

Keywords: AFP, automated fibre placement, delamination, fracture toughness, inter-weaving

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14 The Effect of Carbon Nanotubes in Copolyamide Nonwovens on the Properties of CFRP Laminates

Authors: Kamil Dydek, Anna Boczkowska, Paulina Latko-Duralek, Rafal Kozera, Michal Salacinski

Abstract:

In recent years there has been increasing interest in many industries, such as the aviation, automotive, and military industries, in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP). This is because of the excellent properties of CFRP, which are characterized by very high strength and stiffness in relation to their mass, low density (almost twice as low as aluminum and more than five times as low as steel), and corrosion resistance. However, they do not have sufficient electrical conductivity, which is required in some applications. Therefore, work is underway to improve their electrical conductivity, for example, by incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the CFRP structure. CNTs possess excellent properties, such as high electrical conductivity, high aspect ratio, high Young’s modulus, and high tensile strength. An idea developed by our team is a modification of CFRP by the use of thermoplastic nonwovens containing CNTs. Nanocomposite fibers were made from three different masterbatches differing in the content of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and then nonwovens that differed in areal weight were produced using a thermo-press. The out of autoclave method was used to fabricate the laminates from commercial carbon-epoxy prepreg dedicated to aviation applications - one without the nonwovens (reference) and five containing nonwovens placed between each prepreg layer. The volume of electrical conductivity of the manufactured laminates was measured in three directions. In order to investigate the adhesion between carbon fibers and nonwovens, the microstructure of the produced laminates was observed. The mechanical properties of the CFRP composites were measured in a short-beam shear test. In addition, the influence of thermoplastic nonwovens on the thermos-mechanical properties of laminates was analyzed by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The studies were carried out within grant no. DOB-1-3/1/PS/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development in Poland.

Keywords: CFRP, thermoplastic nonwovens, carbon nanotubes, electrical conductivity

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13 Large-Scale Production of High-Performance Fiber-Metal-Laminates by Prepreg-Press-Technology

Authors: Christian Lauter, Corin Reuter, Shuang Wu, Thomas Troester

Abstract:

Lightweight construction became more and more important over the last decades in several applications, e.g. in the automotive or aircraft sector. This is the result of economic and ecological constraints on the one hand and increasing safety and comfort requirements on the other hand. In the field of lightweight design, different approaches are used due to specific requirements towards the technical systems. The use of endless carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) offers the largest weight saving potential of sometimes more than 50% compared to conventional metal-constructions. However, there are very limited industrial applications because of the cost-intensive manufacturing of the fibers and production technologies. Other disadvantages of pure CFRP-structures affect the quality control or the damage resistance. One approach to meet these challenges is hybrid materials. This means CFRP and sheet metal are combined on a material level. Therefore, new opportunities for innovative process routes are realizable. Hybrid lightweight design results in lower costs due to an optimized material utilization and the possibility to integrate the structures in already existing production processes of automobile manufacturers. In recent and current research, the advantages of two-layered hybrid materials have been pointed out, i.e. the possibility to realize structures with tailored mechanical properties or to divide the curing cycle of the epoxy resin into two steps. Current research work at the Chair for Automotive Lightweight Design (LiA) at the Paderborn University focusses on production processes for fiber-metal-laminates. The aim of this work is the development and qualification of a large-scale production process for high-performance fiber-metal-laminates (FML) for industrial applications in the automotive or aircraft sector. Therefore, the prepreg-press-technology is used, in which pre-impregnated carbon fibers and sheet metals are formed and cured in a closed, heated mold. The investigations focus e.g. on the realization of short process chains and cycle times, on the reduction of time-consuming manual process steps, and the reduction of material costs. This paper gives an overview over the considerable steps of the production process in the beginning. Afterwards experimental results are discussed. This part concentrates on the influence of different process parameters on the mechanical properties, the laminate quality and the identification of process limits. Concluding the advantages of this technology compared to conventional FML-production-processes and other lightweight design approaches are carried out.

Keywords: composite material, fiber-metal-laminate, lightweight construction, prepreg-press-technology, large-series production

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12 Investigating what Effects Aviation Fluids Have on the Flatwise Compressive Strength of Nomex® Honeycomb Core Material

Authors: G. Kim, R. Sterkenburg

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One of the disadvantages of honeycomb sandwich structure is that they are prone to fluid intrusion. The purpose of this study is to determine if the structural properties of honeycomb core are affected by contact with a fluid. The test specimens were manufactured of fiberglass prepreg for the facesheets and Nomex® honeycomb core for the core material in accordance with ASTM C-365/365M. Test specimens were soaked in several different kinds of fluids, such as aircraft fuel, turbine engine oil, hydraulic fluid, and water for a period of 60 days. A flatwise compressive test was performed, and the test results were analyzed to determine how the contact with aircraft fluids affected the compressive strength of the Nomex® honeycomb core and how the strength was recovered when the specimens were dry. In addition, the investigation of de-bonding between facesheet and core material after soaking were performed to support the study.

Keywords: sandwich structure, honeycomb, environmental degradation, debonding

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11 Characterization of Surface Suction Grippers for Continuous-Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Semi-Finished Parts of an Automated Handling and Preforming Operation

Authors: Jürgen Fleischer, Woramon Pangboonyanon, Dominic Lesage

Abstract:

Non-metallic lightweight materials such as fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) become very significant at present. Prepregs e.g. SMC and unidirectional tape (UD-tape) are one of raw materials used to produce FRP. This study concerns with the manufacturing steps of handling and preforming of this UD-SMC and focuses on the investigation of gripper characteristics regarding gripping forces in normal and lateral direction, in order to identify suitable operating pressures for a secure gripping operation. A reliable handling and preforming operation results in a higher adding value of the overall process chain. As a result, the suitable operating pressures depending on travelling direction for each material type could be shown. Moreover, system boundary conditions regarding allowable pulling force in normal and lateral directions during preforming could be measured.

Keywords: continuous-discontinuous fiber reinforced plastics, UD-SMC-prepreg, handling, preforming, prepregs, sheet moulding compounds, surface suction gripper

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10 Numerical Study of Dynamic Buckling of Fiber Metal Laminates's Profile

Authors: Monika Kamocka, Radoslaw Mania

Abstract:

The design of Fiber Metal Laminates - combining thin aluminum sheets and prepreg layers, allows creating a hybrid structure with high strength to weight ratio. This feature makes FMLs very attractive for aerospace industry, where thin-walled structures are commonly used. Nevertheless, those structures are prone to buckling phenomenon. Buckling could occur also under static load as well as dynamic pulse loads. In this paper, the problem of dynamic buckling of open cross-section FML profiles under axial dynamic compression in the form of pulse load of finite duration is investigated. In the numerical model, material properties of FML constituents were assumed as nonlinear elastic-plastic aluminum and linear-elastic glass-fiber-reinforced composite. The influence of pulse shape was investigated. Sinusoidal and rectangular pulse loads of finite duration were compared in two ways, i.e. with respect to magnitude and force pulse. The dynamic critical buckling load was determined based on Budiansky-Hutchinson, Ari Gur, and Simonetta dynamic buckling criteria.

Keywords: dynamic buckling, dynamic stability, Fiber Metal Laminate, Finite Element Method

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9 An Innovation and Development System for a New Hybrid Composite Technology in Aerospace Industry

Authors: M. Fette, J. P. Wulfsberg, A. Herrmann, R. H. Ladstaetter

Abstract:

Present and future lightweight design represents an important key to successful implementation of energy-saving, fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly means of transport in the aerospace and automotive industry. In this context the use of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) which are distinguished by their outstanding mechanical properties at relatively low weight, promise significant improvements. Due to the reduction of the total mass, with the resulting lowered fuel or energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the operational phase, commercial aircraft and future vehicles will increasingly be made of CFRP. An auspicious technology for the efficient and economic production of high performance thermoset composites and hybrid structures for future lightweight applications is the combination of carbon fibre sheet moulding compound (SMC), tailored continuous carbon fibre reinforcements and metallic components in a one-shot pressing and curing process. This paper deals with a new hybrid composite technology for aerospace industries, which was developed with the help of a universal innovation and development system. This system supports the management of idea generation, the methodical development of innovative technologies and the achievement of the industrial readiness of these technologies.

Keywords: development system, hybrid composite, innovation system, prepreg, sheet moulding compound

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8 Materials for Electrically Driven Aircrafts: Highly Conductive Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Simon Bard, Martin Demleitner, Florian Schonl, Volker Altstadt

Abstract:

For an electrically driven aircraft, whose engine is based on semiconductors, alternative materials are needed. The avoid hotspots in the materials thermally conductive polymers are necessary. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of these materials should remain. Herein, the work of three years in a project with airbus and Siemens is presented. Different strategies have been pursued to achieve conductive fiber-reinforced composites: Metal-coated carbon fibers, pitch-based fibers and particle-loaded matrices have been investigated. In addition, a combination of copper-coated fibers and a conductive matrix has been successfully tested for its conductivity and mechanical properties. First, prepregs have been produced with a laboratory scale prepreg line, which can handle materials with maximum width of 300 mm. These materials have then been processed to fiber-reinforced laminates. For the PAN-fiber reinforced laminates, it could be shown that there is a strong dependency between fiber volume content and thermal conductivity. Laminates with 50 vol% of carbon fiber offer a conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, those with 66 vol% of fiber a thermal conductivity of 1 W/mK. With pitch-based fiber, the conductivity enhances to 1.5 W/mK for 61 vol% of fiber, compared to 0.81 W/mK with the same amount of fibers produced from PAN (+83% in conducitivity). The thermal conductivity of PAN-based composites with 50 vol% of fiber is at 0.6 W/mK, their nickel-coated counterparts with the same fiber volume content offer a conductivity of 1 W/mK, an increase of 66%.

Keywords: carbon, electric aircraft, polymer, thermal conductivity

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7 Pultrusion of Side by Side Glass/Polypropylene Fibers: Study of Flexural and Shear Properties

Authors: Behrooz Ataee, Mohammad Golzar

Abstract:

The main purpose of using side by side (SBS) hybrid yarn in pultrusion thermoplastic method is reprisal the effect of high viscosity in melted thermoplastic and reduction of distance between reinforced fiber and melted thermoplastic. SBS hybrid fiber yarn composed of thermoplastic fibers and fiber reinforcement should be produced in the preparation of pultruded thermoplastic composites prepreg to reach better impregnation. An experimental set-up was designed and built to pultrude continues polypropylene and glass fiber to get obtain a suitable impregnated round prepregs. In final stage, the round prepregs come together to produce rectangular profile. Higher fiber volume fraction produces higher void volume fraction, however the second stage of the production process of rectangular profile and the cold die decrease 50% of the void volume fraction. Results show that whit increasing void volume fraction, flexural and shear strength decrease. Also, under certain conditions of parameters the pultruded profiles exhibit better flexural and shear strength. The pulling speed seems to have the greatest influence on the profile quality. In addition, adding cold die strongly increases the surface quality of rectangular profile.

Keywords: thermoplastic pultrusion, hybrid pultrusion, side-by-side fibers, impregnation

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6 Finite Element Analysis of Resonance Frequency Shift of Laminated Composite Beam

Authors: Cheng Yang Kwa, Yoke Rung Wong

Abstract:

Laminated composite materials are widely employed in automotive, aerospace, and other industries. These materials provide distinct benefits due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, and ability to be customized for a specific function. However, delamination of laminated composite materials is one of the main defects which can occur during manufacturing, regular operations, or maintenance. Delamination can bring about considerable internal damage, unobservable by visual check, that causes significant loss in strength and stability, leading to composite structure catastrophic failure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is known to be the automated method for monitoring and evaluating the condition of a monitored object. There are several ways to conduct SHM in aerospace. One of the effective methods is to monitor the natural frequency shift of structure due to the presence of defect. This study investigated the mechanical resonance frequency shift of a multi-layer composite cantilever beam due to interlaminar delamination. ANSYS Workbench® was used to create a 4-plies laminated composite cantilever finite element model with [90/0]s fiber setting. Epoxy Carbon UD (230GPA) Prepreg was chosen, and the thickness was 2.5mm for each ply. The natural frequencies of the finite element model with various degree of delamination were simulated based on modal analysis and then validated by using literature. It was shown that the model without delamination had natural frequency of 40.412 Hz, which was 1.55% different from the calculated result (41.050 Hz). Thereafter, the various degree of delamination was mimicked by changing the frictional conditions at the middle ply-to-ply interface. The results suggested that delamination in the laminated composite cantilever induced a change in its stiffness which alters its mechanical resonance frequency.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, NDT, cantilever, laminate

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5 Enhancement of Interface Properties of Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: Reyhan Ozbask, Emek Moroydor Derin, Mustafa Dogu

Abstract:

There are a limited number of global companies in the world that manufacture and commercially offer thermoplastic composite prepregs in accordance with aerospace requirements. High-performance thermoplastic materials supplied for aerospace structural applications are PEEK (polyetheretherketone), PPS (polyphenylsulfite), PEI (polyetherimide), and PEKK (polyetherketoneketone). Among these, PEEK is the raw material used in the first applications and has started to become widespread. However, the use of these thermoplastic raw materials in composite production is very difficult due to their high processing temperatures and impregnation difficulties. This study, it is aimed to develop carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic PEEK composites that comply with the requirements of the aviation industry that are superior mechanical properties as well as being lightweight. Therefore, it is aimed to obtain high-performance thermoplastic composite materials with improved interface properties by using the sizing method (suspension development through chemical synthesis and functionalization), to optimize the production process. The use of boron nitride nanotube as a bonding agent by modifying its surface constitutes the original aspect of the study as it has not been used in composite production with high-performance thermoplastic materials yet. For this purpose, laboratory-scale studies on the application of thermoplastic compatible sizing will be carried out in order to increase the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion. The method respectively consists of the selection of appropriate sizing type, laboratory-scale carbon fiber (CF) / poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) polymer interface enhancement studies, manufacturing of laboratory-scale BNNT coated CF/PEEK woven prepreg composites and their tests.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced composite, interface enhancement, boron nitride nanotube, thermoplastic composite

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4 Virtual Metrology for Copper Clad Laminate Manufacturing

Authors: Misuk Kim, Seokho Kang, Jehyuk Lee, Hyunchang Cho, Sungzoon Cho

Abstract:

In semiconductor manufacturing, virtual metrology (VM) refers to methods to predict properties of a wafer based on machine parameters and sensor data of the production equipment, without performing the (costly) physical measurement of the wafer properties (Wikipedia). Additional benefits include avoidance of human bias and identification of important factors affecting the quality of the process which allow improving the process quality in the future. It is however rare to find VM applied to other areas of manufacturing. In this work, we propose to use VM to copper clad laminate (CCL) manufacturing. CCL is a core element of a printed circuit board (PCB) which is used in smartphones, tablets, digital cameras, and laptop computers. The manufacturing of CCL consists of three processes: Treating, lay-up, and pressing. Treating, the most important process among the three, puts resin on glass cloth, heat up in a drying oven, then produces prepreg for lay-up process. In this process, three important quality factors are inspected: Treated weight (T/W), Minimum Viscosity (M/V), and Gel Time (G/T). They are manually inspected, incurring heavy cost in terms of time and money, which makes it a good candidate for VM application. We developed prediction models of the three quality factors T/W, M/V, and G/T, respectively, with process variables, raw material, and environment variables. The actual process data was obtained from a CCL manufacturer. A variety of variable selection methods and learning algorithms were employed to find the best prediction model. We obtained prediction models of M/V and G/T with a high enough accuracy. They also provided us with information on “important” predictor variables, some of which the process engineers had been already aware and the rest of which they had not. They were quite excited to find new insights that the model revealed and set out to do further analysis on them to gain process control implications. T/W did not turn out to be possible to predict with a reasonable accuracy with given factors. The very fact indicates that the factors currently monitored may not affect T/W, thus an effort has to be made to find other factors which are not currently monitored in order to understand the process better and improve the quality of it. In conclusion, VM application to CCL’s treating process was quite successful. The newly built quality prediction model allowed one to reduce the cost associated with actual metrology as well as reveal some insights on the factors affecting the important quality factors and on the level of our less than perfect understanding of the treating process.

Keywords: copper clad laminate, predictive modeling, quality control, virtual metrology

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3 Analysis of Splicing Methods for High Speed Automated Fibre Placement Applications

Authors: Phillip Kearney, Constantina Lekakou, Stephen Belcher, Alessandro Sordon

Abstract:

The focus in the automotive industry is to reduce human operator and machine interaction, so manufacturing becomes more automated and safer. The aim is to lower part cost and construction time as well as defects in the parts, sometimes occurring due to the physical limitations of human operators. A move to automate the layup of reinforcement material in composites manufacturing has resulted in the use of tapes that are placed in position by a robotic deposition head, also described as Automated Fibre Placement (AFP). The process of AFP is limited with respect to the finite amount of material that can be loaded into the machine at any one time. Joining two batches of tape material together involves a splice to secure the ends of the finishing tape to the starting edge of the new tape. The splicing method of choice for the majority of prepreg applications is a hand stich method, and as the name suggests requires human input to achieve. This investigation explores three methods for automated splicing, namely, adhesive, binding and stitching. The adhesive technique uses an additional adhesive placed on the tape ends to be joined. Binding uses the binding agent that is already impregnated onto the tape through the application of heat. The stitching method is used as a baseline to compare the new splicing methods to the traditional technique currently in use. As the methods will be used within a High Speed Automated Fibre Placement (HSAFP) process, this meant the parameters of the splices have to meet certain specifications: (a) the splice must be able to endure a load of 50 N in tension applied at a rate of 1 mm/s; (b) the splice must be created in less than 6 seconds, dictated by the capacity of the tape accumulator within the system. The samples for experimentation were manufactured with controlled overlaps, alignment and splicing parameters, these were then tested in tension using a tensile testing machine. Initial analysis explored the use of the impregnated binding agent present on the tape, as in the binding splicing technique. It analysed the effect of temperature and overlap on the strength of the splice. It was found that the optimum splicing temperature was at the higher end of the activation range of the binding agent, 100 °C. The optimum overlap was found to be 25 mm; it was found that there was no improvement in bond strength from 25 mm to 30 mm overlap. The final analysis compared the different splicing methods to the baseline of a stitched bond. It was found that the addition of an adhesive was the best splicing method, achieving a maximum load of over 500 N compared to the 26 N load achieved by a stitching splice and 94 N by the binding method.

Keywords: analysis, automated fibre placement, high speed, splicing

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2 Features of Composites Application in Shipbuilding

Authors: Valerii Levshakov, Olga Fedorova

Abstract:

Specific features of ship structures, made from composites, i.e. simultaneous shaping of material and structure, large sizes, complicated outlines and tapered thickness have defined leading role of technology, integrating test results from material science, designing and structural analysis. Main procedures of composite shipbuilding are contact molding, vacuum molding and winding. Now, the most demanded composite shipbuilding technology is the manufacture of structures from fiberglass and multilayer hybrid composites by means of vacuum molding. This technology enables the manufacture of products with improved strength properties (in comparison with contact molding), reduction of production duration, weight and secures better environmental conditions in production area. Mechanized winding is applied for the manufacture of parts, shaped as rotary bodies – i.e. parts of ship, oil and other pipelines, deep-submergence vehicles hulls, bottles, reservoirs and other structures. This procedure involves processing of reinforcing fiberglass, carbon and polyaramide fibers. Polyaramide fibers have tensile strength of 5000 MPa, elastic modulus value of 130 MPa and rigidity of the same can be compared with rigidity of fiberglass, however, the weight of polyaramide fiber is 30% less than weight of fiberglass. The same enables to the manufacture different structures, including that, using both – fiberglass and organic composites. Organic composites are widely used for the manufacture of parts with size and weight limitations. High price of polyaramide fiber restricts the use of organic composites. Perspective area of winding technology development is the manufacture of carbon fiber shafts and couplings for ships. JSC ‘Shipbuilding & Shiprepair Technology Center’ (JSC SSTC) developed technology of dielectric uncouplers for cryogenic lines, cooled by gaseous or liquid cryogenic agents (helium, nitrogen, etc.) for temperature range 4.2-300 K and pressure up to 30 MPa – the same is used for separating components of electro physical equipment with different electrical potentials. Dielectric uncouplers were developed, the manufactured and tested in accordance with International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Technical specification. Spiral uncouplers withstand operating voltage of 30 kV, direct-flow uncoupler – 4 kV. Application of spiral channel instead of rectilinear enables increasing of breakdown potential and reduction of uncouplers sizes. 95 uncouplers were successfully the manufactured and tested. At the present time, Russian the manufacturers of ship composite structures have started absorption of technology of manufacturing the same using automated prepreg laminating; this technology enables the manufacture of structures with improved operational specifications.

Keywords: fiberglass, infusion, polymeric composites, winding

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1 Flexural Response of Sandwiches with Micro Lattice Cores Manufactured via Selective Laser Sintering

Authors: Emre Kara, Ali Kurşun, Halil Aykul

Abstract:

The lightweight sandwiches obtained with the use of various core materials such as foams, honeycomb, lattice structures etc., which have high energy absorbing capacity and high strength to weight ratio, are suitable for several applications in transport industry (automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding industry) where saving of fuel consumption, load carrying capacity increase, safety of vehicles and decrease of emission of harmful gases are very important aspects. While the sandwich structures with foams and honeycombs have been applied for many years, there is a growing interest on a new generation sandwiches with micro lattice cores. In order to produce these core structures, various production methods were created with the development of the technology. One of these production technologies is an additive manufacturing technique called selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/SLM) which is very popular nowadays because of saving of production time and achieving the production of complex topologies. The static bending and the dynamic low velocity impact tests of the sandwiches with carbon fiber/epoxy skins and the micro lattice cores produced via SLS/SLM were already reported in just a few studies. The goal of this investigation was the analysis of the flexural response of the sandwiches consisting of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) skins and the micro lattice cores manufactured via SLS under thermo-mechanical loads in order to compare the results in terms of peak load and absorbed energy values respect to the effect of core cell size, temperature and support span length. The micro lattice cores were manufactured using SLS technology that creates the product drawn by a 3D computer aided design (CAD) software. The lattice cores which were designed as body centered cubic (BCC) model having two different cell sizes (d= 2 and 2.5 mm) with the strut diameter of 0.3 mm were produced using titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) powder. During the production of all the core materials, the same production parameters such as laser power, laser beam diameter, building direction etc. were kept constant. Vacuum Infusion (VI) method was used to produce skin materials, made of [0°/90°] woven S-Glass prepreg laminates. The combination of the core and skins were implemented under VI. Three point bending tests were carried out by a servo-hydraulic test machine with different values of support span distances (L = 30, 45, and 60 mm) under various temperature values (T = 23, 40 and 60 °C) in order to analyze the influences of support span and temperature values. The failure mode of the collapsed sandwiches has been investigated using 3D computed tomography (CT) that allows a three-dimensional reconstruction of the analyzed object. The main results of the bending tests are: load-deflection curves, peak force and absorbed energy values. The results were compared according to the effect of cell size, support span and temperature values. The obtained results have particular importance for applications that require lightweight structures with a high capacity of energy dissipation, such as the transport industry, where problems of collision and crash have increased in the last years.

Keywords: light-weight sandwich structures, micro lattice cores, selective laser sintering, transport application

Procedia PDF Downloads 276