Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Jürgen Fleischer

23 Characterization of Surface Suction Grippers for Continuous-Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Semi-Finished Parts of an Automated Handling and Preforming Operation

Authors: Jürgen Fleischer, Woramon Pangboonyanon, Dominic Lesage


Non-metallic lightweight materials such as fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) become very significant at present. Prepregs e.g. SMC and unidirectional tape (UD-tape) are one of raw materials used to produce FRP. This study concerns with the manufacturing steps of handling and preforming of this UD-SMC and focuses on the investigation of gripper characteristics regarding gripping forces in normal and lateral direction, in order to identify suitable operating pressures for a secure gripping operation. A reliable handling and preforming operation results in a higher adding value of the overall process chain. As a result, the suitable operating pressures depending on travelling direction for each material type could be shown. Moreover, system boundary conditions regarding allowable pulling force in normal and lateral directions during preforming could be measured.

Keywords: continuous-discontinuous fiber reinforced plastics, UD-SMC-prepreg, handling, preforming, prepregs, sheet moulding compounds, surface suction gripper

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22 Shopping Cart System: Load Balancing and Fault Tolerance in the OSGi Service Platform

Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Thole Schneider, Johannes Westhuis, Jürgen Westerkamp


The main purpose of this paper was to find a simple solution for load balancing and fault tolerance in OSGi. The challenge was to implement a highly available web application such as a shopping cart system with load balancing and fault tolerance, without having to change the core of OSGi.

Keywords: fault tolerance, load balancing, OSGi, shopping cart system

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
21 A Deep Learning Approach for the Predictive Quality of Directional Valves in the Hydraulic Final Test

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter


The increasing use of deep learning applications in production is becoming a competitive advantage. Predictive quality enables the assurance of product quality by using data-driven forecasts via machine learning models as a basis for decisions on test results. The use of real Bosch production data along the value chain of hydraulic valves is a promising approach to classifying the leakage of directional valves.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, classification, hydraulics, predictive quality, deep learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
20 A Machine Learning Approach for Classification of Directional Valve Leakage in the Hydraulic Final Test

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter


Due to increasing cost pressure in global markets, artificial intelligence is becoming a technology that is decisive for competition. Predictive quality enables machinery and plant manufacturers to ensure product quality by using data-driven forecasts via machine learning models as a decision-making basis for test results. The use of cross-process Bosch production data along the value chain of hydraulic valves is a promising approach to classifying the quality characteristics of workpieces.

Keywords: predictive quality, hydraulics, machine learning, classification, supervised learning

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19 A Machine Learning Approach for the Leakage Classification in the Hydraulic Final Test

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter


The widespread use of machine learning applications in production is significantly accelerated by improved computing power and increasing data availability. Predictive quality enables the assurance of product quality by using machine learning models as a basis for decisions on test results. The use of real Bosch production data based on geometric gauge blocks from machining, mating data from assembly and hydraulic measurement data from final testing of directional valves is a promising approach to classifying the quality characteristics of workpieces.

Keywords: machine learning, classification, predictive quality, hydraulics, supervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
18 Integration of Load Introduction Elements into Fabrics

Authors: Jan Schwennen, Harlad Schmid, Juergen Fleischer


Lightweight design plays an important role in the automotive industry. Especially the combination of metal and CFRP shows great potential for future vehicle concepts. This requires joining technologies that are cost-efficient and appropriate for the materials involved. Previous investigations show that integrating load introduction elements during CFRP part manufacturing offers great advantages in mechanical performance. However, it is not yet clear how to integrate the elements in an automated process without harming the fiber structure. In this paper, a test rig is build up to investigate the effect of different parameters during insert integration experimentally. After a short description of the experimental equipment, preliminary tests are performed to determine a set of important process parameters. Based on that, the planning of design of experiments is given. The interpretation and evaluation of the test results show that with a minimization of the insert diameter and the peak angle less harm on the fiber structure can be achieved. Furthermore, a maximization of the die diameter above the insert shows a positive effect on the fiber structure. At the end of this paper, a theoretical description of alternative peak shaping is given and then the results get validated on the basis of an industrial reference part.

Keywords: CFRP, fabrics, insert, load introduction element, integration

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17 Challenges in Anti-Counterfeiting of Cyber-Physical Systems

Authors: Daniel Kliewe, Arno Kühn, Roman Dumitrescu, Jürgen Gausemeier


This paper examines the system protection for cyber-physical systems (CPS). CPS are particularly characterized by their networking system components. This means they are able to adapt to the needs of their users and its environment. With this ability, CPS have new, specific requirements on the protection against anti-counterfeiting, know-how loss and manipulation. They increase the requirements on system protection because piracy attacks can be more diverse, for example because of an increasing number of interfaces or through the networking abilities. The new requirements were identified and in a next step matched with existing protective measures. Due to the found gap the development of new protection measures has to be forced to close this gap. Moreover a comparison of the effectiveness between selected measures was realized and the first results are presented in the paper.

Keywords: anti-counterfeiting, cyber physical systems, intellectual property (IP), knowledge management, system protection

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16 Media Regulation and Public Sphere in the Digital Age: An Analysis in the Light of Constructive Democracy

Authors: Carlos Marden Cabral Coutinho, Jose Luis Bolzan de Morais


The article proposed intends to analyze the possibility (and conditions) of a media regulation law in a democratic rule of law in the twenty-first century. To do so, will be presented initially the idea of the public sphere (by Jürgen Habermas), showing how it is presented as an interface between the citizen and the state (or the private and public) and how important is it in a deliberative democracy. Based on this paradigm, the traditional perception of the role of public information (such as system functional element) and on the possibility of media regulation will be exposed, due to the public nature of their activity. A critical argument will then be displayed from two different perspectives: a) the formal function of the current media information, considering that the digital age has fragmented the information access; b) the concept of a constructive democracy, which reduces the need for representation, changing the strategic importance of the public sphere. The question to be addressed (based on the comparative law) is if the regulation is justified in a polycentric democracy, especially when it operates under the digital age (with immediate and virtual communication). The proposal is to be presented in the sense that even in a twenty-first century the media in a democratic rule of law still has an extremely important role and may be subject to regulation, but this should be on terms very different (and narrower) from those usually defended.

Keywords: constructive democracy, media, digital age, public sphere

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15 Growing Architecture, Technical Product Harvesting of Near Net Shape Building Components

Authors: Franziska Moser, Martin Trautz, Anna-Lena Beger, Manuel Löwer, Jörg Feldhusen, Jürgen Prell, Alexandra Wormit, Björn Usadel, Christoph Kämpfer, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert


The demand for bio-based materials and components in architecture has increased in recent years due to society’s heightened environmental awareness. Nowadays, most components are being developed via a substitution approach, which aims at replacing conventional components with natural alternatives who are then being processed, shaped and manufactured to fit the desired application. This contribution introduces a novel approach to the development of bio-based products that decreases resource consumption and increases recyclability. In this approach, natural organisms like plants or trees are not being used in a processed form, but grow into a near net shape before then being harvested and utilized as building components. By minimizing the conventional production steps, the amount of resources used in manufacturing decreases whereas the recyclability increases. This paper presents the approach of technical product harvesting, explains the theoretical basis as well as the matching process of product requirements and biological properties, and shows first results of the growth manipulation studies.

Keywords: design with nature, eco manufacturing, sustainable construction materials, technical product harvesting

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14 Vertical Vibration Mitigation along Railway Lines

Authors: Jürgen Keil, Frank Walther


This article presents two innovative solutions for vertical vibration mitigation barriers including experimental and numerical investigations on the completed barriers. There is a continuing growth of exposure to noise and vibration in people´s daily lives due to the quest for more mobility and flexibility. In previous times neglected, immissions caused by vibrations can lead, for example, to secondary noise or damage in the adjacent buildings. Also people can feel very affected by vibrations. But unlike in new construction, in existing infrastructure and buildings action can be taken almost only on the transmission path of those vibrations. In the following two solutions were shown how vibrations on the transmission path can be mitigated. These are the jet grouting method and a new installation method (patent pending) by means of a prefabricated hollow box which is filled with vibration reducing mats and driven down to depth, are presented. The essential results of the numerical and experimental investigations on the completed wave barriers are included as well. This article is based on the results of a field test with the participation of Keller Holding, which was executed in the context of the European research project RIVAS (Railway Induced Vibration Abatement Solutions), and on a thesis done at the Technical University of Dresden with the involvement of BAUGRUND DRESDEN Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH and the Keller Holding GmbH.

Keywords: jet grouting, rail way lines, vertical vibration mitigation, vibration reducing mats

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
13 Managerial Leadership Styles of Deans in Indonesian Universities

Authors: Jenny Ngo, Harry De Boer, Jurgen Enders


Indonesian higher education has experienced significant changes over the last decade. In 1999, the government published an overall strategy for decentralization and enhancement of local autonomy in many sectors, including (higher) education. Indonesian higher education reforms have forced universities to restructure their internal university governance to become more entrepreneurial. These new types of internal university governance are likely to affect the institutions’ leadership and management. This paper discusses the approach and findings of a study on the managerial leadership styles of deans in Indonesian universities. The study aims to get a better understanding of styles exhibited by deans manifested in their behaviors. Using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, in combination with the competing values framework, a large-scale survey was conducted to gather information on the deans’ behaviors, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Based on the responses of a sample of 218 deans, the study identifies a number of leadership styles: the Master, the Competitive Consultant, the Consensual Goal-Setter, the Focused Team Captain, and the Informed Trust-Builder style. The study demonstrates that attitudes are the primary determinant of the styles that were found. Perceived behavioral control is a factor that explains some managerial leadership styles. By understanding the attitudes of deans in Indonesian universities, and their leadership styles, universities can strengthen their management and governance, and thus improve their effectiveness.

Keywords: deans, Indonesian higher education, leadership and management styles, decentralization

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12 Theatre, Tea-Time and Harpsichords: Women’s Entertainment and Sensibility in Eighteenth-Century England

Authors: Ayako Otomo


This paper will examines the rise of a feminine orientation regarding arts and culture associated with the notion of Sensibility during the early part of the English long eighteenth century. As is widely known, the prosperous modernisation that occurred in this period was a significant factor in the nation taking a leading role in the emergent Enlightenment via the social, political and scientific advancement of Britain. As a result, this prompted the relaxing of the strictures of class and gender hierarchies in line with the new consumerism and cosmopolitanism of the nation. Accordingly, there was a significant increase of female involvement in artistic and cultural consumption. This can be understood in terms of the notion of Sensibility, associating it further with the fields of physiology, psychology and aesthetics, indebted in their turn to British Empiricism. This paper first traces the background of how women were recognisably involved in artistic and cultural circulation within an historical perspective that is articulated by the notion of Sensibility. Then, the discussion turns to the confluence of the issues of female association, creativity and the feminisation of the aesthetic of the arts and culture employing an interdisciplinary perspective. Arts and culture can also classified by public and private social spheres and gender according to Jürgen Habermas. The relationship between women and the theatre became a public issue. Music-making such as playing the harpsichord, reading, and conversation within the ritualistic teatime space dominated many of the artistic and cultural activities within the domestic private sphere.

Keywords: theatre, arts, sensibility, 18th century England

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11 The Role of Leukocyte-Derived IL-10 on Postoperative ileus and Intestinal Macrophage Differentiation in Mice

Authors: Kathy Stein, Mariola Lysson, Anja Schmidt, Beatrix Schumak, Sabine Specht, Hicham Bouabe, Jürgen Heesemann, Axel Roers, Joerg C. Kalff, Sven Wehner


Objective: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication of abdominal surgery. Monocyte infiltration is a hallmark of POI. The polarization of macrophages/monocytes in this process is not well understood. We aimed to investigate if and how M2 macrophage/monocyte differentiation is involved in POI pathogenesis. Design: POI was induced by intestinal manipulation (IM). C57Bl/6, CCR2-/-, IL-10 reporter (ITIB), IL-10-/- and LysMcre/IL-10fl/fl mice underwent IM. At various points in time leukocyte influx, gene and protein expression of cytokines, chemokines and M2 differentiation markers and intestinal motility were analyzed. Results: IM induced the postoperative expression of the M2 markers Arginase-1 and YM-1, predominantly in F4/80+Ly6C+ monocytes. Gene expression analyses indicated an IL-10-dependent, IL-4-independent M2 polarization of these monocytes. IL-10 dependency of M2 differentiation was confirmed in IL-10 deficient mice. Leukocytes, in the order of infiltrating monocytes, neutrophils, and resident macrophages were the main IL-10 producers during POI. IL-10 producing monocytes as well as M2 marker expression were almost absent in CCR2-deficient mice. However, postoperative IL-10 expression was not altered in CCR2-/- mice. The loss of M2 polarized monocytes neither protected CCR2-/- mice from nor affected resolution of POI. In contrast, IL-10 deficiency reduced postoperative neutrophil numbers and ameliorated POI. IL-10Ra expression was strongly induced in neutrophils but not in monocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that IL-10 counteracts POI resolution by activating IL-10Ra-expressing neutrophils in the late phase of disease while IL-10-dependent M2 differentiation is not pivotal to POI manifestation and resolution.

Keywords: interleukin-10, macrophages, neutrophils, postoperative ileus

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10 Promises versus Realities: A Critical Assessment of the Integrated Design Process

Authors: Firdous Nizar, Carmela Cucuzzella


This paper explores how the integrated design process (IDP) was adopted for an architectural project. The IDP is a relatively new approach to collaborative design in architectural design projects in Canada. It has gained much traction recently as the closest possible approach to the successful management of low energy building projects and has been advocated as a productive method for multi-disciplinary collaboration within complex projects. This study is based on the premise that there are explicit and implicit dimensions of power within the integrated design process (IDP) in the green building industry that may or may not lead to irreconcilable differences in a process that demands consensus. To gain insight on the potential gap between the theoretical promises and practical realities of the IDP, a review of existing IDP literature is compared with a case study analysis of a competition-based architectural project in Canada, a first to incorporate the IDP in its overall design format. This paper aims to address the undertheorized power relations of the IDP in a real project. It presents a critical assessment through the lens of the combined theories of deliberative democracy by Jürgen Habermas, with that of agonistic pluralism by political theorist Chantal Mouffe. These two theories are intended to more appropriately embrace the conflictual situations in collaborative environments, and shed light on the relationships of power, between engineers, city officials, architects, and designers in this conventional consensus-based model. In addition, propositions for a shift in approach that embraces conflictual differences among its participants are put forth based on concepts of critical spatial practice by Markus Meissen. As IDP is a relatively new design process, it requires much deliberation on its structure from the theoretical framework built in this paper in order to unlock its true potential.

Keywords: agonistic pluralism, critical spatial practice, deliberative democracy, integrated design process

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9 Dynamic Stability of a Wings for Drone Aircraft Subjected to Parametric Excitation

Authors: Iyd Eqqab Maree, Habil Jurgen Bast


Vibration control of machines and structures incorporating viscoelastic materials in suitable arrangement is an important aspect of investigation. The use of viscoelastic layers constrained between elastic layers is known to be effective for damping of flexural vibrations of structures over a wide range of frequencies. The energy dissipated in these arrangements is due to shear deformation in the viscoelastic layers, which occurs due to flexural vibration of the structures. Multilayered cantilever sandwich beam like structures can be used in aircrafts and other applications such as robot arms for effective vibration control. These members may experience parametric instability when subjected to time dependant forces. The theory of dynamic stability of elastic systems deals with the study of vibrations induced by pulsating loads that are parametric with respect to certain forms of deformation. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the dynamic stability of a three layered symmetric sandwich beam (Drone Aircraft wings ) subjected to an end periodic axial force . Equations of motion are derived using finite element method (MATLAB software). It is observed that with increase in core thickness parameter fundamental buckling load increases. The fundamental resonant frequency and second mode frequency parameter also increase with increase in core thickness parameter. Fundamental loss factor and second mode loss factor also increase with increase in core thickness parameter. Increase in core thickness parameter enhances the stability of the beam. With increase in core loss factor also the stability of the beam enhances. There is a very good agreement of the experimental results with the theoretical findings.

Keywords: steel cantilever beam, viscoelastic material core, loss factor, transition region, MATLAB R2011a

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8 AFM Probe Sensor Designed for Cellular Membrane Components

Authors: Sarmiza Stanca, Wolfgang Fritzsche, Christoph Krafft, Jürgen Popp


Independent of the cell type a thin layer of a few nanometers thickness surrounds the cell interior as the cellular membrane. The transport of ions and molecules through the membrane is achieved in a very precise way by pores. Understanding the process of opening and closing the pores due to an electrochemical gradient across the membrane requires knowledge of the pore constitutive proteins. Recent reports prove the access to the molecular level of the cellular membrane by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This technique also permits an electrochemical study in the immediate vicinity of the tip. Specific molecules can be electrochemically localized in the natural cellular membrane. Our work aims to recognize the protein domains of the pores using an AFM probe as a miniaturized amperometric sensor, and to follow the protein behavior while changing the applied potential. The intensity of the current produced between the surface and the AFM probe is amplified and detected simultaneously with the surface imaging. The AFM probe plays the role of the working electrode and the substrate, a conductive glass on which the cells are grown, represent the counter electrode. For a better control of the electric potential on the probe, a third electrode Ag/AgCl wire is mounted in the circuit as a reference electrode. The working potential is applied between the electrodes with a programmable source and the current intensity in the circuit is recorded with a multimeter. The applied potential considers the overpotential at the electrode surface and the potential drop due to the current flow through the system. The reported method permits a high resolved electrochemical study of the protein domains on the living cell membrane. The amperometric map identifies areas of different current intensities on the pore depending on the applied potential. The reproducibility of this method is limited by the tip shape, the uncontrollable capacitance, which occurs at the apex and a potential local charge separation.

Keywords: AFM, sensor, membrane, pores, proteins

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
7 Feature Selection Approach for the Classification of Hydraulic Leakages in Hydraulic Final Inspection using Machine Learning

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter


Manufacturing companies are facing global competition and enormous cost pressure. The use of machine learning applications can help reduce production costs and create added value. Predictive quality enables the securing of product quality through data-supported predictions using machine learning models as a basis for decisions on test results. Furthermore, machine learning methods are able to process large amounts of data, deal with unfavourable row-column ratios and detect dependencies between the covariates and the given target as well as assess the multidimensional influence of all input variables on the target. Real production data are often subject to highly fluctuating boundary conditions and unbalanced data sets. Changes in production data manifest themselves in trends, systematic shifts, and seasonal effects. Thus, Machine learning applications require intensive pre-processing and feature selection. Data preprocessing includes rule-based data cleaning, the application of dimensionality reduction techniques, and the identification of comparable data subsets. Within the used real data set of Bosch hydraulic valves, the comparability of the same production conditions in the production of hydraulic valves within certain time periods can be identified by applying the concept drift method. Furthermore, a classification model is developed to evaluate the feature importance in different subsets within the identified time periods. By selecting comparable and stable features, the number of features used can be significantly reduced without a strong decrease in predictive power. The use of cross-process production data along the value chain of hydraulic valves is a promising approach to predict the quality characteristics of workpieces. In this research, the ada boosting classifier is used to predict the leakage of hydraulic valves based on geometric gauge blocks from machining, mating data from the assembly, and hydraulic measurement data from end-of-line testing. In addition, the most suitable methods are selected and accurate quality predictions are achieved.

Keywords: classification, achine learning, predictive quality, feature selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
6 Optimum Method to Reduce the Natural Frequency for Steel Cantilever Beam

Authors: Eqqab Maree, Habil Jurgen Bast, Zana K. Shakir


Passive damping, once properly characterized and incorporated into the structure design is an autonomous mechanism. Passive damping can be achieved by applying layers of a polymeric material, called viscoelastic layers (VEM), to the base structure. This type of configuration is known as free or unconstrained layer damping treatment. A shear or constrained damping treatment uses the idea of adding a constraining layer, typically a metal, on top of the polymeric layer. Constrained treatment is a more efficient form of damping than the unconstrained damping treatment. In constrained damping treatment a sandwich is formed with the viscoelastic layer as the core. When the two outer layers experience bending, as they would if the structure was oscillating, they shear the viscoelastic layer and energy is dissipated in the form of heat. This form of energy dissipation allows the structural oscillations to attenuate much faster. The purpose behind this study is to predict damping effects by using two methods of passive viscoelastic constrained layer damping. First method is Euler-Bernoulli beam theory; it is commonly used for predicting the vibratory response of beams. Second method is Finite Element software packages provided in this research were obtained by using two-dimensional solid structural elements in ANSYS14 specifically eight nodded (SOLID183) and the output results from ANSYS 14 (SOLID183) its damped natural frequency values and mode shape for first five modes. This method of passive damping treatment is widely used for structural application in many industries like aerospace, automobile, etc. In this paper, take a steel cantilever sandwich beam with viscoelastic core type 3M-468 by using methods of passive viscoelastic constrained layer damping. Also can proved that, the percentage reduction of modal frequency between undamped and damped steel sandwich cantilever beam 8mm thickness for each mode is very high, this is due to the effect of viscoelastic layer on damped beams. Finally this types of damped sandwich steel cantilever beam with viscoelastic materials core type (3M468) is very appropriate to use in automotive industry and in many mechanical application, because has very high capability to reduce the modal vibration of structures.

Keywords: steel cantilever, sandwich beam, viscoelastic materials core type (3M468), ANSYS14, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory

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5 Evaluation of the CRISP-DM Business Understanding Step: An Approach for Assessing the Predictive Power of Regression versus Classification for the Quality Prediction of Hydraulic Test Results

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter


Digitalisation in production technology is a driver for the application of machine learning methods. Through the application of predictive quality, the great potential for saving necessary quality control can be exploited through the data-based prediction of product quality and states. However, the serial use of machine learning applications is often prevented by various problems. Fluctuations occur in real production data sets, which are reflected in trends and systematic shifts over time. To counteract these problems, data preprocessing includes rule-based data cleaning, the application of dimensionality reduction techniques, and the identification of comparable data subsets to extract stable features. Successful process control of the target variables aims to centre the measured values around a mean and minimise variance. Competitive leaders claim to have mastered their processes. As a result, much of the real data has a relatively low variance. For the training of prediction models, the highest possible generalisability is required, which is at least made more difficult by this data availability. The implementation of a machine learning application can be interpreted as a production process. The CRoss Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) is a process model with six phases that describes the life cycle of data science. As in any process, the costs to eliminate errors increase significantly with each advancing process phase. For the quality prediction of hydraulic test steps of directional control valves, the question arises in the initial phase whether a regression or a classification is more suitable. In the context of this work, the initial phase of the CRISP-DM, the business understanding, is critically compared for the use case at Bosch Rexroth with regard to regression and classification. The use of cross-process production data along the value chain of hydraulic valves is a promising approach to predict the quality characteristics of workpieces. Suitable methods for leakage volume flow regression and classification for inspection decision are applied. Impressively, classification is clearly superior to regression and achieves promising accuracies.

Keywords: classification, CRISP-DM, machine learning, predictive quality, regression

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4 Detection, Isolation, and Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Acute and Chronic Staphylococcus aureus Infection in an Endothelial Cell Culture Model

Authors: Astrid Tannert, Anuradha Ramoji, Christina Ebert, Frederike Gladigau, Lorena Tuchscherr, Jürgen Popp, Ute Neugebauer


Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative intracellular pathogen, which by entering host cells may evade immunologic host response as well as antimicrobial treatment. In that way, S. aureus can cause persistent intracellular infections which are difficult to treat. Depending on the strain, S. aureus may persist at different intracellular locations like the phagolysosome. The first barrier invading pathogens from the blood stream that they have to cross are the endothelial cells lining the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels. Upon proceeding from an acute to a chronic infection, intracellular pathogens undergo certain biochemical and structural changes including a deceleration of metabolic processes to adopt for long-term intracellular survival and the development of a special phenotype designated as small colony variant. In this study, the endothelial cell line Ea.hy 926 was used as a model for acute and chronic S. aureus infection. To this end, Ea.hy 926 cells were cultured on QIAscout™ Microraft Arrays, a special graded cell culture substrate that contains around 12,000 microrafts of 200 µm edge length. After attachment to the substrate, the endothelial cells were infected with GFP-expressing S. aureus for 3 weeks. The acute infection and the development of persistent bacteria was followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning the whole Microraft Array for the presence and for detailed determination of the intracellular location of fluorescent intracellular bacteria every second day. After three weeks of infection representative microrafts containing infected cells, cells with protruded infections and cells that did never show any infection were isolated and fixed for Raman micro-spectroscopic investigation. For comparison, also microrafts with acute infection were isolated. The acquired Raman spectra are correlated with the fluorescence microscopic images to give hints about a) the molecular alterations in endothelial cells during acute and chronic infection compared to non-infected cells, and b) metabolic and structural changes within the pathogen when entering a mode of persistence within host cells. We thank Dr. Ruth Kläver from QIAGEN GmbH for her support regarding QIAscout technology. Financial support by the BMBF via the CSCC (FKZ 01EO1502) and from the DFG via the Jena Biophotonic and Imaging Laboratory (JBIL, FKZ PO 633/29-1, BA 1601/10-1) is highly acknowledged.

Keywords: correlative image analysis, intracellular infection, pathogen-host adaption, Raman micro-spectroscopy

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3 Nanowire Substrate to Control Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Ainur Sharip, Jose E. Perez, Nouf Alsharif, Aldo I. M. Bandeas, Enzo D. Fabrizio, Timothy Ravasi, Jasmeen S. Merzaban, Jürgen Kosel


Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes or adipocytes. Differentiation is influenced by biochemical and biophysical stimuli provided by the microenvironment of the cell. Thus, altering the mechanical characteristics of a cell culture scaffold can directly influence a cell’s microenvironment and lead to stem cell differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on densely packed, vertically aligned magnetic iron nanowires (NWs) and the effect of NWs on the cell cytoskeleton rearrangement and differentiation were studied. An electrochemical deposition method was employed to fabricate NWs into nanoporous alumina templates, followed by a partial release to reveal the NW array. This created a cell growth substrate with free-standing NWs. The Fe NWs possessed a length of 2-3 µm, with each NW having a diameter of 33 nm on average. Mechanical stimuli generated by the physical movement of these iron NWs, in response to a magnetic field, can stimulate osteogenic differentiation. Induction of osteogenesis was estimated using an osteogenic marker, osteopontin, and a reduction of stem cell markers, CD73 and CD105. MSCs were grown on the NWs, and fluorescent microscopy was employed to monitor the expression of markers. A magnetic field with an intensity of 250 mT and a frequency of 0.1 Hz was applied for 12 hours/day over a period of one week and two weeks. The magnetically activated substrate enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of the MSCs compared to the culture conditions without magnetic field. Quantification of the osteopontin signal revealed approximately a seven-fold increase in the expression of this protein after two weeks of culture. Immunostaining staining against CD73 and CD105 revealed the expression of antibodies at the earlier time point (two days) and a considerable reduction after one-week exposure to a magnetic field. Overall, these results demonstrate the application of a magnetic NW substrate in stimulating the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. This method significantly decreases the time needed to induce osteogenic differentiation compared to commercial biochemical methods, such as osteogenic differentiation kits, that usually require more than two weeks. Contact-free stimulation of MSC differentiation using a magnetic field has potential uses in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and bone formation therapies.

Keywords: cell substrate, magnetic nanowire, mesenchymal stem cell, stem cell differentiation

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2 Fabrication of Aluminum Nitride Thick Layers by Modified Reactive Plasma Spraying

Authors: Cécile Dufloux, Klaus Böttcher, Heike Oppermann, Jürgen Wollweber


Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising candidate for several wide band gap semiconductor compound applications such as deep UV light emitting diodes (UVC LED) and fast power transistors (HEMTs). To date, bulk AlN single crystals are still commonly grown from the physical vapor transport (PVT). Single crystalline AlN wafers obtained from this process could offer suitable substrates for a defect-free growth of ultimately active AlGaN layers, however, these wafers still lack from small sizes, limited delivery quantities and high prices so far.Although there is already an increasing interest in the commercial availability of AlN wafers, comparatively cheap Si, SiC or sapphire are still predominantly used as substrate material for the deposition of active AlGaN layers. Nevertheless, due to a lattice mismatch up to 20%, the obtained material shows high defect densities and is, therefore, less suitable for high power devices as described above. Therefore, the use of AlN with specially adapted properties for optical and sensor applications could be promising for mass market products which seem to fulfill fewer requirements. To respond to the demand of suitable AlN target material for the growth of AlGaN layers, we have designed an innovative technology based on reactive plasma spraying. The goal is to produce coarse grained AlN boules with N-terminated columnar structure and high purity. In this process, aluminum is injected into a microwave stimulated nitrogen plasma. AlN, as the product of the reaction between aluminum powder and the plasma activated N2, is deposited onto the target. We used an aluminum filament as the initial material to minimize oxygen contamination during the process. The material was guided through the nitrogen plasma so that the mass turnover was 10g/h. To avoid any impurity contamination by an erosion of the electrodes, an electrode-less discharge was used for the plasma ignition. The pressure was maintained at 600-700 mbar, so the plasma reached a temperature high enough to vaporize the aluminum which subsequently was reacting with the surrounding plasma. The obtained products consist of thick polycrystalline AlN layers with a diameter of 2-3 cm. The crystallinity was determined by X-ray crystallography. The grain structure was systematically investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, we performed a Raman spectroscopy to provide evidence of stress in the layers. This paper will discuss the effects of process parameters such as microwave power and deposition geometry (specimen holder, radiation shields, ...) on the topography, crystallinity, and stress distribution of AlN.

Keywords: aluminum nitride, polycrystal, reactive plasma spraying, semiconductor

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1 Honneth, Feenberg, and the Redemption of Critical Theory of Technology

Authors: David Schafer


Critical Theory is in sore need of a workable account of technology. It had one in the writings of Herbert Marcuse, or so it seemed until Jürgen Habermas mounted a critique in 'Technology and Science as Ideology' (Habermas, 1970) that decisively put it away. Ever since Marcuse’s work has been regarded outdated – a 'philosophy of consciousness' no longer seriously tenable. But with Marcuse’s view has gone the important insight that technology is no norm-free system (as Habermas portrays it) but can be laden with social bias. Andrew Feenberg is among a few serious scholars who have perceived this problem in post-Habermasian critical theory and has sought to revive a basically Marcusean account of technology. On his view, while so-called ‘technical elements’ that physically make up technologies are neutral with regard to social interests, there is a sense in which we may speak of a normative grammar or ‘technical code’ built-in to technology that can be socially biased in favor of certain groups over others (Feenberg, 2002). According to Feenberg, those perspectives on technology are reified which consider technology only by their technical elements to the neglect of their technical codes. Nevertheless, Feenberg’s account fails to explain what is normatively problematic with such reified views of technology. His plausible claim that they represent false perspectives on technology by itself does not explain how such views may be oppressive, even though Feenberg surely wants to be doing that stronger level of normative theorizing. Perceiving this deficit in his own account of reification, he tries to adopt Habermas’s version of systems-theory to ground his own critical theory of technology (Feenberg, 1999). But this is a curious move in light of Feenberg’s own legitimate critiques of Habermas’s portrayals of technology as reified or ‘norm-free.’ This paper argues that a better foundation may be found in Axel Honneth’s recent text, Freedom’s Right (Honneth, 2014). Though Honneth there says little explicitly about technology, he offers an implicit account of reification formulated in opposition to Habermas’s systems-theoretic approach. On this ‘normative functionalist’ account of reification, social spheres are reified when participants prioritize individualist ideals of freedom (moral and legal freedom) to the neglect of an intersubjective form of freedom-through-recognition that Honneth calls ‘social freedom.’ Such misprioritization is ultimately problematic because it is unsustainable: individual freedom is philosophically and institutionally dependent upon social freedom. The main difficulty in adopting Honneth’s social theory for the purposes of a theory of technology, however, is that the notion of social freedom is predicable only of social institutions, whereas it appears difficult to conceive of technology as an institution. Nevertheless, in light of Feenberg’s work, the idea that technology includes within itself a normative grammar (technical code) takes on much plausibility. To the extent that this normative grammar may be understood by the category of social freedom, Honneth’s dialectical account of the relationship between individual and social forms of freedom provides a more solid basis from which to ground the normative claims of Feenberg’s sociological account of technology than Habermas’s systems theory.

Keywords: Habermas, Honneth, technology, Feenberg

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