Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: reflectors

20 Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam


This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.

Keywords: Equivalent circuit modelling, planar reflectors, reflectarray antenna, PIN diode, liquid crystal

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19 Experimental Study and Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector with Various Reflectors

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Balram Manoj Kumar


A solar powered air heating system using parabolic trough collector was experimentally investigated. In this experimental setup, the reflected solar radiations were focused on absorber tube which was placed at focal length of the parabolic trough. In this setup, air was used as working fluid which collects the heat from absorber tube. To enhance the performance of parabolic trough, collector with different type of reflectors were used. It was observed for aluminum sheet maximum temperature is 52.3ºC, which 24.22% more than steel sheet as reflector and 8.5% more than aluminum foil as reflector, also efficiency by using Aluminum sheet as reflector compared to steel sheet as reflector is 61.18% more. Efficiency by using aluminum sheet as reflector compared to aluminum foil as reflector is 18.98% more.

Keywords: parabolic trough collector, reflectors, air flow rates, solar power, aluminum sheet

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18 Design and Analysis of Metamaterial Based Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser

Authors: Ishraq M. Anjum


Distributed Bragg reflectors are used in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) in order to achieve very high reflectivity. Use of metamaterial in place of distributed Bragg reflector can reduce the device size significantly. A silicon-based metamaterial near perfect reflector is designed to be used in place of distributed Bragg reflectors in VCSELs. Mie resonance in dielectric microparticles is exploited in order to design the metamaterial. A reflectivity of 98.31% is achieved using finite-difference time-domain method. An 808nm double intra-cavity contacted VCSEL structure with 1.5 λ cavity is proposed using this metamaterial near perfect reflector. The active region is designed to be composed of seven GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. Upon numerical investigation of the designed VCSEL structure, the threshold current is found to be 2.96 mA at an aperture of 40 square micrometers and the maximum output power is found to be 71 mW at a current of 141 mA. Miniaturization of conventional VCSELs is possible using this design.

Keywords: GaAs, LASER, metamaterial, VCSEL, vertical cavity surface emitting laser

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17 Performance Evaluation of Hemispherical Basin Type Solar Still

Authors: Husham Mahmood Ahmed


For so many reasons, fresh water scarcity is one of major problems facing the world and in particularly in the third world in the Northern Africa, the Middle East, the Southwest of Asia, and many other desert areas. Solar distillation offers one of the most promising solutions of renewable energy to this aggravated situation. The main obstacle hindering the spread of the use of solar technology for fresh water production is its low efficiency. Therefore, enhancing the solar stills performances by studying the parameters affecting their productivity and implementing new ideas and a different design are the main goals of the investigators in recent years. The present research is experimental work that tests a new design of solar still with a hemispherical top cover for water desalination with and without external reflectors under the climate of the Kingdom of Bahrain during the autumn season. The hemispherical cover has a base diameter of 1m and a depth of 0.4m, die cast from a 6 mm thick Lexan plastic sheet. The net effective area was 0.785 m2. It has been found that the average daily production rate obtained from the hemispherical top cover solar still is 3.610 liter/day. This yield is 11.1% higher than the yield of a conventional simple type single slope solar still having 20ᴼ slope glass cover and a larger effective area of 1 m2 obtained in previous research under similar climatic conditions. It has also been found that adding 1.2m long by 0.15 curved reflectors increased the yield of the hemispherical solar still by 5.5 %, while the 1.2 long by 0.3m curved reflector increased the yield by about 8%.

Keywords: hemispherical solar still, solar desalination, solar energy, the Northern Africa

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16 Lotus Mechanism: Validation of Deployment Mechanism Using Structural and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Parth Prajapati, A. R. Srinivas


The purpose of this paper is to validate the concept of the Lotus Mechanism using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools considering the statics and dynamics through actual time dependence involving inertial forces acting on the mechanism joints. For a 1.2 m mirror made of hexagonal segments, with simple harnesses and three-point supports, the maximum diameter is 400 mm, minimum segment base thickness is 1.5 mm, and maximum rib height is considered as 12 mm. Manufacturing challenges are explored for the segments using manufacturing research and development approaches to enable use of large lightweight mirrors required for the future space system.

Keywords: dynamics, manufacturing, reflectors, segmentation, statics

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15 Research on Reflectors for Detecting Fishing Nets with Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellites

Authors: Toshiyuki Miyazaki, Fumihiro Takahashi, Takashi Hosokawa


Fishing nets and floating buoys used in fishing can be washed away by typhoons and storms. The spilled fishing nets become marine debris and hinder the navigation of ships. In this study, we report a method of attaching a retroreflective structure to afloat in order to discover fishing nets using SAR satellites. We prototyped an omnidirectional (all-around) corner reflector as a retroreflective structure that can be mounted on a float and analyzed its reflection characteristics. As a result, it was clarified that the reflection could be sufficiently larger than the backscattering of the sea surface. In order to further improve the performance, we worked on the design and trial production of the Luneberg lens.

Keywords: retroreflective structure, spherical corner reflector, Luneberg lens, SAR satellite, maritime floating buoy

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14 Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach

Authors: Alok Kumar Routa, Priya Ranjan Mohanty


Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.

Keywords: Kirchhoff's migration, Prestack depth migration, Ray tracing modelling, velocity model

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13 Long Wavelength GaInNAs Based Hot Electron Light Emission VCSOAs

Authors: Faten Adel Ismael Chaqmaqchee


Optical, electrical and optical-electrical characterisations of surface light emitting VCSOAs devices are reported. The hot electron light emitting and lasing in semiconductor hetero-structure vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (HELLISH VCSOA) device is a surface emitter based on longitudinal injection of electron and hole pairs in their respective channels. Ga0.35In0.65N0.02As0.08/GaAs was used as an active material for operation in the 1.3 μm window of the optical communications. The device has undoped Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) and the current is injected longitudinally, directly into the active layers and does not involve DBRs. Therefore, problems associated with refractive index contrast and current injection through the DBR layers, which are common with the doped DBRs in conventional VCSOAs, are avoided. The highest gain of around 4 dB is obtained for the 1300 nm wavelength operation.

Keywords: HELLISH, VCSOA, GaInNAs, luminescence, gain

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12 Maximizing the Output of Solar Photovoltaic System

Authors: Vipresh Mehta , Aman Abhishek, Jatin Batra, Gautam Iyer


Huge amount of solar radiation reaching the earth can be harnessed to provide electricity through Photo voltaic (PV) panels. The solar PV is an exciting technology but suffers from low efficiency. A study on low efficiency in multi MW solar power plants reveals that the electric yield of the PV modules is reduced due to reflection of the irradiation from the sun and when a module’s temperature is elevated, as there is decrease in the voltage and efficiency. We intend to alter the structure of the PV system, We also intend to improve the efficiency of the Solar Photo Voltaic Panels by active cooling to reduce the temperature losses considerably and decrease reflection losses to some extent. Reflectors/concentrators and anti-reflecting coatings are also used to intensify the amount of output produced from the system. Apart from this, transformer-less Grid-tied Inverter. And also, a T-LCL immitance circuit is used to reduce the harmonics and produce a constant output from the entire system.

Keywords: PV panels, efficiency improvement, active cooling, quantum dots, organic-inorganic hybrid 3D panel, ground water tunneling

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11 A Peg Board with Photo-Reflectors to Detect Peg Insertion and Pull-Out Moments

Authors: Hiroshi Kinoshita, Yasuto Nakanishi, Ryuhei Okuno, Toshio Higashi


Various kinds of pegboards have been developed and used widely in research and clinics of rehabilitation for evaluation and training of patient’s hand function. A common measure in these peg boards is a total time of performance execution assessed by a tester’s stopwatch. Introduction of electrical and automatic measurement technology to the apparatus, on the other hand, has been delayed. The present work introduces the development of a pegboard with an electric sensor to detect moments of individual peg’s insertion and removal. The work also gives fundamental data obtained from a group of healthy young individuals who performed peg transfer tasks using the pegboard developed. Through trails and errors in pilot tests, two 10-hole peg-board boxes installed with a small photo-reflector and a DC amplifier at the bottom of each hole were designed and built by the present authors. The amplified electric analogue signals from the 20 reflectors were automatically digitized at 500 Hz per channel, and stored in a PC. The boxes were set on a test table at different distances (25, 50, 75, and 125 mm) in parallel to examine the effect of hole-to-hole distance. Fifty healthy young volunteers (25 in each gender) as subjects of the study performed successive fast 80 time peg transfers at each distance using their dominant and non-dominant hands. The data gathered showed a clear-cut light interruption/continuation moment by the pegs, allowing accurately (no tester’s error involved) and precisely (an order of milliseconds) to determine the pull out and insertion times of each peg. This further permitted computation of individual peg movement duration (PMD: from peg-lift-off to insertion) apart from hand reaching duration (HRD: from peg insertion to lift-off). An accidental drop of a peg led to an exceptionally long ( < mean + 3 SD) PMD, which was readily detected from an examination of data distribution. The PMD data were commonly right-skewed, suggesting that the median can be a better estimate of individual PMD than the mean. Repeated measures ANOVA using the median values revealed significant hole-to-hole distance, and hand dominance effects, suggesting that these need to be fixed in the accurate evaluation of PMD. The gender effect was non-significant. Performance consistency was also evaluated by the use of quartile variation coefficient values, which revealed no gender, hole-to-hole, and hand dominance effects. The measurement reliability was further examined using interclass correlation obtained from 14 subjects who performed the 25 and 125 mm hole distance tasks at two 7-10 days separate test sessions. Inter-class correlation values between the two tests showed fair reliability for PMD (0.65-0.75), and for HRD (0.77-0.94). We concluded that a sensor peg board developed in the present study could provide accurate (excluding tester’s errors), and precise (at a millisecond rate) time information of peg movement separated from that used for hand movement. It could also easily detect and automatically exclude erroneous execution data from his/her standard data. These would lead to a better evaluation of hand dexterity function compared to the widely used conventional used peg boards.

Keywords: hand, dexterity test, peg movement time, performance consistency

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10 Technological Ensuring of the Space Reflector Antennas Manufacturing Process from Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Authors: Pyi Phyo Maung


In the study, the calculations of the permeability coefficient, values of the volume and porosity of a unit cell of a woven fabric before and after deformation based on the geometrical parameters are presented. Two types of carbon woven fabric structures were investigated: standard type, which integrated the filament, has a cross sectional shape of a cylinder and spread tow type, which has a rectangular cross sectional shape. The space antennas reflector, which distinctive feature is the presence of the surface of double curvature, is considered as the object of the research. Modeling of the kinetics of the process of impregnation of the reflector for the two types of carbon fabric’s unit cell structures was performed using software RAM-RTM. This work also investigated the influence of the grid angle between warp and welt of the unit cell on the duration of impregnation process. The results showed that decreasing the angle between warp and welt of the unit cell, the decreasing of the permeability values were occurred. Based on the results of calculation samples of the reflectors, their quality was determined. The comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results have been carried out. Comparison of the two textile structures (standard and spread tow) showed that the standard textiles with circular cross section were impregnated faster than spread tows, which have a rectangular cross section.

Keywords: vacuum assistant resin infusion, impregnation time, shear angle, reflector and modeling

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9 Approaches for Minimizing Radioactive Tritium and ¹⁴C in Advanced High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

Authors: Longkui Zhu, Zhengcao Li


High temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are considered as one of the next-generation advanced nuclear reactors, in which porous nuclear graphite is used as neutron moderators, reflectors, structure materials, and cooled by inert helium. Radioactive tritium and ¹⁴C are generated in terms of reactions of thermal neutrons and ⁶Li, ¹⁴N, ¹⁰B impurely within nuclear graphite and the coolant during HTGRs operation. Currently, hydrogen and nitrogen diffusion behavior together with nuclear graphite microstructure evolution were investigated to minimize the radioactive waste release, using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray computed tomography, the BET and mercury standard porosimetry methods. It is found that the peak value of graphite weight loss emerged at 573-673 K owing to nitrogen diffusion from graphite pores to outside when the system was subjected to vacuum. Macropore volume became larger while porosity for mesopores was smaller with temperature ranging from ambient temperature to 1073 K, which was primarily induced by coalescence of the subscale pores. It is suggested that the porous nuclear graphite should be first subjected to vacuum at 573-673 K to minimize the nitrogen and the radioactive 14°C before operation in HTGRs. Then, results on hydrogen diffusion show that the diffusible hydrogen and tritium could permeate into the coolant with diffusion coefficients of > 0.5 × 10⁻⁴ cm²·s⁻¹ at 50 bar. As a consequence, the freshly-generated diffusible tritium could release quickly to outside once formed, and an effective approach for minimizing the amount of radioactive tritium is to make the impurity contents extremely low in nuclear graphite and the coolant. Besides, both two- and three-dimensional observations indicate that macro and mesopore volume along with total porosity decreased with temperature at 50 bar on account of synergistic effects of applied compression strain, sharpened pore morphology, and non-uniform temperature distribution.

Keywords: advanced high temperature gas-cooled reactor, hydrogen and nitrogen diffusion, microstructure evolution, nuclear graphite, radioactive waste management

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8 Investigation of External Pressure Coefficients on Large Antenna Parabolic Reflector Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Varun K, Pramod B. Balareddy


Estimation of wind forces plays a significant role in the in the design of large antenna parabolic reflectors. Reflector surface accuracies are very sensitive to the gain of the antenna system at higher frequencies. Hence accurate estimation of wind forces becomes important, which is primary input for design and analysis of the reflector system. In the present work, numerical simulation of wind flow using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to investigate the external pressure coefficients. An extensive comparative study has been made between the CFD results and the published wind tunnel data for different wind angle of attacks (α) acting over concave to convex surfaces respectively. Flow simulations using CFD are carried out to estimate the coefficients of Drag, Lift and Moment for the parabolic reflector. Coefficients of pressures (Cp) over the front and the rear face of the reflector are extracted over surface of the reflector to study the net pressure variations. These resultant pressure variations are compared with the published wind tunnel data for different angle of attacks. It was observed from the CFD simulations, both convex and concave face of reflector system experience a band of pressure variations for the positive and negative angle of attacks respectively. In the published wind tunnel data, Pressure variations over convex surfaces are assumed to be uniform and vice versa. Chordwise and spanwise pressure variations were calculated and compared with the published experimental data. In the present work, it was observed that the maximum pressure coefficients for α ranging from +30° to -90° and α=+90° was lower. For α ranging from +45° to +75°, maximum pressure coefficients were higher as compared to wind tunnel data. This variation is due to non-uniform pressure distribution observed over front and back faces of reflector. Variations in Cd, Cl and Cm over α=+90° to α=-90° was in close resemblance with the experimental data.

Keywords: angle of attack, drag coefficient, lift coefficient, pressure coefficient

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7 A Low-Cost Long-Range 60 GHz Backhaul Wireless Communication System

Authors: Atabak Rashidian


In duplex backhaul wireless communication systems, two separate transmit and receive high-gain antennas are required if an antenna switch is not implemented. Although the switch loss, which is considerable and in the order of 1.5 dB at 60 GHz, is avoided, the large separate antenna systems make the design bulky and not cost-effective. To avoid two large reflectors for such a system, transmit and receive antenna feeds with a common phase center are required. The phase center should coincide with the focal point of the reflector to maximize the efficiency and gain. In this work, we present an ultra-compact design in which stacked patch antennas are used as the feeds for a 12-inch reflector. The transmit antenna is a 1 × 2 array and the receive antenna is a single element located in the middle of the transmit antenna elements. Antenna elements are designed as stacked patches to provide the required impedance bandwidth for four standard channels of WiGigTM applications. The design includes three metallic layers and three dielectric layers, in which the top dielectric layer is a 100 µm-thick protective layer. The top two metallic layers are specified to the main and parasitic patches. The bottom layer is basically ground plane with two circular openings (0.7 mm in diameter) having a center through via which connects the antennas to a single input/output Si-Ge Bi-CMOS transceiver chip. The reflection coefficient of the stacked patch antenna is fully investigated. The -10 dB impedance bandwidth is about 11%. Although the gap between transmit and receive antenna is very small (g = 0.525 mm), the mutual coupling is less than -12 dB over the desired frequency band. The three dimensional radiation patterns of the transmit and receive reflector antennas at 60 GHz is investigated over the impedance bandwidth. About 39 dBi realized gain is achieved. Considering over 15 dBm of output power of the silicon chip in the transmit side, the EIRP should be over 54 dBm, which is good enough for over one kilometer multi Gbps data communications. The performance of the reflector antenna over the bandwidth shows the peak gain is 39 dBi and 40 dBi for the reflector antenna with 2-element and single element feed, respectively. This type of the system design is cost-effective and efficient.

Keywords: Antenna, integrated circuit, millimeter-wave, phase center

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6 Quantitative Seismic Interpretation in the LP3D Concession, Central of the Sirte Basin, Libya

Authors: Tawfig Alghbaili


LP3D Field is located near the center of the Sirt Basin in the Marada Trough approximately 215 km south Marsa Al Braga City. The Marada Trough is bounded on the west by a major fault, which forms the edge of the Beda Platform, while on the east, a bounding fault marks the edge of the Zelten Platform. The main reservoir in the LP3D Field is Upper Paleocene Beda Formation. The Beda Formation is mainly limestone interbedded with shale. The reservoir average thickness is 117.5 feet. To develop a better understanding of the characterization and distribution of the Beda reservoir, quantitative seismic data interpretation has been done, and also, well logs data were analyzed. Six reflectors corresponding to the tops of the Beda, Hagfa Shale, Gir, Kheir Shale, Khalifa Shale, and Zelten Formations were picked and mapped. Special work was done on fault interpretation part because of the complexities of the faults at the structure area. Different attribute analyses were done to build up more understanding of structures lateral extension and to view a clear image of the fault blocks. Time to depth conversion was computed using velocity modeling generated from check shot and sonic data. The simplified stratigraphic cross-section was drawn through the wells A1, A2, A3, and A4-LP3D. The distribution and the thickness variations of the Beda reservoir along the study area had been demonstrating. Petrophysical analysis of wireline logging also was done and Cross plots of some petrophysical parameters are generated to evaluate the lithology of reservoir interval. Structure and Stratigraphic Framework was designed and run to generate different model like faults, facies, and petrophysical models and calculate the reservoir volumetric. This study concluded that the depth structure map of the Beda formation shows the main structure in the area of study, which is north to south faulted anticline. Based on the Beda reservoir models, volumetric for the base case has been calculated and it has STOIIP of 41MMSTB and Recoverable oil of 10MMSTB. Seismic attributes confirm the structure trend and build a better understanding of the fault system in the area.

Keywords: LP3D Field, Beda Formation, reservoir models, Seismic attributes

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5 Sequence Stratigraphy and Petrophysical Analysis of Sawan Gas Field, Central Indus Basin, Pakistan

Authors: Saeed Ur Rehman Chaudhry


The objectives of the study are to reconstruct sequence stratigraphic framework and petrophysical analysis of the reservoir marked by using sequence stratigraphy of Sawan Gas Field. The study area lies in Central Indus Basin, District Khairpur, Sindh province, Pakistan. The study area lies tectonically in an extensional regime. Lower Goru Formation and Sembar Formation act as a reservoir and source respectively. To achieve objectives, data set of seismic lines, consisting of seismic lines PSM96-114, PSM96-115, PSM96-133, PSM98-201, PSM98-202 and well logs of Sawan-01, Sawan-02 and Gajwaro-01 has been used. First of all interpretation of seismic lines has been carried out. Interpretation of seismic lines shows extensional regime in the area and cut entire Cretaceous section. Total of seven reflectors has been marked on each seismic line. Lower Goru Formation is thinning towards west. Seismic lines also show eastward tilt of stratigraphy due to uplift at the western side. Sequence stratigraphic reconstruction has been done by integrating seismic and wireline log data. Total of seven sequence boundaries has been interpreted between the top of Chiltan Limestone to Top of Lower Goru Formation. It has been observed on seismic lines that Sembar Formation initially generated shelf margin profile and then ramp margin on which Lower Goru deposition took place. Shelf edge deltas and slope fans have been observed on seismic lines, and signatures of slope fans are also observed on wireline logs as well. Total of six sequences has been interpreted. Stratigraphic and sequence stratigraphic correlation has been carried out by using Sawan 01, Sawan 02 and Gajwaro 01 and a Low Stand Systems tract (LST) within Lower Goru C sands has been marked as a zone of interest. The petrophysical interpretation includes shale volume, effective porosity, permeability, saturation of water and hydrocarbon. On the basis of good effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation petrophysical analysis confirms that the LST in Sawan-01 and Sawan-02 has good hydrocarbon potential.

Keywords: petrophysical analysis, reservoir potential, Sawan Gas Field, sequence stratigraphy

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4 Identification of Igneous Intrusions in South Zallah Trough-Sirt Basin

Authors: Mohamed A. Saleem


Using mostly seismic data, this study intends to show some examples of igneous intrusions found in some areas of the Sirt Basin and explore the period of their emplacement as well as the interrelationships between these sills. The study area is located in the south of the Zallah Trough, south-west Sirt basin, Libya. It is precisely between the longitudes 18.35ᵒ E and 19.35ᵒ E, and the latitudes 27.8ᵒ N and 28.0ᵒ N. Based on a variety of criteria that are usually used as marks on the igneous intrusions, twelve igneous intrusions (Sills), have been detected and analysed using 3D seismic data. One or more of the following were used as identification criteria: the high amplitude reflectors paired with abrupt reflector terminations, vertical offsets, or what is described as a dike-like connection, the violation, the saucer form, and the roughness. Because of their laying between the hosting layers, the majority of these intrusions are classified as sills. Another distinguishing feature is the intersection geometry link between some of these sills. Every single sill has given a name just to distinguish the sills from each other such as S-1, S-2, and …S-12. To avoid the repetition of description, the common characteristics and some statistics of these sills are shown in summary tables, while the specific characters that are not common and have been noticed for each sill are shown individually. The sills, S-1, S-2, and S-3, are approximately parallel to one other, with the shape of these sills being governed by the syncline structure of their host layers. The faults that dominated the strata (pre-upper Cretaceous strata) have a significant impact on the sills; they caused their discontinuity, while the upper layers have a shape of anticlines. S-1 and S-10 are the group's deepest and highest sills, respectively, with S-1 seated near the basement's top and S-10 extending into the sequence of the upper cretaceous. The dramatic escalation of sill S-4 can be seen in N-S profiles. The majority of the interpreted sills are influenced and impacted by a large number of normal faults that strike in various directions and propagate vertically from the surface to the basement's top. This indicates that the sediment sequences were existed before the sill’s intrusion, were deposited, and that the younger faults occurred more recently. The pre-upper cretaceous unit is the current geological depth for the Sills S-1, S-2 … S-9, while Sills S-10, S-11, and S-12 are hosted by the Cretaceous unit. Over the sills S-1, S-2, and S-3, which are the deepest sills, the pre-upper cretaceous surface has a slightly forced folding, these forced folding is also noticed above the right and left tips of sill S-8 and S-6, respectively, while the absence of these marks on the above sequences of layers supports the idea that the aforementioned sills were emplaced during the early upper cretaceous period.

Keywords: Sirt Basin, Zallah Trough, igneous intrusions, seismic data

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3 A Review of Gas Hydrate Rock Physics Models

Authors: Hemin Yuan, Yun Wang, Xiangchun Wang


Gas hydrate is drawing attention due to the fact that it has an enormous amount all over the world, which is almost twice the conventional hydrocarbon reserves, making it a potential alternative source of energy. It is widely distributed in permafrost and continental ocean shelves, and many countries have launched national programs for investigating the gas hydrate. Gas hydrate is mainly explored through seismic methods, which include bottom simulating reflectors (BSR), amplitude blanking, and polarity reverse. These seismic methods are effective at finding the gas hydrate formations but usually contain large uncertainties when applying to invert the micro-scale petrophysical properties of the formations due to lack of constraints. Rock physics modeling links the micro-scale structures of the rocks to the macro-scale elastic properties and can work as effective constraints for the seismic methods. A number of rock physics models have been proposed for gas hydrate modeling, which addresses different mechanisms and applications. However, these models are generally not well classified, and it is confusing to determine the appropriate model for a specific study. Moreover, since the modeling usually involves multiple models and steps, it is difficult to determine the source of uncertainties. To solve these problems, we summarize the developed models/methods and make four classifications of the models according to the hydrate micro-scale morphology in sediments, the purpose of reservoir characterization, the stage of gas hydrate generation, and the lithology type of hosting sediments. Some sub-categories may overlap each other, but they have different priorities. Besides, we also analyze the priorities of different models, bring up the shortcomings, and explain the appropriate application scenarios. Moreover, by comparing the models, we summarize a general workflow of the modeling procedure, which includes rock matrix forming, dry rock frame generating, pore fluids mixing, and final fluid substitution in the rock frame. These procedures have been widely used in various gas hydrate modeling and have been confirmed to be effective. We also analyze the potential sources of uncertainties in each modeling step, which enables us to clearly recognize the potential uncertainties in the modeling. In the end, we explicate the general problems of the current models, including the influences of pressure and temperature, pore geometry, hydrate morphology, and rock structure change during gas hydrate dissociation and re-generation. We also point out that attenuation is also severely affected by gas hydrate in sediments and may work as an indicator to map gas hydrate concentration. Our work classifies rock physics models of gas hydrate into different categories, generalizes the modeling workflow, analyzes the modeling uncertainties and potential problems, which can facilitate the rock physics characterization of gas hydrate bearding sediments and provide hints for future studies.

Keywords: gas hydrate, rock physics model, modeling classification, hydrate morphology

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2 Validation of Asymptotic Techniques to Predict Bistatic Radar Cross Section

Authors: M. Pienaar, J. W. Odendaal, J. C. Smit, J. Joubert


Simulations are commonly used to predict the bistatic radar cross section (RCS) of military targets since characterization measurements can be expensive and time consuming. It is thus important to accurately predict the bistatic RCS of targets. Computational electromagnetic (CEM) methods can be used for bistatic RCS prediction. CEM methods are divided into full-wave and asymptotic methods. Full-wave methods are numerical approximations to the exact solution of Maxwell’s equations. These methods are very accurate but are computationally very intensive and time consuming. Asymptotic techniques make simplifying assumptions in solving Maxwell's equations and are thus less accurate but require less computational resources and time. Asymptotic techniques can thus be very valuable for the prediction of bistatic RCS of electrically large targets, due to the decreased computational requirements. This study extends previous work by validating the accuracy of asymptotic techniques to predict bistatic RCS through comparison with full-wave simulations as well as measurements. Validation is done with canonical structures as well as complex realistic aircraft models instead of only looking at a complex slicy structure. The slicy structure is a combination of canonical structures, including cylinders, corner reflectors and cubes. Validation is done over large bistatic angles and at different polarizations. Bistatic RCS measurements were conducted in a compact range, at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. The measurements were performed at different polarizations from 2 GHz to 6 GHz. Fixed bistatic angles of β = 30.8°, 45° and 90° were used. The measurements were calibrated with an active calibration target. The EM simulation tool FEKO was used to generate simulated results. The full-wave multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) simulated results together with the measured data were used as reference for validation. The accuracy of physical optics (PO) and geometrical optics (GO) was investigated. Differences relating to amplitude, lobing structure and null positions were observed between the asymptotic, full-wave and measured data. PO and GO were more accurate at angles close to the specular scattering directions and the accuracy seemed to decrease as the bistatic angle increased. At large bistatic angles PO did not perform well due to the shadow regions not being treated appropriately. PO also did not perform well for canonical structures where multi-bounce was the main scattering mechanism. PO and GO do not account for diffraction but these inaccuracies tended to decrease as the electrical size of objects increased. It was evident that both asymptotic techniques do not properly account for bistatic structural shadowing. Specular scattering was calculated accurately even if targets did not meet the electrically large criteria. It was evident that the bistatic RCS prediction performance of PO and GO depends on incident angle, frequency, target shape and observation angle. The improved computational efficiency of the asymptotic solvers yields a major advantage over full-wave solvers and measurements; however, there is still much room for improvement of the accuracy of these asymptotic techniques.

Keywords: asymptotic techniques, bistatic RCS, geometrical optics, physical optics

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1 Next-Generation Lunar and Martian Laser Retro-Reflectors

Authors: Simone Dell'Agnello


There are laser retroreflectors on the Moon and no laser retroreflectors on Mars. Here we describe the design, construction, qualification and imminent deployment of next-generation, optimized laser retroreflectors on the Moon and on Mars (where they will be the first ones). These instruments are positioned by time-of-flight measurements of short laser pulses, the so-called 'laser ranging' technique. Data analysis is carried out with PEP, the Planetary Ephemeris Program of CfA (Center for Astrophysics). Since 1969 Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to Apollo/Lunokhod laser retro-reflector (CCR) arrays supplied accurate tests of General Relativity (GR) and new gravitational physics: possible changes of the gravitational constant Gdot/G, weak and strong equivalence principle, gravitational self-energy (Parametrized Post Newtonian parameter beta), geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law; it can also constraint gravitomagnetism. Some of these measurements also allowed for testing extensions of GR, including spacetime torsion, non-minimally coupled gravity. LLR has also provides significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. In fact, LLR first provided evidence of the existence of a fluid component of the deep lunar interior. In 1969 CCR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the LLR error budget. Since laser station range accuracy improved by more than a factor 100, now, because of lunar librations, current array dominate the error due to their multi-CCR geometry. We developed a next-generation, single, large CCR, MoonLIGHT (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity high-accuracy test) unaffected by librations that supports an improvement of the space segment of the LLR accuracy up to a factor 100. INFN also developed INRRI (INstrument for landing-Roving laser Retro-reflector Investigations), a microreflector to be laser-ranged by orbiters. Their performance is characterized at the SCF_Lab (Satellite/lunar laser ranging Characterization Facilities Lab, INFN-LNF, Frascati, Italy) for their deployment on the lunar surface or the cislunar space. They will be used to accurately position landers, rovers, hoppers, orbiters of Google Lunar X Prize and space agency missions, thanks to LLR observations from station of the International Laser Ranging Service in the USA, in France and in Italy. INRRI was launched in 2016 with the ESA mission ExoMars (Exobiology on Mars) EDM (Entry, descent and landing Demonstration Module), deployed on the Schiaparelli lander and is proposed for the ExoMars 2020 Rover. Based on an agreement between NASA and ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana), another microreflector, LaRRI (Laser Retro-Reflector for InSight), was delivered to JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and integrated on NASA’s InSight Mars Lander in August 2017 (launch scheduled in May 2018). Another microreflector, LaRA (Laser Retro-reflector Array) will be delivered to JPL for deployment on the NASA Mars 2020 Rover. The first lunar landing opportunities will be from early 2018 (with TeamIndus) to late 2018 with commercial missions, followed by opportunities with space agency missions, including the proposed deployment of MoonLIGHT and INRRI on NASA’s Resource Prospectors and its evolutions. In conclusion, we will extend significantly the CCR Lunar Geophysical Network and populate the Mars Geophysical Network. These networks will enable very significantly improved tests of GR.

Keywords: general relativity, laser retroreflectors, lunar laser ranging, Mars geodesy

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