Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 781

Search results for: injection moulding

781 Design and Finite Element Analysis of Clamp Cylinder for Capacity Augmentation of Injection Moulding Machine

Authors: Vimal Jasoliya, Purnank Bhatt, Mit Shah


The Injection Moulding is one of the principle methods of conversions of plastics into various end products using a very wide range of plastics materials from commodity plastics to specialty engineering plastics. Injection Moulding Machines are rated as per the tonnage force applied. The work present includes Design & Finite Element Analysis of a structure component of injection moulding machine i.e. clamp cylinder. The work of the project is to upgrade the 1300T clamp cylinder to 1500T clamp cylinder for injection moulding machine. The design of existing clamp cylinder of 1300T is checked. Finite Element analysis is carried out for 1300T clamp cylinder in ANSYS Workbench, and the stress values are compared with acceptance criteria and theoretical calculation. The relation between the clamp cylinder diameter and the tonnage capacity has been derived and verified for 1300T clamp cylinder. The same correlation is used to find out the thickness for 1500T clamp cylinder. The detailed design of 1500T cylinder is carried out based on calculated thickness.

Keywords: clamp cylinder, fatigue analysis, finite element analysis, injection moulding machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
780 Effect of Injection Moulding Process Parameter on Tensile Strength of Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Gurjeet Singh, M. K. Pradhan, Ajay Verma


The plastic industry plays very important role in the economy of any country. It is generally among the leading share of the economy of the country. Since metals and their alloys are very rarely available on the earth. So to produce plastic products and components, which finds application in many industrial as well as household consumer products is beneficial. Since 50% plastic products are manufactured by injection moulding process. For production of better quality product, we have to control quality characteristics and performance of the product. The process parameters plays a significant role in production of plastic, hence the control of process parameter is essential. In this paper the effect of the parameters selection on injection moulding process has been described. It is to define suitable parameters in producing plastic product. Selecting the process parameter by trial and error is neither desirable nor acceptable, as it is often tends to increase the cost and time. Hence optimization of processing parameter of injection moulding process is essential. The experiments were designed with Taguchi’s orthogonal array to achieve the result with least number of experiments. Here Plastic material polypropylene is studied. Tensile strength test of material is done on universal testing machine, which is produced by injection moulding machine. By using Taguchi technique with the help of MiniTab-14 software the best value of injection pressure, melt temperature, packing pressure and packing time is obtained. We found that process parameter packing pressure contribute more in production of good tensile plastic product.

Keywords: injection moulding, tensile strength, poly-propylene, Taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
779 Part Performance Improvement through Design Optimisation of Cooling Channels in the Injection Moulding Process

Authors: M. A. Alhubail, A. I. Alateyah, D. Alenezi, B. Aldousiri


In this study conformal cooling channel (CCC) was employed to dissipate heat of, Polypropylene (PP) parts injected into the Stereolithography (SLA) insert to form tensile and flexural test specimens. The direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to fabricate a mould with optimised CCC, while optimum parameters of injection moulding were obtained using Optimal-D. The obtained results show that optimisation of the cooling channel layout using a DMLS mould has significantly shortened cycle time without sacrificing the part’s mechanical properties. By applying conformal cooling channels, the cooling time phase was reduced by 20 seconds, and also defected parts were eliminated.

Keywords: optimum parameters, injection moulding, conformal cooling channels, cycle time

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
778 Porous Titanium Scaffolds Fabricated by Metal Injection Moulding Using Potassium-Chloride and Space Holder

Authors: Ali Dehghan Manshadi, David H. StJohn, Matthew S. Dargusch, M. Qian


Biocompatible, highly porous titanium scaffolds were manufactured by metal injection moulding of spherical titanium powder (powder size: -45 µm) with potassium chloride (powder size: -250 µm) as a space holder. Property evaluation of scaffolds confirmed a high level of compatibility between their mechanical properties and those of human cortical bone. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 1250°C producing scaffolds with more than 90% interconnected pores in the size range of 200-250 µm, yield stress of 220 MPa and Young’s modulus of 7.80 GPa, all of which are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Increasing the sintering temperature to 1300°C increased the Young’s modulus to 22.0 GPa while reducing the temperature to 1150°C reduced the yield stress to 120 MPa due to incomplete sintering. The residual potassium chloride was determined vs. sintering temperature. A comparison was also made between the porous titanium scaffolds fabricated in this study and the additively manufactured titanium lattices of similar porosity reported in the literature.

Keywords: titanium, metal injection moulding, mechanical properties, scaffolds

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
777 Visualization of Flow Behaviour in Micro-Cavities during Micro Injection Moulding

Authors: Reza Gheisari, Paulo J. Bartolo, Nicholas Goddard


Polymeric micro-cantilevers (Cs) are rapidly becoming popular for MEMS applications such as chemo- and bio-sensing as well as purely electromechanical applications such as microrelays. Polymer materials present suitable physical and chemical properties combined with low-cost mass production. Hence, micro-cantilevers made of polymers indicate much more biocompatibility and adaptability of rapid prototyping along with mechanical properties. This research studies the effects of three process and one size factors on the filling behaviour in micro cavity, and the role of each in the replication of micro parts using different polymer materials i.e. polypropylene (PP) SABIC 56M10 and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Magnum 8434. In particular, the following factors are considered: barrel temperature, mould temperature, injection speed and the thickness of micro features. The study revealed that the barrel temperature and the injection speed are the key factors affecting the flow length of micro features replicated in PP and ABS. For both materials, an increase of feature sizes improves the melt flow. However, the melt fill of micro features does not increase linearly with the increase of their thickness.

Keywords: flow length, micro cantilevers, micro injection moulding, microfabrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
776 Pedestrian Safe Bumper Design from Commingled Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Reinforced Sandwich Composites

Authors: L. Onal


The aim of this study is to optimize manufacturing process for thermoplastic sandwich composite structures for the pedestrian safety of automobiles subjected to collision condition. In particular, cost-effective manufacturing techniques for sandwich structures with commingled GF/PP skins and low-density foam cores are being investigated. The performance of these structures under bending load is being studied. Samples are manufactured using compression moulding technique. The relationship of this performance to processing parameters such as mould temperature, moulding time, moulding pressure and sequence of the layers during moulding is being investigated. The results of bending tests are discussed in the light of the moulding conditions and conclusions are given regarding optimum set of processing conditions using the compression moulding route

Keywords: twintex, flexural properties, automobile composites, sandwich structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
775 Wear Performance of SLM Fabricated 1.2709 Steel Nanocomposite Reinforced by TiC-WC for Mould and Tooling Applications

Authors: Daniel Ferreira, José M. Marques Oliveira, Filipe Oliveira


Wear phenomena is critical in injection moulding processes, causing failure of the components, and making the parts more expensive with an additional wasting time. When very abrasive materials are being injected inside the steel mould’s cavities, such as polymers reinforced with abrasive fibres, the consequences of the wear are more evident. Maraging steel (1.2709) is commonly employed in moulding components to resist in very aggressive injection conditions. In this work, the wear performance of the SLM produced 1.2709 maraging steel reinforced by ultrafine titanium and tungsten carbide (TiC-WC), was investigated using a pin-on-disk testing apparatus. A polypropylene reinforced with 40 wt.% fibreglass (PP40) disk, was used as the counterpart material. The wear tests were performed at 40 N constant load and 0.4 ms-1 sliding speed at room temperature and humidity conditions. The experimental results demonstrated that the wear rate in the 18Ni300-TiC-WC composite is lower than the unreinforced 18Ni300 matrix. The morphology and chemical composition of the worn surfaces was observed by 3D optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The resulting debris, caused by friction, were also analysed by SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Their morphology showed distinct shapes and sizes, which indicated that the wear mechanisms, may be different in maraging steel produced by casting and SLM. The coefficient of friction (COF) was recorded during the tests, which helped to elucidate the wear mechanisms involved.

Keywords: selective laser melting, nanocomposites, injection moulding, polypropylene with fibreglass

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
774 Shrinkage Evaluation in a Stepped Wax Pattern – a Simulation Approach

Authors: Alok S Chauhan, Sridhar S., Pradyumna R.


In the process of precision investment casting of turbine hollow blade/vane components, a part of the dimensional deviations observed in the castings can be attributed to the wax pattern. In the process of injection moulding of wax to produce patterns, heated wax shrinks in size during cooling in the die, leading to a reduction in the dimensions of the pattern. Also, flow and thermal induced residual stresses result in shrinkage & warpage of the component after removal from the die, further adding to the deviations. Injection moulding parameters such as wax temperature, flow rate, packing pressure, etc. affect the flow and thermal behavior of the component and hence are directly responsible for the dimensional deviations. There is a need to precisely determine and control these deviations in order to achieve stringent dimensional accuracies imposed on these castings by aerospace standards. Simulation based approaches provide a platform to predict these dimensional deviations without resorting to elaborate experimentation. In the present paper, Moldex3D simulation package has been utilized to analyze the effect of variations in injection temperature, packing pressure and cooling time on the shrinkage behavior of a stepped pattern. Two types of waxes with different rheological properties have been included in the study to gauge the effect of change in wax on the dimensional deviations. A full factorial design of experiments has been configured with these parameters and results of analysis of variance have been presented.

Keywords: wax patterns, investment casting, pattern die/mould, wax injection, Moldex3D simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
773 Characterization and Degradation Analysis of Tapioca Starch Based Biofilms

Authors: R. R. Ali, W. A. W. A. Rahman, R. M. Kasmani, H. Hasbullah, N. Ibrahim, A. N. Sadikin, U. A. Asli


In this study, tapioca starch which acts as natural polymer was added in the blend in order to produce biodegradable product. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and tapioca starch blends were prepared by extrusion and the test sample by injection moulding process. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) acts as compatibilizer while glycerol as processing aid was added in the blend. The blends were characterized by using melt flow index (MFI), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and the effects of water absorption to the sample. As the starch content increased, MFI of the blend was decreased. Tensile testing were conducted shows the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased while the modulus increased as the starch increased. For the biodegradation, soil burial test was conducted and the loss in weight was studied as the starch content increased. Morphology studies were conducted in order to show the distribution between LDPE and starch.

Keywords: biopolymers, degradable polymers, starch based polyethylene, injection moulding

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
772 Field Scale Simulation Study of Miscible Water Alternating CO2 Injection Process in Fractured Reservoirs

Authors: Hooman Fallah


Vast amounts of world oil reservoirs are in natural fractured reservoirs. There are different methods for increasing recovery from fractured reservoirs. Miscible injection of water alternating CO2 is a good choice among this methods. In this method, water and CO2 slugs are injected alternatively in reservoir as miscible agent into reservoir. This paper studies water injection scenario and miscible injection of water and CO2 in a two dimensional, inhomogeneous fractured reservoir. The results show that miscible water alternating CO2¬ gas injection leads to 3.95% increase in final oil recovery and total water production decrease of 3.89% comparing to water injection scenario.

Keywords: simulation study, CO2, water alternating gas injection, fractured reservoirs

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
771 Evaluating the effects of Gas Injection on Enhanced Gas-Condensate Recovery and Reservoir Pressure Maintenance

Authors: F. S. Alavi, D. Mowla, F. Esmaeilzadeh


In this paper, the Eclipse 300 simulator was used to perform compositional modeling of gas injection process for enhanced condensate recovery of a real gas condensate well in south of Iran here referred to as SA4. Some experimental data were used to tune the Peng-Robinson equation of state for this case. Different scenarios of gas injection at current reservoir pressure and at abandonment reservoir pressure had been considered with different gas compositions. Methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and two other gases with specified compositions were considered as potential gases for injection. According to the obtained results, nitrogen leads to highest pressure maintenance in the reservoir but methane results in highest condensate recovery among the selected injection gases. At low injection rates, condensate recovery percent is strongly affected by gas injection rate but this dependency shifts to zero at high injection rates. Condensate recovery is higher in all cases of injection at current reservoir pressure than injection at abandonment pressure. Using a constant injection rate, increasing the production well bottom hole pressure results in increasing the condensate recovery percent and time of gas breakthrough.

Keywords: gas-condensate reservoir, case-study, compositional modelling, enhanced condensate recovery, gas injection

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770 Experimental and Theoretical Study of Melt Viscosity in Injection Process

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Wen-Teng Wang, Chin-Chiuan Kuo, Chieh-Liang Wu


The state of melt viscosity in injection process is significantly influenced by the setting parameters due to that the shear rate of injection process is higher than other processes. How to determine plastic melt viscosity during injection process is important to understand the influence of setting parameters on the melt viscosity. An apparatus named as pressure sensor bushing (PSB) module that is used to evaluate the melt viscosity during injection process is developed in this work. The formulations to coupling melt viscosity with fill time and injection pressure are derived and then the melt viscosity is determined. A test mold is prepared to evaluate the accuracy on viscosity calculations between the PSB module and the conventional approaches. The influence of melt viscosity on the tensile strength of molded part is proposed to study the consistency of injection quality.

Keywords: injection molding, melt viscosity, tensile test, pressure sensor bushing (PSB)

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
769 Laboratory Investigation of Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate Gas (ASAG) Injection – a Novel EOR Process for a Light Oil Sandstone Reservoir

Authors: Vidit Mohan, Ashwin P. Ramesh, Anirudh Toshniwal


Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(ASAG) injection, a novel EOR process has the potential to improve displacement efficiency over Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(SAG) by addressing the problem of surfactant adsorption by clay minerals in rock matrix. A detailed laboratory investigation on ASAG injection process was carried out with encouraging results. To further enhance recovery over WAG injection process, SAG injection was investigated at laboratory scale. SAG injection yielded marginal incremental displacement efficiency over WAG process. On investigation, it was found that, clay minerals in rock matrix adsorbed the surfactants and were detrimental for SAG process. Hence, ASAG injection was conceptualized using alkali as a clay stabilizer. The experiment of ASAG injection with surfactant concentration of 5000 ppm and alkali concentration of 0.5 weight% yields incremental displacement efficiency of 5.42% over WAG process. The ASAG injection is a new process and has potential to enhance efficiency of WAG/SAG injection process.

Keywords: alkali surfactant alternate gas (ASAG), surfactant alternate gas (SAG), laboratory investigation, EOR process

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
768 Research and Development of Intelligent Cooling Channels Design System

Authors: Q. Niu, X. H. Zhou, W. Liu


The cooling channels of injection mould play a crucial role in determining the productivity of moulding process and the product quality. It’s not a simple task to design high quality cooling channels. In this paper, an intelligent cooling channels design system including automatic layout of cooling channels, interference checking and assembly of accessories is studied. Automatic layout of cooling channels using genetic algorithm is analyzed. Through integrating experience criteria of designing cooling channels, considering the factors such as the mould temperature and interference checking, the automatic layout of cooling channels is implemented. The method of checking interference based on distance constraint algorithm and the function of automatic and continuous assembly of accessories are developed and integrated into the system. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the intelligent design system.

Keywords: injection mould, cooling channel, intelligent design, automatic layout, interference checking

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
767 Effect of Intraperitoneal Administration of Ghrelin on Serum Glucose and Insulin Levels in Turkey

Authors: Habib Aghdam Shahryar


The aim of the present study was investigation on the effect of intraperipheral (IP) injection of ghrelin on serum insulin and glucose levels in native turkey. Seventy-two 28 day (d)-old native turkey were assigned into three treatments and four replicate for 40 days experimental rearing period: group 1, intact without any injection, group 2, injected 50 ng ghrelin/kg body weight (BW), and group 3, injected 100 ng ghrelin/kg BW. Intraperitoneal injection of rat ghrelin was conducted on d 28 and before the onset of the experimental rearing period. Blood samples were taken 12 hr after injection and 40 days after injection. The result showed glucose concentrations have been affected by administered ghrelin and significant between groups (P<0.01). Injection of ghrelin at G 100 increased glucose level of serum in 12 hr after injection and 40 days after injection (276.6 and 260.0 mg/dl, respectively). Also, by increasing the dose of injected ghrelin, insulin levels than the control group showed an increase (P < 0.001). This study suggests roles of ghrelin in serum biochemical regulation may show a different effect of ghrelin on blood parameters in avian species.

Keywords: ghrelin injection, insulin, glucose, turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
766 Proposition Model of Micromechanical Damage to Predict Reduction in Stiffness of a Fatigued A-SMC Composite

Authors: Houssem Ayari


Sheet molding compounds (SMC) are high strength thermoset moulding materials reinforced with glass treated with thermocompression. SMC composites combine fibreglass resins and polyester/phenolic/vinyl and unsaturated acrylic to produce a high strength moulding compound. These materials are usually formulated to meet the performance requirements of the moulding part. In addition, the vinyl ester resins used in the new advanced SMC systems (A-SMC) have many desirable features, including mechanical properties comparable to epoxy, excellent chemical resistance and tensile resistance, and cost competitiveness. In this paper, a proposed model is used to take into account the Young modulus evolutions of advanced SMC systems (A-SMC) composite under fatigue tests. The proposed model and the used approach are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: composites SFRC, damage, fatigue, Mori-Tanaka

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765 Water Injection in One of the Southern Iranian Oil Field, a Case Study

Authors: Hooman Fallah


Seawater injection and produced water re-injection are presently the most commonly used approach to enhanced recovery. The dominant factors for total oil recovery are the reservoir temperature, reservoir pressure, crude oil and water composition. In this study, the production under water injection in Soroosh, one of the southern Iranian heavy oil field has been simulated (the fluid properties are focused). In order to reveal the dominant factors in this production process, the sensitivity analysis has been done for the following effective factors, fluid viscosity, initial water saturation, gravity force and injection well strategy. It is crystal clear that the study of the dominant factors in production processes will help the engineers to design the best production mechanisms in our numerous hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: water injection, initial water saturation, oil viscosity, gravity force, injection well strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
764 Quality Improvement of the Sand Moulding Process in Foundries Using Six Sigma Technique

Authors: Cindy Sithole, Didier Nyembwe, Peter Olubambi


The sand casting process involves pattern making, mould making, metal pouring and shake out. Every step in the sand moulding process is very critical for production of good quality castings. However, waste generated during the sand moulding operation and lack of quality are matters that influences performance inefficiencies and lack of competitiveness in South African foundries. Defects produced from the sand moulding process are only visible in the final product (casting) which results in increased number of scrap, reduced sales and increases cost in the foundry. The purpose of this Research is to propose six sigma technique (DMAIC, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) intervention in sand moulding foundries and to reduce variation caused by deficiencies in the sand moulding process in South African foundries. Its objective is to create sustainability and enhance productivity in the South African foundry industry. Six sigma is a data driven method to process improvement that aims to eliminate variation in business processes using statistical control methods .Six sigma focuses on business performance improvement through quality initiative using the seven basic tools of quality by Ishikawa. The objectives of six sigma are to eliminate features that affects productivity, profit and meeting customers’ demands. Six sigma has become one of the most important tools/techniques for attaining competitive advantage. Competitive advantage for sand casting foundries in South Africa means improved plant maintenance processes, improved product quality and proper utilization of resources especially scarce resources. Defects such as sand inclusion, Flashes and sand burn on were some of the defects that were identified as resulting from the sand moulding process inefficiencies using six sigma technique. The courses were we found to be wrong design of the mould due to the pattern used and poor ramming of the moulding sand in a foundry. Six sigma tools such as the voice of customer, the Fishbone, the voice of the process and process mapping were used to define the problem in the foundry and to outline the critical to quality elements. The SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) Diagram was also employed to ensure that the material and process parameters were achieved to ensure quality improvement in a foundry. The process capability of the sand moulding process was measured to understand the current performance to enable improvement. The Expected results of this research are; reduced sand moulding process variation, increased productivity and competitive advantage.

Keywords: defects, foundries, quality improvement, sand moulding, six sigma (DMAIC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
763 Novel Framework for MIMO-Enhanced Robust Selection of Critical Control Factors in Auto Plastic Injection Moulding Quality Optimization

Authors: Seyed Esmail Seyedi Bariran, Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari


Apparent quality defects such as warpage, shrinkage, weld line, etc. are such an irresistible phenomenon in mass production of auto plastic appearance parts. These frequently occurred manufacturing defects should be satisfied concurrently so as to achieve a final product with acceptable quality standards. Determining the significant control factors that simultaneously affect multiple quality characteristics can significantly improve the optimization results by eliminating the deviating effect of the so-called ineffective outliers. Hence, a robust quantitative approach needs to be developed upon which major control factors and their level can be effectively determined to help improve the reliability of the optimal processing parameter design. Hence, the primary objective of current study was to develop a systematic methodology for selection of significant control factors (SCF) relevant to multiple quality optimization of auto plastic appearance part. Auto bumper was used as a specimen with the most identical quality and production characteristics to APAP group. A preliminary failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) was conducted to nominate a database of pseudo significant significant control factors prior to the optimization phase. Later, CAE simulation Moldflow analysis was implemented to manipulate four rampant plastic injection quality defects concerned with APAP group including warpage deflection, volumetric shrinkage, sink mark and weld line. Furthermore, a step-backward elimination searching method (SESME) has been developed for systematic pre-optimization selection of SCF based on hierarchical orthogonal array design and priority-based one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The development of robust parameter design in the second phase was based on DOE module powered by Minitab v.16 statistical software. Based on the F-test (F 0.05, 2, 14) one-way ANOVA results, it was concluded that for warpage deflection, material mixture percentage was the most significant control factor yielding a 58.34% of contribution while for the other three quality defects, melt temperature was the most significant control factor with a 25.32%, 84.25%, and 34.57% contribution for sin mark, shrinkage and weld line strength control. Also, the results on the he least significant control factors meaningfully revealed injection fill time as the least significant factor for both warpage and sink mark with respective 1.69% and 6.12% contribution. On the other hand, for shrinkage and weld line defects, the least significant control factors were holding pressure and mold temperature with a 0.23% and 4.05% overall contribution accordingly.

Keywords: plastic injection moulding, quality optimization, FMEA, ANOVA, SESME, APAP

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
762 Effects of Injector Nozzle Geometry on Spray Atomization Characteristics

Authors: Arya Pirooz


Air and fuel must be mixed correctly so that there is perfect combustion, which calls for fuel atomization by injection. In this study, the effects of different parameters such as number of orifices, length and diameter of orifices, diameter of nozzle sac and the angle of needle seat in injectors were investigated with the use of rate of injection and sac pressure. The unit pump of the OM-457 diesel engine was modelled on Avl-Hydsim. The results illustrate that the sac pressure decreased by 46% when the number of holes were doubled, although the rate of injection had an immense change. Also, the sac pressure increased up to 60% when the diameter of orifices decreased by 40% in spite of the semi-constant injection rate.

Keywords: injection, OM-457 engine, nozzle geometry, atomization

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761 Experimental Investigation of Compressed Natural Gas Injector for Direct Injection System

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Grzegorz Baranski, Adam Majczak


This paper presents the bench research results on a CNG injector at steady state. The quantities measured included voltage and current in a solenoid, pressure of gas behind an injector and injector’s flow rate. Accordingly, injector’s operation parameters were determined according to needle’s lift and injection pressure. The discrepancies between the theoretical (electric) and actual time of injection were defined to specify injector’s opening and closing lag times and the uniqueness of these values in successive cycles of gas injection. It has been demonstrated that needle’s lift has got a stronger impact on injector’s operating parameters than injection pressure. With increasing injection pressure, the force increases and closes an injection valve, which adversely affects uniqueness of injector’s operation. The paper also describes the concept of an injector dedicated to direct CNG injection into a combustion chamber in a dual-fuel engine. The injector’s design enables us to replace 80% of diesel fuel in a dual-fuel engine with a maximum power of 85 kW. Minimum injection pressure is 1,4 MPa then. Simultaneously, injector’s characteristics for varied needle’s lifts and injector’s nonlinear operating points were developed. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, under Grant Agreement No. PBS1/A6/4/2012.

Keywords: CNG injector, diesel engine, direct injection, dual fuel

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760 Effect of Fuel Injection Discharge Curve and Injection Pressure on Upgrading Power and Combustion Parameters in HD Diesel Engine with CFD Simulation

Authors: Saeed Chamehsara, Seyed Mostafa Mirsalim, Mehdi Tajdari


In this study, the effect of fuel injection discharge curve and injection pressure simultaneously for upgrading power of heavy duty diesel engine by simulation of combustion process in AVL-Fire software are discussed. Hence, the fuel injection discharge curve was changed from semi-triangular to rectangular which is usual in common rail fuel injection system. Injection pressure with respect to amount of injected fuel and nozzle hole diameter are changed. Injection pressure is calculated by an experimental equation which is for heavy duty diesel engines with common rail fuel injection system. Upgrading power for 1000 and 2000 bar injection pressure are discussed. For 1000 bar injection pressure with 188 mg injected fuel and 3 mm nozzle hole diameter in compare with first state which is semi-triangular discharge curve with 139 mg injected fuel and 3 mm nozzle hole diameter, upgrading power is about 19% whereas the special change has not been observed in cylinder pressure. On the other hand, both the NOX emission and the Soot emission decreased about 30% and 6% respectively. Compared with first state, for 2000 bar injection pressure that injected fuel and nozzle diameter are 196 mg and 2.6 mm respectively, upgrading power is about 22% whereas cylinder pressure has been fixed and NOX emission and the Soot emissions are decreased 36% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: CFD simulation, HD diesel engine, upgrading power, injection pressure, fuel injection discharge curve, combustion process

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
759 Gas Lift Optimization to Improve Well Performance

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, Meisam Babaie


Gas lift optimization is becoming more important now a day in petroleum industry. A proper lift optimization can reduce the operating cost, increase the net present value (NPV) and maximize the recovery from the asset. A widely accepted definition of gas lift optimization is to obtain the maximum output under specified operating conditions. In addition, gas lift, a costly and indispensable means to recover oil from high depth reservoir entails solving the gas lift optimization problems. Gas lift optimization is a continuous process; there are two levels of production optimization. The total field optimization involves optimizing the surface facilities and the injection rate that can be achieved by standard tools softwares. Well level optimization can be achieved by optimizing the well parameters such as point of injection, injection rate, and injection pressure. All these aspects have been investigated and presented in this study by using experimental data and PROSPER simulation program. The results show that the well head pressure has a large influence on the gas lift performance and also proved that smart gas lift valve can be used to improve gas lift performance by controlling gas injection from down hole. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection reduces production rate and consequently increases the operation cost.

Keywords: optimization, production rate, reservoir pressure effect, gas injection rate effect, gas injection pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
758 Research on Steam Injection Technology of Extended Range Engine Cylinder for Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Zhiyuan Jia, Xiuxiu Sun, Yong Chen, Liu Hai, Shuangqing Li


The engine cooling water and exhaust gas contain a large amount of available energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, a steam injection technology based on waste heat recovery is proposed. The models of cooling water waste heat utilization, exhaust gas waste heat utilization, and exhaust gas-cooling water waste heat utilization were constructed, and the effects of the three modes on the performance of steam injection were analyzed, and then the feasibility of in-cylinder water injection steam technology based on waste heat recovery was verified. The research results show that when the injection water flow rate is 0.10 kg/s and the temperature is 298 K, at a cooling water temperature of 363 K, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the cooling water can reach 314.5 K; at an exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and an exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the exhaust gas can reach 430 K; Under the condition of cooling water temperature of 363 K, exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, after cooling water and exhaust gas heating, the maximum temperature of the injection water can reach 463 K. When the engine is 1200 rpm, the water injection volume is 30 mg, and the water injection time is 36°CA, the engine power increases by 2% and the fuel consumption is reduced by 2.6%.

Keywords: cooling water, exhaust gas, extended range engine, steam injection, waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
757 Time Temperature Dependence of Long Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Manufactured by Direct Long Fiber Thermoplastic Process

Authors: K. A. Weidenmann, M. Grigo, B. Brylka, P. Elsner, T. Böhlke


In order to reduce fuel consumption, the weight of automobiles has to be reduced. Fiber reinforced polymers offer the potential to reach this aim because of their high stiffness to weight ratio. Additionally, the use of fiber reinforced polymers in automotive applications has to allow for an economic large-scale production. In this regard, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics made by direct processing offer both mechanical performance and processability in injection moulding and compression moulding. The work presented in this contribution deals with long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene directly processed in compression moulding (D-LFT). For the use in automotive applications both the temperature and the time dependency of the materials properties have to be investigated to fulfill performance requirements during crash or the demands of service temperatures ranging from -40 °C to 80 °C. To consider both the influence of temperature and time, quasistatic tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures. These tests have been complemented by high speed tensile tests at different strain rates. As expected, the increase in strain rate results in an increase of the elastic modulus which correlates to an increase of the stiffness with decreasing service temperature. The results are in good accordance with results determined by dynamic mechanical analysis within the range of 0.1 to 100 Hz. The experimental results from different testing methods were grouped and interpreted by using different time temperature shift approaches. In this regard, Williams-Landel-Ferry and Arrhenius approach based on kinetics have been used. As the theoretical shift factor follows an arctan function, an empirical approach was also taken into consideration. It could be shown that this approach describes best the time and temperature superposition for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene manufactured by D-LFT processing.

Keywords: composite, dynamic mechanical analysis, long fibre reinforced thermoplastics, mechanical properties, time temperature superposition

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756 An Experimental Modeling of Steel Surfaces Wear in Injection of Plastic Materials with SGF

Authors: L. Capitanu, V. Floresci, L. L. Badita


Starting from the idea that the greatest pressure and velocity of composite melted is in the die nozzle, was an experimental nozzle with wear samples of sizes and weights which can be measured with precision as good. For a larger accuracy of measurements, we used a method for radiometric measuring, extremely accurate. Different nitriding steels have been studied as nitriding treatments, as well as some special steels and alloyed steels. Besides these, there have been preliminary attempts made to describe and checking corrosive action of thermoplastics on metals.

Keywords: plastics, composites with short glass fibres, moulding, wear, experimental modelling, glass fibres content influence

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755 The Investigation of the Impact of Process and Location Parameters in Warpage Study of Semiconductor Packages

Authors: Wheyming Song, Ssu-Ping Lin


The primary advantage of package-on-package (PoP) packaging is that since it has less volume, it weighs less. But this is also related to its principal drawback, which is warpage. This research investigates how PoP package warpage patterns are affected by assembling process parameters, including substrate temperature, injection speed, injection temperature, and compound forces. We also investigate how warpage patterns are affected by the location of the silicon chip. The methodologies used in this research are design of experiment and warpage simulation via ANSYS. We propose a regression model to predict the warpage value as a function of substrate temperature, injection speed, injection temperature, and compound forces. Our results show that interaction effects exist between substrate temperature and compound forces and between injection speed and injection temperature. Therefore, determining the optimal values for substrate temperature, compound forces, injection speed, and injection temperature cannot be done individually. Also, our results show that the warpage patterns based on the location of silicon chips can be classified into 11 groups, with the largest warpage occurring at the left-most and right-most sides.

Keywords: package-on-package, warpage, design of experiment, simulation

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754 Effect of Injection Strategy on the Performance and Emission of E85 in a Heavy-Duty Engine under Partially Premixed Combustion

Authors: Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner, Sebastian Verhelst, Oivind Andersson


Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Extending the ignition delay to promote the premixing, has been recognized as one of the key factor to achieve PPC. Fuels with high octane number have been proven to be a good candidates to extend the ignition delay. In this work, E85 (85% ethanol) has been used as a PPC fuel. The aim of this work was to investigate a suitable injection strategy for PPC combustion fueled with E85 in a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine. Single and double injection strategy were applied with different injection timing and the ratio between different injection pulses was varied. The performance and emission were investigated at low load. The results show that the double injection strategy should be preferred for PPC fueled with E85 due to low emissions and high efficiency, while keeping the pressure raise rate at very low levels.

Keywords: E85, partially premixed combustion, injection strategy, performance and emission

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753 Development of a Complete Single Jet Common Rail Injection System Gas Dynamic Model for Hydrogen Fueled Engine with Port Injection Feeding System

Authors: Mohammed Kamil, M. M. Rahman, Rosli A. Bakar


Modeling of hydrogen fueled engine (H2ICE) injection system is a very important tool that can be used for explaining or predicting the effect of advanced injection strategies on combustion and emissions. In this paper, a common rail injection system (CRIS) is proposed for 4-strokes 4-cylinders hydrogen fueled engine with port injection feeding system (PIH2ICE). For this system, a numerical one-dimensional gas dynamic model is developed considering single injection event for each injector per a cycle. One-dimensional flow equations in conservation form are used to simulate wave propagation phenomenon throughout the CR (accumulator). Using this model, the effect of common rail on the injection system characteristics is clarified. These characteristics include: rail pressure, sound velocity, rail mass flow rate, injected mass flow rate and pressure drop across injectors. The interaction effects of operational conditions (engine speed and rail pressure) and geometrical features (injector hole diameter) are illustrated; and the required compromised solutions are highlighted. The CRIS is shown to be a promising enhancement for PIH2ICE.

Keywords: common rail, hydrogen engine, port injection, wave propagation

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752 Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Sun Lu, Syed Jamal-Ud-Din, Xinzhe Zhao


A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.

Keywords: tight reservoirs, cyclic O₂ injection, asphaltene, solubility, reservoir simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 307