Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5199

Search results for: linear stability

5199 Advanced Stability Criterion for Time-Delayed Systems of Neutral Type and Its Application

Authors: M. J. Park, S. H. Lee, C. H. Lee, O. M. Kwon


This paper investigates stability problem for linear systems of neutral type with time-varying delay. By constructing various Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, and utilizing some mathematical techniques, the sufficient stability conditions for the systems are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily solved by various effective optimization algorithms. Finally, some illustrative examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed criterion.

Keywords: neutral systems, time-delay, stability, Lyapnov method, LMI

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5198 Study of Gait Stability Evaluation Technique Based on Linear Inverted Pendulum Model

Authors: Kang Sungjae


This research proposes a gait stability evaluation technique based on the linear inverted pendulum model and moving support foot Zero Moment Point. With this, an improvement towards the gait analysis of the orthosis walk is validated. The application of Lagrangian mechanics approximation to the solutions of the dynamics equations for the linear inverted pendulum does not only simplify the solution, but it provides a smooth Zero Moment Point for the double feet support phase. The Zero Moment Point gait analysis techniques mentioned above validates reference trajectories for the center of mass of the gait orthosis, the timing of the steps and landing position references for the swing feet. The stability evaluation technique are tested with a 6 DOF powered gait orthosis. The results obtained are promising for implementations.

Keywords: locomotion, center of mass, gait stability, linear inverted pendulum model

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5197 H∞ Sampled-Data Control for Linear Systems Time-Varying Delays: Application to Power System

Authors: Chang-Ho Lee, Seung-Hoon Lee, Myeong-Jin Park, Oh-Min Kwon


This paper investigates improved stability criteria for sampled-data control of linear systems with disturbances and time-varying delays. Based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory, delay-dependent conditions sufficient to ensure H∞ stability for the system are derived in the form of linear matrix inequalities(LMI). The effectiveness of the proposed method will be shown in numerical examples.

Keywords: sampled-data control system, Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, time delay-dependent, LMI, H∞ control

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5196 Linear Dynamic Stability Analysis of a Continuous Rotor-Disk-Blades System

Authors: F. Rahimi Dehgolan, S. E. Khadem, S. Bab, M. Najafee


Nowadays, using rotating systems like shafts and disks in industrial machines have been increased constantly. Dynamic stability is one of the most important factors in designing rotating systems. In this study, linear frequencies and stability of a coupled continuous flexible rotor-disk-blades system are studied. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is utilized to model the blade and shaft. The equations of motion are extracted using the extended Hamilton principle. The equations of motion have been simplified using the Coleman and complex transformations method. The natural frequencies of the linear part of the system are extracted, and the effects of various system parameters on the natural frequencies and decay rates (stability condition) are clarified. It can be seen that the centrifugal stiffening effect applied to the blades is the most important parameter for stability of the considered rotating system. This result highlights the importance of considering this stiffing effect in blades equation.

Keywords: rotating shaft, flexible blades, centrifugal stiffness, stability

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5195 Contribution to the Analytical Study of the Stability of a DC-DC Converter (Boost) Used for MPPT Control

Authors: Mohamed Amarouayache, Badia Amrouche, Gharbi Akila, Boukadoume Mohamed


This work is devoted to the modeling of DC-DC converter (boost) used for MPPT applications to set conditions of stability. For this, we establish a linear mathematical model of the DC-DC converter with an average small signal model. This model has allowed us to apply conventional linear methods of automation. A mathematical relationship between the duty cycle and the voltage of the panel has been set up. With this relationship we specify the conditions of the stability in closed-loop depending on the system parameters (the elements of storage capacity and inductance, PWM control).

Keywords: MPPT, PWM, stability, criterion of Routh, average small signal model

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5194 Computational Simulations on Stability of Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Stochastic Systems

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto


Model predictive control is a kind of optimal feedback control in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and a moving terminal time. This paper examines the stability of model predictive control for linear discrete-time systems with additive stochastic disturbances. A sufficient condition for the stability of the closed-loop system with model predictive control is derived by means of a linear matrix inequality. The objective of this paper is to show the results of computational simulations in order to verify the validity of the obtained stability condition.

Keywords: computational simulations, optimal control, predictive control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems

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5193 Stability of Hybrid Systems

Authors: Kreangkri Ratchagit


This paper is concerned with exponential stability of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays. The time delay is any continuous function belonging to a given interval, in which the lower bound of delay is not restricted to zero. By constructing a suitable augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with Leibniz-Newton’s formula, a switching rule for the exponential stability of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays and new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of the systems are first established in terms of LMIs. Finally, some examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

Keywords: exponential stability, hybrid systems, timevarying delays, Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, Leibniz-Newton’s formula

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5192 Non-Linear Vibration and Stability Analysis of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating-Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, F. Rahimi Dehgolan


In this paper, the dynamic modeling of a single-link flexible beam with a tip mass is given by using Hamilton's principle. The link has been rotational and translational motion and it was assumed that the beam is moving with a harmonic velocity about a constant mean velocity. Non-linearity has been introduced by including the non-linear strain to the analysis. Dynamic model is obtained by Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption and modal expansion method. Also, the effects of rotary inertia, axial force, and associated boundary conditions of the dynamic model were analyzed. Since the complex boundary value problem cannot be solved analytically, the multiple scale method is utilized to obtain an approximate solution. Finally, the effects of several conditions on the differences among the behavior of the non-linear term, mean velocity on natural frequencies and the system stability are discussed.

Keywords: non-linear vibration, stability, axially moving beam, bifurcation, multiple scales method

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5191 New Results on Exponential Stability of Hybrid Systems

Authors: Grienggrai Rajchakit


This paper is concerned with the exponential stability of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays. The time delay is any continuous function belonging to a given interval, in which the lower bound of delay is not restricted to zero. By constructing a suitable augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with Leibniz-Newton's formula, a switching rule for the exponential stability of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays and new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of the systems are first established in terms of LMIs. Finally, some examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

Keywords: exponential stability, hybrid systems, time-varying delays, lyapunov-krasovskii functional, leibniz-newton's formula

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5190 A Survey on Routh-Hurwitz Stability Criterion

Authors: Mojtaba Hakimi-Moghaddam


Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion is a powerful approach to determine stability of linear time invariant systems. On the other hand, applying this criterion to characteristic equation of a system, whose stability or marginal stability can be determined. Although the command roots (.) of MATLAB software can be easily used to determine the roots of a polynomial, the characteristic equation of closed loop system usually includes parameters, so software cannot handle it; however, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion results the region of parameter changes where the stability is guaranteed. Moreover, this criterion has been extended to characterize the stability of interval polynomials as well as fractional-order polynomials. Furthermore, it can help us to design stable and minimum-phase controllers. In this paper, theory and application of this criterion will be reviewed. Also, several illustrative examples are given.

Keywords: Hurwitz polynomials, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion, continued fraction expansion, pure imaginary roots

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5189 Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization Optimized LDI Controller with Lyapunov Stability Criterion for Nonlinear Structural Systems

Authors: P. W. Tsai, W. L. Hong, C. W. Chen, C. Y. Chen


In this paper, we present a neural network (NN) based approach represent a nonlinear Tagagi-Sugeno (T-S) system. A linear differential inclusion (LDI) state-space representation is utilized to deal with the NN models. Taking advantage of the LDI representation, the stability conditions and controller design are derived for a class of nonlinear structural systems. Moreover, the concept of utilizing the Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization (PPSO) algorithm to solve the common P matrix under the stability criteria is given in this paper.

Keywords: Lyapunov stability, parallel particle swarm optimization, linear differential inclusion, artificial intelligence

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5188 Sediment Patterns from Fluid-Bed Interactions: A Direct Numerical Simulations Study on Fluvial Turbulent Flows

Authors: Nadim Zgheib, Sivaramakrishnan Balachandar


We present results on the initial formation of ripples from an initially flattened erodible bed. We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow over a fixed sinusoidal bed coupled with hydrodynamic stability analysis. We use the direct forcing immersed boundary method to account for the presence of the sediment bed. The resolved flow provides the bed shear stress and consequently the sediment transport rate, which is needed in the stability analysis of the Exner equation. The approach is different from traditional linear stability analysis in the sense that the phase lag between the bed topology, and the sediment flux is obtained from the DNS. We ran 11 simulations at a fixed shear Reynolds number of 180, but for different sediment bed wavelengths. The analysis allows us to sweep a large range of physical and modelling parameters to predict their effects on linear growth. The Froude number appears to be the critical controlling parameter in the early linear development of ripples, in contrast with the dominant role of particle Reynolds number during the equilibrium stage.

Keywords: direct numerical simulation, immersed boundary method, sediment-bed interactions, turbulent multiphase flow, linear stability analysis

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5187 Delay-Independent Closed-Loop Stabilization of Neutral System with Infinite Delays

Authors: Iyai Davies, Olivier L. C. Haas


In this paper, the problem of stability and stabilization for neutral delay-differential systems with infinite delay is investigated. Using Lyapunov method, new delay-independent sufficient condition for the stability of neutral systems with infinite delay is obtained in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI). Memory-less state feedback controllers are then designed for the stabilization of the system using the feasible solution of the resulting LMI, which are easily solved using any optimization algorithms. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the results of the proposed methods.

Keywords: infinite delays, Lyapunov method, linear matrix inequality, neutral systems, stability

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5186 Magneto-Solutal Convection in Newtonian Fluid Layer with Modulated Gravity

Authors: Om Prakash Keshri, Anand Kumar, Vinod K. Gupta


In the present study, the effect of gravity modulation on the onset of convection in viscous fluid layer under the influence of induced magnetic field, salted from above on the boundaries, has been investigated. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis has been performed. A linear stability analysis is performed to show that the gravity modulation can significantly affect the stability limits of the system. A method based on small amplitude of the modulation is used to compute the critical value of Rayleigh number and wave number. The effect of Smith number, salute Rayleigh number and magnetic Prandtl number on the stability of the system is investigated.

Keywords: viscous fluid, induced magnetic field, gravity modulation, salute convection

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5185 Stability of Hybrid Stochastic Systems

Authors: Manlika Ratchagit


This paper is concerned with robust mean square stability of uncertain stochastic switched discrete time-delay systems. The system to be considered is subject to interval time-varying delays, which allows the delay to be a fast time-varying function and the lower bound is not restricted to zero. Based on the discrete Lyapunov functional, a switching rule for the robust mean square stability for the uncertain stochastic discrete time-delay system is designed via linear matrix inequalities. Finally, some examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

Keywords: robust mean square stability, discrete-time stochastic systems, hybrid systems, interval time-varying delays, Lyapunov functional, linear matrix inequalities

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5184 New Results on Stability of Hybrid Stochastic Systems

Authors: Manlika Rajchakit


This paper is concerned with robust mean square stability of uncertain stochastic switched discrete time-delay systems. The system to be considered is subject to interval time-varying delays, which allows the delay to be a fast time-varying function and the lower bound is not restricted to zero. Based on the discrete Lyapunov functional, a switching rule for the robust mean square stability for the uncertain stochastic discrete time-delay system is designed via linear matrix inequalities. Finally, some examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

Keywords: robust mean square stability, discrete-time stochastic systems, hybrid systems, interval time-varying delays, lyapunov functional, linear matrix inequalities

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5183 Effect of Gas Boundary Layer on the Stability of a Radially Expanding Liquid Sheet

Authors: Soumya Kedia, Puja Agarwala, Mahesh Tirumkudulu


Linear stability analysis is performed for a radially expanding liquid sheet in the presence of a gas medium. A liquid sheet can break up because of the aerodynamic effect as well as its thinning. However, the study of the aforementioned effects is usually done separately as the formulation becomes complicated and is difficult to solve. Present work combines both, aerodynamic effect and thinning effect, ignoring the non-linearity in the system. This is done by taking into account the formation of the gas boundary layer whilst neglecting viscosity in the liquid phase. Axisymmetric flow is assumed for simplicity. Base state analysis results in a Blasius-type system which can be solved numerically. Perturbation theory is then applied to study the stability of the liquid sheet, where the gas-liquid interface is subjected to small deformations. The linear model derived here can be applied to investigate the instability for sinuous as well as varicose modes, where the former represents displacement in the centerline of the sheet and the latter represents modulation in sheet thickness. Temporal instability analysis is performed for sinuous modes, which are significantly more unstable than varicose modes, for a fixed radial distance implying local stability analysis. The growth rates, measured for fixed wavenumbers, predicated by the present model are significantly lower than those obtained by the inviscid Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and compare better with experimental results. Thus, the present theory gives better insight into understanding the stability of a thin liquid sheet.

Keywords: boundary layer, gas-liquid interface, linear stability, thin liquid sheet

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5182 Experimental Investigation of Boundary Layer Transition on Rotating Cones in Axial Flow in 0 and 35 Degrees Angle of Attack

Authors: Ali Kargar, Kamyar Mansour


In this paper, experimental results of using hot wire anemometer and smoke visualization are presented. The results obtained on the hot wire anemometer for critical Reynolds number and transitional Reynolds number are compared by previous results. Excellent agreement is found for the transitional Reynolds number. The results for the transitional Reynolds number are also compared by previous linear stability results. The results of the smoke visualization clearly show the cross flow vortices which arise in the transition process from a laminar to a turbulent flow. A non-zero angle of attack is also considered. We compare our results by linear stability theory which was done by Garret et. Al (2007). We just emphasis, Also the visualization and hot wire anemometer results have been compared graphically. The goal in this paper is to check reliability of using hot wire anemometer and smoke visualization in transition problems and check reliability of linear stability theory for this case and compare our results with some trusty experimental works.

Keywords: transitional reynolds number, wind tunnel, rotating cone, smoke visualization

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5181 Lyapunov and Input-to-State Stability of Stochastic Differential Equations

Authors: Arcady Ponosov, Ramazan Kadiev


Input-to-State Stability (ISS) is widely used in deterministic control theory but less known in the stochastic case. Roughly speaking, the theory explains when small perturbations of the right-hand sides of the system on the entire semiaxis cause only small changes in the solutions of the system, again on the entire semiaxis. This property is crucial in many applications. In the report, we explain how to define and study ISS for systems of linear stochastic differential equations with or without delays. The central result connects ISS with the property of Lyapunov stability. This relationship is well-known in the deterministic setting, but its stochastic version is new. As an application, a method of studying asymptotic Lyapunov stability for stochastic delay equations is described and justified. Several examples are provided that confirm the efficiency and simplicity of the framework.

Keywords: asymptotic stability, delay equations, operator methods, stochastic perturbations

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5180 Stability Analysis of Three-Lobe Journal Bearing Lubricated with a Micropolar Fluids

Authors: Boualem Chetti


The dynamic characteristics of a three-lobe journal bearing lubricated with micropolar fluids are determined by the linear stability theory. Lubricating oil containing additives and contaminants is modeled as micropolar fluid. The modified Reynolds equation is obtained using the micropolar lubrication theory and the finite difference technique has been used to solve it. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness, damping coefficients, the critical mass and whirl ratio are determined for various values of size of material characteristic length and the coupling number. The computed results show compared with Newtonian fluids, that micropolar fluid exhibits better stability.

Keywords: three-lobe bearings, micropolar fluid, dynamic characteristics, stability analysis

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5179 Linear Stability Analysis of a Regularized Two-Fluid Model for Unstable Gas-Liquid Flows in Long Hilly Terrain Pipelines

Authors: David Alejandro Lazo-Vasquez, Jorge Luis Balino


In the petroleum industry, multiphase flow occurs when oil, gas, and water are transported in the same pipe through large pipeline systems. The flow can take different patterns depending on parameters like fluid velocities, pipe diameter, pipe inclination, and fluid properties. Mainly, intermittent flow is produced by the natural propagation of short and long waves, according to the Kelvin-Helmholtz Stability Theory. To model stratified flow and the onset of intermittent flow, it is crucial to have knowledge of short and long waves behavior. The two-fluid model, frequently employed for characterizing multiphase systems, becomes ill-posed for high liquid and gas velocities and large inclination angles, for short waves can develop infinite growth rates. We are interested in focusing attention on long-wave instability, which leads to the production of roll waves that may grow and result in the transition from stratified flow to intermittent flow. In this study, global and local linear stability analyses for dynamic and kinematic stability criteria predict the regions of stability of the flow for different pipe inclinations and fluid velocities in regularized and non-regularized systems, concurrently. It was possible to distinguish when: wave growth rates are absolutely bounded (stable stratified smooth flow), waves have finite growth rates (unstable stratified wavy flow), and when the equation system becomes elliptic and hyperbolization is needed. In order to bound short wave growth rates and regularize the equation system, we incorporated some lower and higher-order terms like interfacial drag and surface tension, respectively.

Keywords: linear stability analysis, multiphase flow, onset of slugging, two-fluid model regularization

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5178 Influence of Internal Heat Source on Thermal Instability in a Horizontal Porous Layer with Mass Flow and Inclined Temperature Gradient

Authors: Anjanna Matta, P. A. L. Narayana


An investigation has been presented to analyze the effect of internal heat source on the onset of Hadley-Prats flow in a horizontal fluid saturated porous medium. We examine a better understanding of the combined influence of the heat source and mass flow effect by using linear stability analysis. The resultant eigenvalue problem is solved by using shooting and Runga-Kutta methods for evaluate critical thermal Rayleight number with respect to various flow governing parameters. It is identified that the flow is switch from stabilizing to destabilizing as the horizontal thermal Rayleigh number is enhanced. The heat source and mass flow increases resulting a stronger destabilizing effect.

Keywords: linear stability analysis, heat source, porous medium, mass flow

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5177 T-S Fuzzy Modeling Based on Power Coefficient Limit Nonlinearity Applied to an Isolated Single Machine Load Frequency Deviation Control

Authors: R. S. Sheu, H. Usman, M. S. Lawal


Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model based control of a load frequency deviation in a single machine with limit nonlinearity on power coefficient is presented in the paper. Two T-S fuzzy rules with only rotor angle variable as input in the premise part, and linear state space models in the consequent part involving characteristic matrices determined from limits set on the power coefficient constant are formulated, state feedback control gains for closed loop control was determined from the formulated Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) with eigenvalue optimization scheme for asymptotic and exponential stability (speed of esponse). Numerical evaluation of the closed loop object was carried out in Matlab. Simulation results generated of both the open and closed loop system showed the effectiveness of the control scheme in maintaining load frequency stability.

Keywords: T-S fuzzy model, state feedback control, linear matrix inequality (LMI), frequency deviation control

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5176 On the Construction of Some Optimal Binary Linear Codes

Authors: Skezeer John B. Paz, Ederlina G. Nocon


Finding an optimal binary linear code is a central problem in coding theory. A binary linear code C = [n, k, d] is called optimal if there is no linear code with higher minimum distance d given the length n and the dimension k. There are bounds giving limits for the minimum distance d of a linear code of fixed length n and dimension k. The lower bound which can be taken by construction process tells that there is a known linear code having this minimum distance. The upper bound is given by theoretic results such as Griesmer bound. One way to find an optimal binary linear code is to make the lower bound of d equal to its higher bound. That is, to construct a binary linear code which achieves the highest possible value of its minimum distance d, given n and k. Some optimal binary linear codes were presented by Andries Brouwer in his published table on bounds of the minimum distance d of binary linear codes for 1 ≤ n ≤ 256 and k ≤ n. This was further improved by Markus Grassl by giving a detailed construction process for each code exhibiting the lower bound. In this paper, we construct new optimal binary linear codes by using some construction processes on existing binary linear codes. Particularly, we developed an algorithm applied to the codes already constructed to extend the list of optimal binary linear codes up to 257 ≤ n ≤ 300 for k ≤ 7.

Keywords: bounds of linear codes, Griesmer bound, construction of linear codes, optimal binary linear codes

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5175 Robust Control of a Dynamic Model of an F-16 Aircraft with Improved Damping through Linear Matrix Inequalities

Authors: J. P. P. Andrade, V. A. F. Campos


This work presents an application of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) for the robust control of an F-16 aircraft through an algorithm ensuring the damping factor to the closed loop system. The results show that the zero and gain settings are sufficient to ensure robust performance and stability with respect to various operating points. The technique used is the pole placement, which aims to put the system in closed loop poles in a specific region of the complex plane. Test results using a dynamic model of the F-16 aircraft are presented and discussed.

Keywords: F-16 aircraft, linear matrix inequalities, pole placement, robust control

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5174 Sliding Mode Power System Stabilizer for Synchronous Generator Stability Improvement

Authors: J. Ritonja, R. Brezovnik, M. Petrun, B. Polajžer


Many modern synchronous generators in power systems are extremely weakly damped. The reasons are cost optimization of the machine building and introduction of the additional control equipment into power systems. Oscillations of the synchronous generators and related stability problems of the power systems are harmful and can lead to failures in operation and to damages. The only useful solution to increase damping of the unwanted oscillations represents the implementation of the power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizers generate the additional control signal which changes synchronous generator field excitation voltage. Modern power system stabilizers are integrated into static excitation systems of the synchronous generators. Available commercial power system stabilizers are based on linear control theory. Due to the nonlinear dynamics of the synchronous generator, current stabilizers do not assure optimal damping of the synchronous generator’s oscillations in the entire operating range. For that reason the use of the robust power system stabilizers which are convenient for the entire operating range is reasonable. There are numerous robust techniques applicable for the power system stabilizers. In this paper the use of sliding mode control for synchronous generator stability improvement is studied. On the basis of the sliding mode theory, the robust power system stabilizer was developed. The main advantages of the sliding mode controller are simple realization of the control algorithm, robustness to parameter variations and elimination of disturbances. The advantage of the proposed sliding mode controller against conventional linear controller was tested for damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating range of the synchronous generator and the increase of the power system stability. The proposed study contributes to the progress in the development of the advanced stabilizer, which will replace conventional linear stabilizers and improve damping of the synchronous generators.

Keywords: control theory, power system stabilizer, robust control, sliding mode control, stability, synchronous generator

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5173 Reconfigurable Consensus Achievement of Multi Agent Systems Subject to Actuator Faults in a Leaderless Architecture

Authors: F. Amirarfaei, K. Khorasani


In this paper, reconfigurable consensus achievement of a team of agents with marginally stable linear dynamics and single input channel has been considered. The control algorithm is based on a first order linear protocol. After occurrence of a LOE fault in one of the actuators, using the imperfect information of the effectiveness of the actuators from fault detection and identification module, the control gain is redesigned in a way to still reach consensus. The idea is based on the modeling of change in effectiveness as change of Laplacian matrix. Then as special cases of this class of systems, a team of single integrators as well as double integrators are considered and their behavior subject to a LOE fault is considered. The well-known relative measurements consensus protocol is applied to a leaderless team of single integrator as well as double integrator systems, and Gersgorin disk theorem is employed to determine whether fault occurrence has an effect on system stability and team consensus achievement or not. The analyses show that loss of effectiveness fault in actuator(s) of integrator systems affects neither system stability nor consensus achievement.

Keywords: multi-agent system, actuator fault, stability analysis, consensus achievement

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5172 Motion of a Dust Grain Type Particle in Binary Stellar Systems

Authors: Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah


In this present paper, we use the photogravitational version of the restricted three body problem (RTBP) in binary systems. In the photogravitational RTBP, an infinitesimal particle (dust grain) is moving under the gravitational attraction and radiation pressure from the two bigger primaries. The third particle does not affect the motion of two bigger primaries. The zero-velocity curves, zero-velocity surfaces and their projections on the plane are studied. We have used existing analytical method to solve the equations of motion. We have obtained the Lagrangian points in some binary stellar systems. It is found that mass reduction factor affects the Lagrangian points. The linear stability of Lagrangian points is studied and found that these points are unstable. Moreover, trajectories of the infinitesimal particle at the triangular points are studied.

Keywords: binary systems, Lagrangian points, linear stability, photogravitational RTBP, trajectories

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5171 Second Order Analysis of Frames Using Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi


The main purpose of this paper is to present the Modified Newmark Method as a method of non-linear frame analysis by considering the effect of the axial load (second order analysis). The discussion will be restricted to plane frameworks containing a constant cross-section for each element. In addition, it is assumed that the frames are prevented from out-of-plane deflection. This part of the investigation is performed to generalize the established method for the assemblage structures such as frameworks. As explained, the governing differential equations are non-linear and cannot be formulated easily due to unknown axial load of the struts in the frame. By the assumption of constant axial load, the governing equations are changed to linear ones in most methods. Since the modeling and the solutions of the non-linear form of the governing equations are cumbersome, the linear form of the equations would be used in the established method. However, according to the ability of the method to reconsider the minor omitted parameters in modeling during the solution procedure, the axial load in the elements at each stage of the iteration can be computed and applied in the next stage. Therefore, the ability of the method to present an accurate approach to the solutions of non-linear equations will be demonstrated again in this paper.

Keywords: nonlinear, stability, buckling, modified newmark method

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5170 Extension of Positive Linear Operator

Authors: Manal Azzidani


This research consideres the extension of special functions called Positive Linear Operators. the bounded linear operator which defined from normed space to Banach space will extend to the closure of the its domain, And extend identified linear functional on a vector subspace by Hana-Banach theorem which could be generalized to the positive linear operators.

Keywords: extension, positive operator, Riesz space, sublinear function

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