Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: prepregs

12 Out-of-Plane Bending Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Thermosetting Prepregs during Forming Processes

Authors: Hassan A. Alshahrani, Mehdi H. Hojjati


In order to predict and model wrinkling which is caused by out of plane deformation due to compressive loading in the plane of the material during composite prepregs forming, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the relative magnitude of the bending stiffness. This study aims to examine the bending properties of out-of-autoclave (OOA) thermosetting prepreg under vertical cantilever test condition. A direct method for characterizing the bending behavior of composite prepregs was developed. The results from direct measurement were compared with results derived from an image-processing procedure that analyses the captured image during the vertical bending test. A numerical simulation was performed using ABAQUS to confirm the bending stiffness value.

Keywords: Bending stiffness, out-of-autoclave prepreg, forming process, numerical simulation.

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11 Complex Shaped Prepreg Part Drapability Using Vacuum Bagging

Authors: Saran Toure


Complex shaped parts manufactured using out of autoclave prepreg vacuum bagging has a high quality finish. This is not only due to in the control of resin to fibre ratio in prepregs, but also to a reduction in fibre misalignment, slippage and stresses occurring within plies during compaction. In a bid to further reduce deformation modes and control failure modes, we carried experiments where, we introduced wetted fabrics within a prepreg plybook during compaction. Here are presented the results obtained from the vacuum bagging of a complex shaped part. The shape is that of a turbine fan blade with smooth curves all throughout ending with sharp edged angles. The quality of the final part made from this blade is compared to that of the same blade made from standard vacuum bagging process of prepregs, without introducing wetted fabrics.

Keywords: complex shaped part, prepregs, drapability, vacuum bagging

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10 Production and Mechanical Characterization of Ballistic Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: D. Korsacilar, C. Atas


In this study, first thermoplastic composite materials/plates that have high ballistic impact resistance were produced. For this purpose, the thermoplastic prepreg and the vacuum bagging technique were used to produce a composite material. Thermoplastic prepregs (resin-impregnated fiber) that are supplied ready to be used, namely high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was chosen as matrix and unidirectional glass fiber was used as reinforcement. In order to compare the fiber configuration effect on mechanical properties, unidirectional and biaxial prepregs were used. Then the microstructural properties of the composites were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Impact properties of the composites were examined by Charpy impact test and tensile mechanical tests and then the effects of ultraviolet irradiation were investigated on mechanical performance.

Keywords: ballistic, composite, thermoplastic, prepreg

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9 Characterization of Surface Suction Grippers for Continuous-Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Semi-Finished Parts of an Automated Handling and Preforming Operation

Authors: Jürgen Fleischer, Woramon Pangboonyanon, Dominic Lesage


Non-metallic lightweight materials such as fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) become very significant at present. Prepregs e.g. SMC and unidirectional tape (UD-tape) are one of raw materials used to produce FRP. This study concerns with the manufacturing steps of handling and preforming of this UD-SMC and focuses on the investigation of gripper characteristics regarding gripping forces in normal and lateral direction, in order to identify suitable operating pressures for a secure gripping operation. A reliable handling and preforming operation results in a higher adding value of the overall process chain. As a result, the suitable operating pressures depending on travelling direction for each material type could be shown. Moreover, system boundary conditions regarding allowable pulling force in normal and lateral directions during preforming could be measured.

Keywords: continuous-discontinuous fiber reinforced plastics, UD-SMC-prepreg, handling, preforming, prepregs, sheet moulding compounds, surface suction gripper

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8 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Characteristics for Stainless Wire Mesh and Number of Plies of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Seong Woo Hong, Min Jae Yu, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac


In this paper, the electromagnetic shielding characteristics of an up-to-date typical carbon filler material, carbon fiber used with a metal mesh were investigated. Carbon fiber 12k-prepregs, where carbon fibers were impregnated with epoxy, were laminated with wire meshes, vacuum bag-molded and hardened to manufacture hybrid-type specimens, with which an electromagnetic shield test was performed in accordance with ASTM D4935-10, through which was known as the most excellent reproducibility is obtainable among electromagnetic shield tests. In addition, glass fiber prepress whose electromagnetic shielding effect were known as insignificant were laminated and formed with wire meshes to verify the validity of the electromagnetic shield effect of wire meshes in order to confirm the electromagnetic shielding effect of metal meshes corresponding existing carbon fiber 12k-prepregs. By grafting carbon fibers, on which studies are being actively underway in the environmental aspects and electromagnetic shielding effect, with hybrid-type wire meshes that were analyzed through the tests, in this study, the applicability and possibility are proposed.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic(CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic(GFRP), stainless wire mesh, electromagnetic shielding

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7 Pultrusion of Side by Side Glass/Polypropylene Fibers: Study of Flexural and Shear Properties

Authors: Behrooz Ataee, Mohammad Golzar


The main purpose of using side by side (SBS) hybrid yarn in pultrusion thermoplastic method is reprisal the effect of high viscosity in melted thermoplastic and reduction of distance between reinforced fiber and melted thermoplastic. SBS hybrid fiber yarn composed of thermoplastic fibers and fiber reinforcement should be produced in the preparation of pultruded thermoplastic composites prepreg to reach better impregnation. An experimental set-up was designed and built to pultrude continues polypropylene and glass fiber to get obtain a suitable impregnated round prepregs. In final stage, the round prepregs come together to produce rectangular profile. Higher fiber volume fraction produces higher void volume fraction, however the second stage of the production process of rectangular profile and the cold die decrease 50% of the void volume fraction. Results show that whit increasing void volume fraction, flexural and shear strength decrease. Also, under certain conditions of parameters the pultruded profiles exhibit better flexural and shear strength. The pulling speed seems to have the greatest influence on the profile quality. In addition, adding cold die strongly increases the surface quality of rectangular profile.

Keywords: thermoplastic pultrusion, hybrid pultrusion, side-by-side fibers, impregnation

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6 Manufacturing Process of S-Glass Fiber Reinforced PEKK Prepregs

Authors: Nassier A. Nassir, Robert Birch, Zhongwei Guan


The aim of this study is to investigate the fundamental science/technology related to novel S-glass fiber reinforced polyether- ketone-ketone (GF/PEKK) composites and to gain insight into bonding strength and failure mechanisms. Different manufacturing techniques to make this high-temperature pre-impregnated composite (prepreg) were conducted i.e. mechanical deposition, electrostatic powder deposition, and dry powder prepregging techniques. Generally, the results of this investigation showed that it was difficult to control the distribution of the resin powder evenly on the both sides of the fibers within a specific percentage. Most successful approach was by using a dry powder prepregging where the fibers were coated evenly with an adhesive that served as a temporary binder to hold the resin powder in place onto the glass fiber fabric.

Keywords: sry powder technique, PEKK, S-glass, thermoplastic prepreg

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5 Materials for Electrically Driven Aircrafts: Highly Conductive Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Simon Bard, Martin Demleitner, Florian Schonl, Volker Altstadt


For an electrically driven aircraft, whose engine is based on semiconductors, alternative materials are needed. The avoid hotspots in the materials thermally conductive polymers are necessary. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of these materials should remain. Herein, the work of three years in a project with airbus and Siemens is presented. Different strategies have been pursued to achieve conductive fiber-reinforced composites: Metal-coated carbon fibers, pitch-based fibers and particle-loaded matrices have been investigated. In addition, a combination of copper-coated fibers and a conductive matrix has been successfully tested for its conductivity and mechanical properties. First, prepregs have been produced with a laboratory scale prepreg line, which can handle materials with maximum width of 300 mm. These materials have then been processed to fiber-reinforced laminates. For the PAN-fiber reinforced laminates, it could be shown that there is a strong dependency between fiber volume content and thermal conductivity. Laminates with 50 vol% of carbon fiber offer a conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, those with 66 vol% of fiber a thermal conductivity of 1 W/mK. With pitch-based fiber, the conductivity enhances to 1.5 W/mK for 61 vol% of fiber, compared to 0.81 W/mK with the same amount of fibers produced from PAN (+83% in conducitivity). The thermal conductivity of PAN-based composites with 50 vol% of fiber is at 0.6 W/mK, their nickel-coated counterparts with the same fiber volume content offer a conductivity of 1 W/mK, an increase of 66%.

Keywords: carbon, electric aircraft, polymer, thermal conductivity

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4 Design and Development of Constant Stress Composite Cantilever Beam

Authors: Vinod B. Suryawanshi, Ajit D. Kelkar


Glass fiber reinforced composites materials, due their unique properties such as high mechanical strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and impact resistance have huge potential as structural materials in automotive, construction and transportation applications. However, these properties often come at higher cost owing to complex design methods, difficult manufacturing processes and raw material cost. In this paper, a cost effective design and manufacturing approach for a composite cantilever beam structure is presented. A constant stress (variable cross section) beam concept has been used to design and optimize the shape of composite cantilever beam and thus obtain the reduction in material used. The variable cross section beam was fabricated from the glass epoxy prepregs using cost effective out of autoclave process. The drop ply technique has been successfully used to obtain the variation in the cross section along the span of the beam. In order to test the beam and validate the design, the beam was subjected to different end loads. Strain gauges were mounted along the length of the beam to obtain strains in the beam at different sections and loads. The strain values were used to calculate the flexural strength and bending stresses in the beam. The stresses obtained through strain measurements from the experiment were found to be uniform along the span of the beam, and thus validates the design. Finally, the finite element model for the constant stress beam was developed using commercial finite element simulation software. It was observed that the simulation results agreed very well with the experimental results.

Keywords: beams, composites, constant cross-section, structures

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3 Enhancement of Interface Properties of Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: Reyhan Ozbask, Emek Moroydor Derin, Mustafa Dogu


There are a limited number of global companies in the world that manufacture and commercially offer thermoplastic composite prepregs in accordance with aerospace requirements. High-performance thermoplastic materials supplied for aerospace structural applications are PEEK (polyetheretherketone), PPS (polyphenylsulfite), PEI (polyetherimide), and PEKK (polyetherketoneketone). Among these, PEEK is the raw material used in the first applications and has started to become widespread. However, the use of these thermoplastic raw materials in composite production is very difficult due to their high processing temperatures and impregnation difficulties. This study, it is aimed to develop carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic PEEK composites that comply with the requirements of the aviation industry that are superior mechanical properties as well as being lightweight. Therefore, it is aimed to obtain high-performance thermoplastic composite materials with improved interface properties by using the sizing method (suspension development through chemical synthesis and functionalization), to optimize the production process. The use of boron nitride nanotube as a bonding agent by modifying its surface constitutes the original aspect of the study as it has not been used in composite production with high-performance thermoplastic materials yet. For this purpose, laboratory-scale studies on the application of thermoplastic compatible sizing will be carried out in order to increase the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion. The method respectively consists of the selection of appropriate sizing type, laboratory-scale carbon fiber (CF) / poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) polymer interface enhancement studies, manufacturing of laboratory-scale BNNT coated CF/PEEK woven prepreg composites and their tests.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced composite, interface enhancement, boron nitride nanotube, thermoplastic composite

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2 Modeling of Void Formation in 3D Woven Fabric During Resin Transfer Moulding

Authors: Debabrata Adhikari, Mikhail Matveev, Louise Brown, Jan Kočí, Andy Long


Resin transfer molding (RTM) is increasingly used for manufacturing high-quality composite structures due to its additional advantages over prepregs of low-cost out-of-autoclave processing. However, to retain the advantages, it is critical to reduce the void content during the injection. Reinforcements commonly used in RTM, such as woven fabrics, have dual-scale porosity with mesoscale pores between the yarns and the micro-scale pores within the yarns. Due to the fabric geometry and the nature of the dual-scale flow, the flow front during injection creates a complicated fingering formation which leads to void formation. Analytical modeling of void formation for woven fabrics has been widely studied elsewhere. However, there is scope for improvement to the reduction in void formation in 3D fabrics wherein the in-plane yarn layers are confined by additional through-thickness binder yarns. In the present study, the structural morphology of the tortuous pore spaces in the 3D fabric has been studied and implemented using open-source software TexGen. An analytical model for the void and the fingering formation has been implemented based on an idealized unit cell model of the 3D fabric. Since the pore spaces between the yarns are free domains, the region is treated as flow-through connected channels, whereas intra-yarn flow has been modeled using Darcy’s law with an additional term to account for capillary pressure. Later the void fraction has been characterised using the criterion of void formation by comparing the fill time for inter and intra yarn flow. Moreover, the dual-scale two-phase flow of resin with air has been simulated in the commercial CFD solver OpenFOAM/ANSYS to predict the probable location of voids and validate the analytical model. The use of an idealised unit cell model will give the insight to optimise the mesoscale geometry of the reinforcement and injection parameters to minimise the void content during the LCM process.

Keywords: 3D fiber, void formation, RTM, process modelling

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1 Different Processing Methods to Obtain a Carbon Composite Element for Cycling

Authors: Maria Fonseca, Ana Branco, Joao Graca, Rui Mendes, Pedro Mimoso


The present work is focused on the production of a carbon composite element for cycling through different techniques, namely, blow-molding and high-pressure resin transfer injection (HP-RTM). The main objective of this work is to compare both processes to produce carbon composite elements for the cycling industry. It is well known that the carbon composite components for cycling are produced mainly through blow-molding; however, this technique depends strongly on manual labour, resulting in a time-consuming production process. Comparatively, HP-RTM offers a more automated process which should lead to higher production rates. Nevertheless, a comparison of the elements produced through both techniques must be done, in order to assess if the final products comply with the required standards of the industry. The main difference between said techniques lies in the used material. Blow-moulding uses carbon prepreg (carbon fibres pre-impregnated with a resin system), and the material is laid up by hand, piece by piece, on a mould or on a hard male. After that, the material is cured at a high temperature. On the other hand, in the HP-RTM technique, dry carbon fibres are placed on a mould, and then resin is injected at high pressure. After some research regarding the best material systems (prepregs and braids) and suppliers, an element was designed (similar to a handlebar) to be constructed. The next step was to perform FEM simulations in order to determine what the best layup of the composite material was. The simulations were done for the prepreg material, and the obtained layup was transposed to the braids. The selected material was a prepreg with T700 carbon fibre (24K) and an epoxy resin system, for the blow-molding technique. For HP-RTM, carbon fibre elastic UD tubes and ± 45º braids were used, with both 3K and 6K filaments per tow, and the resin system was an epoxy as well. After the simulations for the prepreg material, the optimized layup was: [45°, -45°,45°, -45°,0°,0°]. For HP-RTM, the transposed layup was [ ± 45° (6k); 0° (6k); partial ± 45° (6k); partial ± 45° (6k); ± 45° (3k); ± 45° (3k)]. The mechanical tests showed that both elements can withstand the maximum load (in this case, 1000 N); however, the one produced through blow-molding can support higher loads (≈1300N against 1100N from HP-RTM). In what concerns to the fibre volume fraction (FVF), the HP-RTM element has a slightly higher value ( > 61% compared to 59% of the blow-molding technique). The optical microscopy has shown that both elements have a low void content. In conclusion, the elements produced using HP-RTM can compare to the ones produced through blow-molding, both in mechanical testing and in the visual aspect. Nevertheless, there is still space for improvement in the HP-RTM elements since the layup of the braids, and UD tubes could be optimized.

Keywords: HP-RTM, carbon composites, cycling, FEM

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