Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15256

Search results for: green rating system

15256 A Comparative Analysis of Green Buildings Rating Systems

Authors: Shadi Motamedighazvini, Roohollah Taherkhani, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Najme Hashempour

Abstract:

Nowadays, green building rating systems are an inevitable necessity for managing environmental considerations to achieve green buildings. The aim of this paper is to deliver a detailed recognition of what has been the focus of green building policymakers around the world; It is important to conduct this study in a way that can provide a context for researchers who intend to establish or upgrade existing rating systems. In this paper, fifteen rating systems including four worldwide well-known plus eleven local rating systems which have been selected based on the answers to the questionnaires were examined. Their similarities and differences in mandatory and prerequisite clauses, highest and lowest scores for each criterion, the most frequent criteria, and most frequent sub-criteria are determined. The research findings indicated that although the criteria of energy, water, indoor quality (except Homestar), site and materials (except GRIHA) were common core criteria for all rating systems, their sub-criteria were different. This research, as a roadmap, eliminates the lack of a comprehensive reference that encompasses the key criteria of different rating systems. It shows the local systems need to be revised to be more comprehensive and adaptable to their own country’s conditions such as climate.

Keywords: environmental assessment, green buildings, green building criteria, green building rating systems, sustainability, rating tools

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15255 Designing a Pre-Assessment Tool to Support the Achievement of Green Building Certifications

Authors: Jisun Mo, Paola Boarin

Abstract:

The impact of common buildings on climate and environment has prompted people to get involved in the green building standards aimed at implementing rating tools or certifications. Thus, green building rating systems were introduced to the construction industry, and the demand for certified green buildings has increased gradually and succeeded considerably in enhancing people’s environmental awareness. However, the existing certification process has been unsatisfactory in attracting stakeholders and/or professionals who are actively engaged in adopting a rating system. It is because they have faced recurring barriers regarding limited information in understanding the rating process, time-consuming procedures and higher costs, which have a direct influence on pursuing green building rating systems. To promote the achievement of green building certifications within the building industry more successfully, this paper aims at designing a Pre-Assessment Tool (PAT) framework that can help stakeholders and/or professionals engaged in the construction industry to clarify their basic knowledge, timeframe and extra costs needed to activate a green building certification. First, taking the first steps towards the rating tool seems to be complicated because of upfront commitment to understanding the overall rating procedure is required. This conceptual PAT framework can increase basic knowledge of the rating tool and the certification process, mainly in terms of all resources or information of each credit requirements. Second, the assessment process of rating tools is generally known as a “lengthy and time-consuming system”, contributing to unenthusiastic reactions concerning green building projects. The proposed framework can predict the timeframe needed to identify how long it will take for a green project to process each credit requirement and the documentation required from the beginning of the certification process to final approval. Finally, most people often have the initial perception that pursuing green building certification costs more than constructing a non-green building, which makes it more difficult to execute rating tools. To overcome this issue, this PAT will help users to estimate the extra expenses such as certification fees and third-party contributions based on the track of the amount of time it takes to implement the rating tool throughout all the related stages. Also, it can prevent unexpected or hidden costs occurring in the process of assessment. Therefore, this proposed PAT framework can be recommended as an effective method to support the decision-making of inexperienced users and play an important role in promoting green building certification.

Keywords: green building rating tools, Pre-Occupancy Evaluation (PrOE), client’s decision-making, certification

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15254 Analyzing the Shearing-Layer Concept Applied to Urban Green System

Authors: S. Pushkar, O. Verbitsky

Abstract:

Currently, green rating systems are mainly utilized for correctly sizing mechanical and electrical systems, which have short lifetime expectancies. In these systems, passive solar and bio-climatic architecture, which have long lifetime expectancies, are neglected. Urban rating systems consider buildings and services in addition to neighborhoods and public transportation as integral parts of the built environment. The main goal of this study was to develop a more consistent point allocation system for urban building standards by using six different lifetime shearing layers: Site, Structure, Skin, Services, Space, and Stuff, each reflecting distinct environmental damages. This shearing-layer concept was applied to internationally well-known rating systems: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) for Neighborhood Development, BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) for Communities, and Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE) for Urban Development. The results showed that LEED for Neighborhood Development and BREEAM for Communities focused on long-lifetime-expectancy building designs, whereas CASBEE for Urban Development gave equal importance to the Building and Service Layers. Moreover, although this rating system was applied using a building-scale assessment, “Urban Area + Buildings” focuses on a short-lifetime-expectancy system design, neglecting to improve the architectural design by considering bio-climatic and passive solar aspects.

Keywords: green rating system, urban community, sustainable design, standardization, shearing-layer concept, passive solar architecture

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15253 BIM-Based Tool for Sustainability Assessment and Certification Documents Provision

Authors: Taki Eddine Seghier, Mohd Hamdan Ahmad, Yaik-Wah Lim, Samuel Opeyemi Williams

Abstract:

The assessment of building sustainability to achieve a specific green benchmark and the preparation of the required documents in order to receive a green building certification, both are considered as major challenging tasks for green building design team. However, this labor and time-consuming process can take advantage of the available Building Information Modeling (BIM) features such as material take-off and scheduling. Furthermore, the workflow can be automated in order to track potentially achievable credit points and provide rating feedback for several design options by using integrated Visual Programing (VP) to handle the stored parameters within the BIM model. Hence, this study proposes a BIM-based tool that uses Green Building Index (GBI) rating system requirements as a unique input case to evaluate the building sustainability in the design stage of the building project life cycle. The tool covers two key models for data extraction, firstly, a model for data extraction, calculation and the classification of achievable credit points in a green template, secondly, a model for the generation of the required documents for green building certification. The tool was validated on a BIM model of residential building and it serves as proof of concept that building sustainability assessment of GBI certification can be automatically evaluated and documented through BIM.

Keywords: green building rating system, GBRS, building information modeling, BIM, visual programming, VP, sustainability assessment

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15252 Green Construction in EGYPT

Authors: Hanan A. Anwar

Abstract:

This paper introduces green building construction in Egypt with different concepts and practices. The following study includes green building applied definition, guidelines, regulations and Standards. Evaluation of cost/benefit of green construction methods and green construction rating systems are presented. Relevant case studies will be reviewed. Four sites will be included.

Keywords: green construction, ecofreindly, self-sufficient town, carbon neutral atmosphere

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15251 Developing a Framework to Aid Sustainable Assessment in Indian Buildings

Authors: P. Amarnath, Albert Thomas

Abstract:

Buildings qualify to be the major consumer of energy and resources thereby urging the designers, architects and policy makers to place a great deal of effort in achieving and implementing sustainable building strategies in construction. Green building rating systems help a great deal in this by measuring the effectiveness of these strategies along with the escalation of building performance in social, environmental and economic perspective, and construct new sustainable buildings. However, for a country like India, enormous population and its rapid rate of growth impose an increasing burden on the country's limited and continuously degrading natural resource base, which also includes the land available for construction. In general, the number of sustainable rated buildings in India is very minimal primarily due to the complexity and obstinate nature of the assessment systems/regulations that restrict the stakeholders and designers in proper implementation and utilization of these rating systems. This paper aims to introduce a data driven and user-friendly framework which cross compares the present prominent green building rating systems such as LEED, BREEAM, and GRIHA and subsequently help the users to rate their proposed building design as per the regulations of these assessment frameworks. This framework is validated using the input data collected from green buildings constructed globally. The proposed system has prospects to encourage the users to test the efficiency of various sustainable construction practices and thereby promote more sustainable buildings in the country.

Keywords: BREEAM, GRIHA, green building rating systems, LEED, sustainable buildings

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15250 A Study on Green Building Certification Systems within the Context of Anticipatory Systems

Authors: Taner Izzet Acarer, Ece Ceylan Baba

Abstract:

This paper examines green building certification systems and their current processes in comparison with anticipatory systems. Rapid growth of human population and depletion of natural resources are causing irreparable damage to urban and natural environment. In this context, the concept of ‘sustainable architecture’ has emerged in the 20th century so as to establish and maintain standards for livable urban spaces, to improve quality of urban life, and to preserve natural resources for future generations. The construction industry is responsible for a large part of the resource consumption and it is believed that the ‘green building’ designs that emerge in construction industry can reduce environmental problems and contribute to sustainable development around the world. A building must meet a specific set of criteria, set forth through various certification systems, in order to be eligible for designation as a green building. It is disputable whether methods used by green building certification systems today truly serve the purposes of creating a sustainable world. Accordingly, this study will investigate the sets of rating systems used by the most popular green building certification programs, including LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Methods), DGNB (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen System), in terms of ‘Anticipatory Systems’ in accordance with the certification processes and their goals, while discussing their contribution to architecture. The basic methodology of the study is as follows. Firstly analyzes of brief historical and literature review of green buildings and certificate systems will be stated. Secondly, processes of green building certificate systems will be disputed by the help of anticipatory systems. Anticipatory Systems is a set of systems designed to generate action-oriented projections and to forecast potential side effects using the most current data. Anticipatory Systems pull the future into the present and take action based on future predictions. Although they do not have a claim to see into the future, they can provide foresight data. When shaping the foresight data, Anticipatory Systems use feedforward instead of feedback, enabling them to forecast the system’s behavior and potential side effects by establishing a correlation between the system’s present/past behavior and projected results. This study indicates the goals and current status of LEED, BREEAM and DGNB rating systems that created by using the feedback technique will be examined and presented in a chart. In addition, by examining these rating systems with the anticipatory system that using the feedforward method, the negative influences of the potential side effects on the purpose and current status of the rating systems will be shown in another chart. By comparing the two obtained data, the findings will be shown that rating systems are used for different goals than the purposes they are aiming for. In conclusion, the side effects of green building certification systems will be stated by using anticipatory system models.

Keywords: anticipatory systems, BREEAM, certificate systems, DGNB, green buildings, LEED

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15249 Sustainability of High-Rise Affordable Housing: Critical Issues in Applying Green Building Rating Tools

Authors: Poh Im. Lim, Hillary Yee Qin. Tan

Abstract:

Nowadays, going green has become a trend, and being emphasized in the construction industry. In Malaysia, there are several green rating tools available in the industry and among these, GBI and GreenRE are considered as the most common tools adopted for residential buildings. However, being green is not equal to or making something sustainable. Being sustainable is to take economic, environmental and social aspects into consideration. This is particularly essential in the affordable housing sector as the end-users belong to lower-income and places importance on many socio-economic needs beyond the environmental criteria. This paper discusses the arguments in proposing a sustainability framework that is tailor-made for high-rise affordable housing. In-depth interviews and observation mapping methods were used in gathering inputs from the end-users, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) as well as the professionals. ‘Bottom-up’ approach was applied in this research to show the significance of participation from the local community in the decision-making process. The proposed sustainability framework illustrates the discrepancies between user priorities and what the industry is providing. The outcome of this research suggests that integrating sustainability into high-rise affordable housing is achievable and beneficial to the industry, society, and the environment.

Keywords: green building rating tools, high-rise affordable housing, sustainability framework, sustainable development

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15248 NABERS Indoor Environment - a Rating Tool to Benchmark the IEQ of Australian Office Commercial Buildings

Authors: Kazi Hossain

Abstract:

The National Australian Built Environment Rating System (NABERS) is the key industry standard for measuring and benchmarking environmental performance of existing buildings in Australia. Developed and run by the New South Wales government, NABERS measures the operational efficiency of different types of buildings by using a set of tools that provide an easy to understand graphical rating outcome ranged from 0 to 6 stars. This set of tools also include a tool called NABERS IE which enables tenants or building managers to benchmark their buildings indoor environment quality against the national market. Launched in 2009, the number NABERS IE ratings have steadily increased from 10 certified ratings in 2011 to 43 in 2013. However there is a massive uptake of over 50 ratings alone in 2014 making the number of ratings to reach over 100. This paper outlines the methodology used to create this tool, a statistical overview of the tool, and the driving factor that motivates the building owners and managers to use this tool every year to rate their buildings.

Keywords: Acoustic comfort, Indoor air quality, Indoor Environment, NABERS, National Australian Built Environment Rating System, Performance rating, Rating System, Thermal comfort, Ventilation effectiveness, Visual comfort.

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15247 Green Logistics Management and Performance for Thailand’s Logistic Enterprises

Authors: Kittipong Tissayakorn, Fumio Akagi, Yu Song

Abstract:

Logistics is the integrated management of all of the activities required to move products through the supply chain. For a typical product, this supply chain extends from a raw material source through the production and distribution system to the point of consumption and the associated reverse logistics. The logistical activities are comprised of freight transport, storage, inventory management, materials handling and all related information processing. This paper analyzes the green management system of logistics enterprise for Thailand and advances the concept of Green Logistics, which should be held by the public. In addition, it proposes that the government should strengthen its supervision and support for green logistics, and companies should construct self-disciplined green logistics management systems and corresponding processes, a reverse logistics management system and a modern green logistics information collection and management system.

Keywords: logistics, green logistics, management system, ecological economics

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15246 The Correlation between Users’ Star Rating and Usability on Mobile Applications

Authors: Abdulmohsen A. AlBesher, Richard T. Stone

Abstract:

Star rating for mobile applications is a very useful way to differentiate between the best and worst rated applications. However, the question is whether the rating reflects the level of usability or not. The aim of this paper is to find out if the user’ star ratings on mobile apps correlate with the usability of those apps. Thus, we tested three mobile apps, which have different star ratings: low, medium, and high. Participating in the study, 15 mobile phone users were asked to do one single task for each of the three tested apps. After each task, the participant evaluated the app by answering a survey based on the System Usability Scale (SUS). The results found that there is no major correlation between the star rating and the usability. However, it was found that the task completion time and the numbers of errors that may happen while completing the task were significantly correlated to the usability.

Keywords: mobile applications, SUS, star rating, usability

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15245 Strengthening Evaluation of Steel Girder Bridge under Load Rating Analysis: Case Study

Authors: Qudama Albu-Jasim, Majdi Kanaan

Abstract:

A case study about the load rating and strengthening evaluation of the six-span of steel girders bridge in Colton city of State of California is investigated. To simulate the load rating strengthening assessment for the Colton Overhead bridge, a three-dimensional finite element model built in the CSiBridge program is simulated. Three-dimensional finite-element models of the bridge are established considering the nonlinear behavior of critical bridge components to determine the feasibility and strengthening capacity under load rating analysis. The bridge was evaluated according to Caltrans Bridge Load Rating Manual 1st edition for rating the superstructure using the Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) method. The analysis for the bridge was based on load rating to determine the largest loads that can be safely placed on existing I-girder steel members and permitted to pass over the bridge. Through extensive numerical simulations, the bridge is identified to be deficient in flexural and shear capacities, and therefore strengthening for reducing the risk is needed. An in-depth parametric study is considered to evaluate the sensitivity of the bridge’s load rating response to variations in its structural parameters. The parametric analysis has exhibited that uncertainties associated with the steel’s yield strength, the superstructure’s weight, and the diaphragm configurations should be considered during the fragility analysis of the bridge system.

Keywords: load rating, CSIBridge, strengthening, uncertainties, case study

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15244 A Framework for Rating Synchronous Video E-Learning Applications

Authors: Alex Vakaloudis, Juan Manuel Escano-Gonzalez

Abstract:

Setting up a system to broadcast live lectures on the web is a procedure which on the surface does not require any serious technical skills mainly due to the facilities provided by popular learning management systems and their plugins. Nevertheless, producing a system of outstanding quality is a multidisciplinary and by no means a straightforward task. This complicatedness may be responsible for the delivery of an overall poor experience to the learners, and it calls for a formal rating framework that takes into account the diverse aspects of an architecture for synchronous video e-learning systems. We discuss the specifications of such a framework which at its final stage employs fuzzy logic technique to transform from qualitative to quantitative results.

Keywords: synchronous video, fuzzy logic, rating framework, e-learning

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15243 Sustainability Rating System for Infrastructure Projects in UAE

Authors: Amrutha Venugopal, Rabee Rustum

Abstract:

In spite of huge investments and the vital role infrastructure plays in the economy of UAE, the country has not yet developed an assessment scheme to measure the sustainability of infrastructure projects/development. The aim of this study was to develop a sustainability rating system for infrastructure projects in UAE using weighted indicator scoring. The identification of the list of 66 indicators was done by content analysis. The sources of content analysis were from government guidelines, research literature and sustainability rating system for infrastructure projects namely BCA Greenmark for Infrastructure (Singapore), ISCA (Australia) and Envision (USA). These indicators were shortlisted based on their relevance in the UAE. A mixture of qualitative and quantitative research methods is utilized to find the weightage to be applied to the indicators and to find suggestive measures to improve infrastructure sustainability in this region. Interviews and surveys were conducted with a good mix of experts from the industry. The data collected from the interviews were collated to provide suggestive measures for improving infrastructure sustainability. The collected survey data were analyzed using statistical analysis techniques to find the indicator weighing. The indicators were shortlisted by 75% to minimize the effort and investment into the process. The weighing of the deleted indicators was distributed among the critical clusters identified by Pareto analysis. Finally a simple Microsoft Excel tool was developed as the rating tool by using the calculated weighing for the indicators.

Keywords: infrastructure, rating system, suggestive measures, sustainability, UAE

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15242 Dissociation of CDS from CVA Valuation Under Notation Changes

Authors: R. Henry, J-B. Paulin, St. Fauchille, Ph. Delord, K. Benkirane, A. Brunel

Abstract:

In this paper, the CVA computation of interest rate swap is presented based on its rating. Rating and probability default given by Moody’s Investors Service are used to calculate our CVA for a specific swap with different maturities. With this computation, the influence of rating variation can be shown on CVA. The application is made to the analysis of Greek CDS variation during the period of Greek crisis between 2008 and 2011. The main point is the determination of correlation between the fluctuation of Greek CDS cumulative value and the variation of swap CVA due to change of rating

Keywords: CDS, computation, CVA, Greek crisis, interest rate swap, maturity, rating, swap

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15241 Sustainable Urban Waterfronts Using Sustainability Assessment Rating System

Authors: R. M. R. Hussein

Abstract:

Sustainable urban waterfront development is one of the most interesting phenomena of urban renewal in the last decades. However, there are still many cities whose visual image is compromised due to the lack of a sustainable urban waterfront development, which consequently affects the place of those cities globally. This paper aims to reimagine the role of waterfront areas in city design, with a particular focus on Egypt, so that they provide attractive, sustainable urban environments while promoting the continued aesthetic development of the city overall. This aim will be achieved by determining the main principles of a sustainable urban waterfront and its applications. This paper concentrates on sustainability assessment rating systems. A number of international case-studies, wherein a city has applied the basic principles for a sustainable urban waterfront and have made use of sustainability assessment rating systems, have been selected as examples which can be applied to the urban waterfronts in Egypt. This paper establishes the importance of developing the design of urban environments in Egypt, as well as identifying the methods of sustainability application for urban waterfronts.

Keywords: sustainable urban waterfront, green infrastructure, energy efficient, Cairo

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15240 The Development of Assessment Criteria Framework for Sustainable Healthcare Buildings in China

Authors: Chenyao Shen, Jie Shen

Abstract:

The rating system provides an effective framework for assessing building environmental performance and integrating sustainable development into building and construction processes; as it can be used as a design tool by developing appropriate sustainable design strategies and determining performance measures to guide the sustainable design and decision-making processes. Healthcare buildings are resource (water, energy, etc.) intensive. To maintain high-cost operations and complex medical facilities, they require a great deal of hazardous and non-hazardous materials, stringent control of environmental parameters, and are responsible for producing polluting emission. Compared with other types of buildings, the impact of healthcare buildings on the full cycle of the environment is particularly large. With broad recognition among designers and operators that energy use can be reduced substantially, many countries have set up their own green rating systems for healthcare buildings. There are four main green healthcare building evaluation systems widely acknowledged in the world - Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC), which was jointly organized by the United States HCWH and CMPBS in 2003; BREEAM Healthcare, issued by the British Academy of Building Research (BRE) in 2008; the Green Star-Healthcare v1 tool, released by the Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA) in 2009; and LEED Healthcare 2009, released by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) in 2011. In addition, the German Association of Sustainable Building (DGNB) has also been developing the German Sustainable Building Evaluation Criteria (DGNB HC). In China, more and more scholars and policy makers have recognized the importance of assessment of sustainable development, and have adapted some tools and frameworks. China’s first comprehensive assessment standard for green building (the GBTs) was issued in 2006 (lately updated in 2014), promoting sustainability in the built-environment and raise awareness of environmental issues among architects, engineers, contractors as well as the public. However, healthcare building was not involved in the evaluation system of GBTs because of its complex medical procedures, strict requirements of indoor/outdoor environment and energy consumption of various functional rooms. Learn from advanced experience of GGHC, BREEAM, and LEED HC above, China’s first assessment criteria for green hospital/healthcare buildings was finally released in December 2015. Combined with both quantitative and qualitative assessment criteria, the standard highlight the differences between healthcare and other public buildings in meeting the functional needs for medical facilities and special groups. This paper has focused on the assessment criteria framework for sustainable healthcare buildings, for which the comparison of different rating systems is rather essential. Descriptive analysis is conducted together with the cross-matrix analysis to reveal rich information on green assessment criteria in a coherent manner. The research intends to know whether the green elements for healthcare buildings in China are different from those conducted in other countries, and how to improve its assessment criteria framework.

Keywords: assessment criteria framework, green building design, healthcare building, building performance rating tool

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15239 A Review on the Development and Challenges of Green Roof Systems in Malaysia

Authors: M. F. Chow, M. F. Abu Bakar

Abstract:

Green roof system is considered a relatively new concept in Malaysia even though it has been implemented widely in the developed countries. Generally, green roofs provide many benefits such as enhancing aesthetical quality of the built environment, reduce urban heat island effect, reduce energy consumption, improve stormwater attenuation, and reduce noise pollution. A better understanding on the implementation of green roof system in Malaysia is crucial, as Malaysia’s climate is different if compared with the climate in temperate countries where most of the green roof studies have been conducted. This study has concentrated on the technical aspect of green roof system which focuses on i) types of plants and method of planting; ii) engineering design for green roof system; iii) its hydrological performance on reducing stormwater runoff; and iv) benefits of green roofs with respect to energy. Literature review has been conducted to identify the development and obstacles associated with green roofs systems in Malaysia. The study had identified the challenges and potentials of green roofs development in Malaysia. This study also provided the recommendations on standard design and strategies on the implementation of green roofs in Malaysia in the near future.

Keywords: engineering design, green roof, sustainable development, tropical countries

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15238 The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou

Authors: Huiru Chen, Xuran Zhang

Abstract:

At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.

Keywords: application, green technology, Hangzhou, residential architecture

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15237 Comparison of Traditional and Green Building Designs in Egypt: Energy Saving

Authors: Hala M. Abdel Mageed, Ahmed I. Omar, Shady H. E. Abdel Aleem

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This paper describes in details a commercial green building that has been designed and constructed in Marsa Matrouh, Egypt. The balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment has been taken into consideration in the design and construction of this building. The building consists of one floor with 3 m height and 2810 m2 area while the envelope area is 1400 m2. The building construction fulfills the natural ventilation requirements. The glass curtain walls are about 50% of the building and the windows area is 300 m2. 6 mm greenish gray tinted temper glass as outer board lite, 6 mm safety glass as inner board lite and 16 mm thick dehydrated air spaces are used in the building. Visible light with 50% transmission, 0.26 solar factor, 0.67 shading coefficient and 1.3 W/m2.K thermal insulation U-value are implemented to realize the performance requirements. Optimum electrical distribution for lighting system, air conditions and other electrical loads has been carried out. Power and quantity of each type of the lighting system lamps and the energy consumption of the lighting system are investigated. The design of the air conditions system is based on summer and winter outdoor conditions. Ventilated, air conditioned spaces and fresh air rates are determined. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) is the air conditioning system used in this building. The VRF outdoor units are located on the roof of the building and connected to indoor units through refrigerant piping. Indoor units are distributed in all building zones through ducts and air outlets to ensure efficient air distribution. The green building energy consumption is evaluated monthly all over one year and compared with the consumed energy in the non-green conditions using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) model. The comparison results show that the total energy consumed per year in the green building is about 1,103,221 kWh while the non-green energy consumption is about 1,692,057 kWh. In other words, the green building total annual energy cost is reduced from 136,581 $ to 89,051 $. This means that, the energy saving and consequently the money-saving of this green construction is about 35%. In addition, 13 points are awarded by applying one of the most popular worldwide green energy certification programs (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design “LEED”) as a rating system for the green construction. It is concluded that this green building ensures sustainability, saves energy and offers an optimum energy performance with minimum cost.

Keywords: energy consumption, energy saving, green building, leadership in energy and environmental design, sustainability

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15236 Analyzing the Effect of Ambient Temperature and Loads Power Factor on Electric Generator Power Rating

Authors: Ahmed Elsebaay, Maged A. Abu Adma, Mahmoud Ramadan

Abstract:

This study presents a technique clarifying the effect of ambient air temperature and loads power factor changing from standard values on electric generator power rating. The study introduces an optimized technique for selecting the correct electric generator power rating for certain application and operating site ambient temperature. The de-rating factors due to the previous effects will be calculated to be applied on a generator to select its power rating accurately to avoid unsafe operation and save its lifetime. The information in this paper provides a simple, accurate, and general method for synchronous generator selection and eliminates common errors.

Keywords: ambient temperature, de-rating factor, electric generator, power factor

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15235 Wakala Buildings of Mamluk Era in Cairo, Egypt and Its Rating According to Rating Criteria of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design V4

Authors: M. Fathy, I. Maarouf, S. El-Sayary

Abstract:

Our buildings are responsible for around 50% of energy consumption and most of this consumption because of spaces design, low heat isolation building material and occupant presence and behavior in buildings beside non-efficient architectural treatments. It has been shown to have large impact on heating, cooling and ventilation demand, energy consumption of lighting and appliances, and building controls. This paper aims to focus on passive treatments in Wakala Buildings in Cairo and how far it meets the LEED Criteria as the LEED – Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – considered the widest spread rating system in the world. By studying Wakala buildings in Cairo, there are a lot of environmental potentials in it in the field of passive treatments and energy efficiency that could be found in examples by surveying and analyzing Wakala buildings. Besides the environmental treatments through the natural materials and façade architectural treatments, there is a measuring phase to declare the efficiency of the Wakala building through temperature decline between outdoor and indoor the Wakala building. Also, measuring how far the indoor conditions matched the thermal comfort for occupants. After measuring the Wakala buildings, it is the role of applying the criteria of LEED rating system to find out how fare Wakala buildings meet the LEED rating system criteria. After all, the building technologies used in Wakala buildings in the field of passive design and caused that energy efficiency would be clear and what is needed for Wakala buildings to have a LEED Certification.

Keywords: energy awareness, historical commercial buildings, LEED, Wakala buildings

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15234 Alignment of Information System Strategy and Green Information System Strategy: Comprehension and A Review of the Literature

Authors: Wartika Memed Purawinata, Kridanto Surendro, Husni Sastramiharja, Iping Supriana S.

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The information system is one of the contributors to environmental degradation and pollution are known to be released, such as the increasing of use of IT equipment and energy consumption , life cycles of IT equipment are getting shorter, IT equipment waste disposal and so on, therefore the information system should have a role in related environmental issues. Organization need to develop the ability of green to minimize negative impacts on the environment. Although the green information system is an important topic, many organizations fail to manage the environment in a way that is adequate because they ignore aspect of strategy. Alignment strategy is very important to ensure that all people do the activities of the organization headed in the same direction. Alignment strategy helps organization, determine which is more important for organization, and then make road mad to achieve the organization goal. Therefore, this paper discusses the review of the alignment, information systems strategy, and IS green strategy. With this discussion is expected there is an understanding about the alignment of information systems strategy and strategy of green IS, and its relationship with the achievement of business goals that have commitment to reduce the negative impact of information systems on the environment.

Keywords: alignment, strategy, information system, green

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15233 The Modified WBS Based on LEED Rating System in Decreasing Energy Consumption and Cost of Buildings

Authors: Mehrab Gholami Zangalani, Siavash Rajabpour

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In compliance with the Statistical Centre of Iran (SCI)’s results, construction and housing section in Iran is consuming 40% of energy, which is 5 times more than the world average consumption. By considering the climate in Iran, the solutions in terms of design, construction and exploitation of the buildings by utilizing the LEED rating system (LRS) is presented, regarding to the reasons for the high levels of energy consumption during construction and housing in Iran. As a solution, innovative Work Break Structure (WBS) in accordance with LRS and Iranian construction’s methods is unveiled in this research. Also, by amending laws pertaining to the construction in Iran, the huge amount of energy and cost can be saved. Furthermore, with a scale-up of these results to the scale of big cities such as Tehran (one of the largest metropolitan areas in the middle east) in which the license to build more than two hundred and fifty units each day is issued, the amount of energy and cost that can be saved is estimated.

Keywords: costs reduction, energy statistics, leed rating system (LRS), work brake structure (WBS)

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15232 Roadway Maintenance Management System

Authors: Chika Catherine Ayogu

Abstract:

Rehabilitation plays an important and integral part in the life of roadway rehabilitation management system. It is a systematic method for inspection and rating the roadway condition in a given area. The system performs a cost effective analysis of various maintenance and rehabilitation strategies. Finally the system prioritize and recommend roadway rehabilitation and maintenance to maximize results within a given budget amount. During execution of maintenance activity, the system also tracks labour, materials, equipment and cost for activities performed. The system implements physical assessment field inspection and rating of each street segment which is then entered into a database. The information is analyzed using a software, and provide recommendations and project future conditions. The roadway management system provides a deterioration curve for each segment based on input then assigns the most cost-effective maintenance strategy based on conditions, surface type and functional classification, and available budget. This paper investigates the roadway management system and its capabilities to assist in applying the right treatment to the right roadway at the right time so that expected service life of the roadway is extended as long as possible with acceptable cost.

Keywords: effectiveness, rehabilitation, roadway, software system

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15231 Thermal Behavior of the Extensive Green Roofs in Riyadh City

Authors: Ashraf Muharam, Nasser Al-Hemiddi, El Sayed Amer

Abstract:

Green roof is one of sustainable practice for reducing the environmental impact of a building. Green roofs are vegetation roofs that are partially or completely covered building's roof. It can provide multiple environmental benefits such as mitigation of urban heat island effect and protecting buildings against solar radiation. In Riyadh city buildings consume about 70 % of the total energy used in the building for cooling and heating because of the Riyadh's harsh and tropical climate. So, the study aim was identifying the thermal performance of extensive green roof and comparing its performance with concrete roof performance during summer season. The experimental validations results indicated that the extensive green roofs system was better than concrete roof system for lowering the indoor air temperature. It could reduce the indoor air temperature from 2°C to 5.5°C compared to the concrete roof system. Also, the finding of this study demonstrated that extensive green roof system could reduce 12% to 33% of energy consumption of air conditioning in Riyadh city during summer seasons by using environmentally friendly insulation.

Keywords: thermal performance, green roof system, concrete roof system, tropical climatic, internal temperatures

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15230 Green Growth in Kazakhstan: Political Leadership, Business Strategies and Environmental Fiscal Reform for Competitive System Change

Authors: A. S. Salimzhanova, J. C. Sardinas, O. A. Yanovskaya

Abstract:

The objective of this research work is to discuss the concept of green growth in the Republic of Kazakhstan introduced by its government in the National Sustainable Development Strategy with the objective of transition to a resource-efficient, green economy. We believe that emerging economies like Kazakhstan can pursue a cleaner and more efficient development path by introducing an environmental tax system based on resource consumption rather than only income and labor. The key issues discussed in this article are the eco-efficiency, which refers to closing the gap between economic and ecological efficiencies, and the structural change of the economy toward green growth. We also strongly believe that studying the experience of East Asian countries on green reform including eco-innovation and green solutions in business is essential to the case of Kazakhstan. All of these will raise the status of Kazakhstan to the level of one of the thirty developed countries over the next decades.

Keywords: economic strategy, green growth, green solutions, natural resource management, environmental tax system

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15229 Enhancement of Building Sustainability by Using Environment-Friendly Material

Authors: Rina Yadav, Meng-Ting Tsai

Abstract:

In the present scenario, sustainable buildings are in high demand. The essential decision for building sustainability is made during the design and preconstruction stages. Main objective of this study is reduction of unfavorable environmental impacts, which is a major cause of global warming. Based on this problem, to diminish the environmental hazards, present research study is applied to provide a guideline to designer that will be useful for material selection stage of designing. This can be achieved by using local available materials such as wood, mud, bamboos instead of cement, steel, concrete by reducing carbon dioxide emission. Energy simulation will be analyzed by software to get the comparable result. It will be encouraging and motivational for designer while using ecofriendly material to achieve points in Leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED) in green rating system.

Keywords: sustainability design, lead rating, LEED, building performance analyses

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15228 Defect-Based Urgency Index for Bridge Maintenance Ranking and Prioritization

Authors: Saleh Abu Dabous, Khaled Hamad, Rami Al-Ruzouq

Abstract:

Bridge condition assessment and rating provide essential information needed for bridge management. This paper reviews bridge inspection and condition rating practices and introduces a defect-based urgency index. The index is estimated at the element-level based on the extent and severity of the different defects typical to the bridge element. The urgency index approach has the following advantages: (1) It facilitates judgment submission, i.e. instead of rating the bridge element with a specific linguistic overall expression (which can be subjective and used differently by different people), the approach is based on assessing the defects; (2) It captures multiple defects that can be present within a deteriorated element; and (3) It reflects how critical the element is through quantifying critical defects and their severity. The approach can be further developed and validated. It is expected to be useful for practical purposes as an early-warning system for critical bridge elements.

Keywords: condition rating, deterioration, inspection, maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
15227 Developing a Decision-Making Tool for Prioritizing Green Building Initiatives

Authors: Tayyab Ahmad, Gerard Healey

Abstract:

Sustainability in built environment sector is subject to many development constraints. Building projects are developed under different requirements of deliverables which makes each project unique. For an owner organization, i.e., a higher-education institution, involved in a significant building stock, it is important to prioritize some of the sustainability initiatives over the others in order to align the sustainable building development with organizational goals. The point-based green building rating tools i.e. Green Star, LEED, BREEAM are becoming increasingly popular and are well-acknowledged worldwide for verifying a sustainable development. It is imperative to synthesize a multi-criteria decision-making tool that can capitalize on the point-based methodology of rating systems while customizing the sustainable development of building projects according to the individual requirements and constraints of the client organization. A multi-criteria decision-making tool for the University of Melbourne is developed that builds on the action-learning and experience of implementing Green Buildings at the University of Melbourne. The tool evaluates the different sustainable building initiatives based on the framework of Green Star rating tool of Green Building Council of Australia. For each different sustainability initiative the decision-making tool makes an assessment based on at least five performance criteria including the ease with which a sustainability initiative can be achieved and the potential of a sustainability initiative to enhance project objectives, reduce life-cycle costs, enhance University’s reputation, and increase the confidence in quality construction. The use of a weighted aggregation mathematical model in the proposed tool can have a considerable role in the decision-making process of a Green Building project by indexing the Green Building initiatives in terms of organizational priorities. The index value of each initiative will be based on its alignment with some of the key performance criteria. The usefulness of the decision-making tool is validated by conducting structured interviews with some of the key stakeholders involved in the development of sustainable building projects at the University of Melbourne. The proposed tool is realized to help a client organization in deciding that within limited resources which sustainability initiatives and practices are more important to be pursued than others.

Keywords: higher education institution, multi-criteria decision-making tool, organizational values, prioritizing sustainability initiatives, weighted aggregation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 86