Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4062

Search results for: joint contact force

4062 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee


Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, joint contact force, kinetic, muscle force

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
4061 Evaluation the Influence of Trunk Bracing in Joint Contact Forces in Subjects with Scoliosis

Authors: Azadeh Jafari, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Azadeh Nadi


Background: Scoliosis is the lateral curvature of the spine which may influence the abilities of the subjects during standing and walking. Most of the scoliotic subjects use orthosis to reduce the curve and to decrease the risk of curve progression. There was lack of information regarding the effects of orthosis on kinematic and joint contact force. Therefore, this research was done to highlight the effects of orthosis on the aforementioned parameters. Method: 5 scoliotic subjects were recruited in this study, with single curve less than 40 (females with age 13.2 ± 1.7). They were asked to walk with and without orthosis. The kinematic of the joints, force applied on the legs, moments transmitted through the joints and joint contact forces were evaluated in this study. Moreover, the lengths of muscles were determined by use of computer muscle control approach in OpenSim. Results: There was a significant difference between the second peak of vertical ground reaction force while walking with and without orthosis (p-value < 0.05). There was no difference between spatiotemporal gait parameters while walking with and without orthosis (P-value > 0.05). The mean values of joint contact forces (vertical component) increased by the use of orthosis, but the difference was not significant (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Although the kinematic of most of the body joints was not influenced by the use of orthosis, the joint contact force may be increased by orthosis. The increase in joint contact force may be due to the performance of orthosis which restricts the motions of pelvic and increases compensatory mechanism used by the subjects to decrease the side effects of the orthosis.

Keywords: scoliosis, joint contact force, kinetic, kinematic

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
4060 Computational Models for a More Accurate Estimation of Joint Force

Authors: Ibrahim Elnour Abdelrahman Eltayeb


Computational modelling is a method used to investigate joint forces during a movement. It can get high accuracy in the joint forces via subject-specific models. However, the construction of subject-specific models remains time-consuming and expensive. The purpose of this paper was to identify what alterations we can make to generic computational models to get a better estimation of the joint forces. It appraised the impact of these alterations on the accuracy of the estimated joint forces. It found different strategies of alterations: joint model, muscle model, and an optimisation problem. All these alterations affected joint contact force accuracy, so showing the potential for improving the model predictions without involving costly and time-consuming medical images.

Keywords: Joint force, joint model, optimisation problem, validation

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4059 The Effect of Impact on the Knee Joint Due to the Shocks during Double Impact Phase of Gait Cycle

Authors: Jobin Varghese, V. M. Akhil, P. K. Rajendrakumar, K. S. Sivanandan


The major contributor to the human locomotion is the knee flexion and extension. During heel strike, a huge amount of energy is transmitted through the leg towards knee joint, which in fact is damped at heel and leg muscles. During high shocks, although it is damped to a certain extent, the balance force transmits towards knee joint which could damage the knee. Due to the vital function of the knee joint, it should be protected against damage due to additional load acting on it. This work concentrates on the development of spring mass damper system which exactly replicates the stiffness at the heel and muscles and the objective function is optimized to minimize the force acting at the knee joint. Further, the data collected using force plate are put into the model to verify its integrity and are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: spring, mass, damper, knee joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
4058 Neural Networks for Distinguishing the Performance of Two Hip Joint Implants on the Basis of Hip Implant Side and Ground Reaction Force

Authors: L. Parisi


In this research work, neural networks were applied to classify two types of hip joint implants based on the relative hip joint implant side speed and three components of each ground reaction force. The condition of walking gait at normal velocity was used and carried out with each of the two hip joint implants assessed. Ground reaction forces’ kinetic temporal changes were considered in the first approach followed but discarded in the second one. Ground reaction force components were obtained from eighteen patients under such gait condition, half of which had a hip implant type I-II, whilst the other half had the hip implant, defined as type III by Orthoload®. After pre-processing raw gait kinetic data and selecting the time frames needed for the analysis, the ground reaction force components were used to train a MLP neural network, which learnt to distinguish the two hip joint implants in the abovementioned condition. Further to training, unknown hip implant side and ground reaction force components were presented to the neural networks, which assigned those features into the right class with a reasonably high accuracy for the hip implant type I-II and the type III. The results suggest that neural networks could be successfully applied in the performance assessment of hip joint implants.

Keywords: kinemic gait data, neural networks, hip joint implant, hip arthroplasty, rehabilitation engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
4057 Implicit Force Control of a Position Controlled Robot - A Comparison with Explicit Algorithms

Authors: Alexander Winkler, Jozef Suchý


This paper investigates simple implicit force control algorithms realizable with industrial robots. A lot of approaches already published are difficult to implement in commercial robot controllers, because the access to the robot joint torques is necessary or the complete dynamic model of the manipulator is used. In the past we already deal with explicit force control of a position controlled robot. Well known schemes of implicit force control are stiffness control, damping control and impedance control. Using such algorithms the contact force cannot be set directly. It is further the result of controller impedance, environment impedance and the commanded robot motion/position. The relationships of these properties are worked out in this paper in detail for the chosen implicit approaches. They have been adapted to be implementable on a position controlled robot. The behaviors of stiffness control and damping control are verified by practical experiments. For this purpose a suitable test bed was configured. Using the full mechanical impedance within the controller structure will not be practical in the case when the robot is in physical contact with the environment. This fact will be verified by simulation.

Keywords: robot force control, stiffness control, damping control, impedance control, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
4056 Design Modification of Lap Joint of Fiber Metal Laminates (CARALL)

Authors: Shaher Bano, Samia Fida, Asif Israr


The synergistic effect of properties of metals and fibers reinforced laminates has diverted attention of the world towards use of robust composite materials known as fiber-metal laminates in many high performance applications. In this study, modification of an adhesively bonded joint as a single lap joint of carbon fibers based CARALL FML has done to increase interlaminar shear strength of the joint. The effect of different configurations of joint designs such as spews, stepped and modification in adhesive by addition of nano-fillers was studied. Both experimental and simulation results showed that modified joint design have superior properties as maximum force experienced stepped joint was 1.5 times more than the simple lap joint. Addition of carbon nano-tubes as nano-fillers in the adhesive joint increased the maximum force due to crack deflection mechanism.

Keywords: adhesive joint, Carbon Reinforced Aluminium Laminate (CARALL), fiber metal laminates, spews

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
4055 Slip Limit Prediction of High-Strength Bolt Joints Based on Local Approach

Authors: Chang He, Hiroshi Tamura, Hiroshi Katsuchi, Jiaqi Wang


In this study, the aim is to infer the slip limit (static friction limit) of contact interfaces in bolt friction joints by analyzing other bolt friction joints with the same contact surface but in a different shape. By using the Weibull distribution to deal with microelements on the contact surface statistically, the slip limit of a certain type of bolt joint was predicted from other types of bolt joint with the same contact surface. As a result, this research succeeded in predicting the slip limit of bolt joins with different numbers of contact surfaces and with different numbers of bolt rows.

Keywords: bolt joints, slip coefficient, finite element method, Weibull distribution

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4054 Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study

Authors: A. Sakavičius, A. Lukša, V. Nargelienė, V. Bukauskas, G. Astromskas, A. Šetkus


We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.

Keywords: Au/Graphene contacts, graphene, Kelvin force probe microscopy, NiC/Graphene contacts, Ni/Graphene contacts, Raman spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
4053 Quantification of Dowel-Concrete Interaction in Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements Using 3D Numerical Simulation

Authors: Lakshmana Ravi Raj Gali, K. Sridhar Reddy, M. Amaranatha Reddy


Load transfer between adjacent slabs of the jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) system is inevitable for long-lasting performance. Dowel bars are generally used to ensure sufficient degree of load transfer, in addition to the load transferred by aggregate interlock mechanism at the joints. Joint efficiency is the measure of joint quality, a major concern and therefore the dowel bar system should be designed and constructed well. The interaction between dowel bars and concrete that includes various parameters of dowel bar and concrete will explain the degree of joint efficiency. The present study focuses on the methodology of selecting contact stiffness, which quantifies dowel-concrete interaction. In addition, a parametric study which focuses on the effect of dowel diameter, dowel shape, the spacing between dowel bars, joint opening, the thickness of the slab, the elastic modulus of concrete, and concrete cover on contact stiffness was also performed. The results indicated that the thickness of the slab is most critical among various parameters to explain the joint efficiency. Further displacement equivalency method was proposed to find out the contact stiffness. The proposed methodology was validated with the available field surface deflection data collected by falling weight deflectometer (FWD).

Keywords: contact stiffness, displacement equivalency method, Dowel-concrete interaction, joint behavior, 3D numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
4052 An Interlock Model of Friction and Superlubricity

Authors: Azadeh Malekan, Shahin Rouhani


Superlubricity is a phenomenon where two surfaces in contact show negligible friction;this may be because the asperities of the two surfaces do not interlock. Two rough surfaces, when pressed against each other, can get into a formation where the summits of asperities of one surface lock into the valleys of the other surface. The amount of interlock depends on the geometry of the two surfaces. We suggest the friction force may then be proportional to the amount of interlock; this explains Superlubricity as the situation where there is little interlock. Then the friction force will be directly proportional to the normal force as it is related to the work necessary to lift the upper surface in order to clear the interlock. To investigate this model, we simulate the contact of two surfaces. In order to validate our model, we first investigate Amontons‘ law. Assuming that asperities retain deformations in the time scale while the top asperity moves across the lattice spacing Amonton’s law is observed. Structural superlubricity is examined by the hypothesis that surfaces are very rigid and there is no deformation in asperities. This may happen at small normal forces. When two identical surfaces come into contact, rotating the top surface we observe a peak in friction force near the angle of orientation where the two surfaces can interlock.

Keywords: friction, amonton`s law, superlubricity, contact model

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
4051 The Effect of Adhesion on the Frictional Hysteresis Loops at a Rough Interface

Authors: M. Bazrafshan, M. B. de Rooij, D. J. Schipper


Frictional hysteresis is the phenomenon in which mechanical contacts are subject to small (compared to contact area) oscillating tangential displacements. In the presence of adhesion at the interface, the contact repulsive force increases leading to a higher static friction force and pre-sliding displacement. This paper proposes a boundary element model (BEM) for the adhesive frictional hysteresis contact at the interface of two contacting bodies of arbitrary geometries. In this model, adhesion is represented by means of a Dugdale approximation of the total work of adhesion at local areas with a very small gap between the two bodies. The frictional contact is divided into sticking and slipping regions in order to take into account the transition from stick to slip (pre-sliding regime). In the pre-sliding regime, the stick and slip regions are defined based on the local values of shear stress and normal pressure. In the studied cases, a fixed normal force is applied to the interface and the friction force varies in such a way to start gross sliding in one direction reciprocally. For the first case, the problem is solved at the smooth interface between a ball and a flat for different values of work of adhesion. It is shown that as the work of adhesion increases, both static friction and pre-sliding distance increase due to the increase in the contact repulsive force. For the second case, the rough interface between a glass ball against a silicon wafer and a DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) coating is considered. The work of adhesion is assumed to be identical for both interfaces. As adhesion depends on the interface roughness, the corresponding contact repulsive force is different for these interfaces. For the smoother interface, a larger contact repulsive force and consequently, a larger static friction force and pre-sliding distance are observed.

Keywords: boundary element model, frictional hysteresis, adhesion, roughness, pre-sliding

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
4050 Joint Physical Custody: Lessons from the European Union

Authors: Katarzyna Kamińska


When thinking about custodial arrangements after divorce or separation, there has been a shift from sole custody, particularly maternal preference, to joint physical custody. In many Western countries, an increasing of children with separated parents have joint physical custody, which is believed to be in the best interests of the child, as children can maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis. The aim of the article is to examine joint physical custody, both from the perspective of the binding legal instruments that are relevant to joint physical custody, the Principles of European Family Law drafted by the CEFL, as well as the international research on this matter. The thesis underlying this paper is that joint physical custody is in itself neither good nor bad, and it depends on how the arrangements are managed by the parents. The paper includes a reflection on joint physical custody in the face of the COVID-19 crisis. The results indicate that in normal circumstances, joint physical custody demands broad communication, and now it times of crisis, we need over-communication about children and plans. Only a very tight and coordinated co-parenting plan make the whole family safer.

Keywords: joint physical custody, co-parenting, child welfare, COVID-19

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
4049 Numerical Simulation for Self-Loosening Phenomenon Analysis of Bolt Joint under Vibration

Authors: Long Kim Vu, Ban Dang Nguyen


In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) is utilized to simulate the comprehensive process including tightening, releasing and self-loosening of a bolt joint under transverse vibration. Following to the accurate geometry of helical threads, an absolutely hexahedral meshing is implemented. The accuracy of simulation process is verified and validated by comparison with the experimental results on clamping force-vibration relationship, which shows the sufficient correlation. Further analysis with different amplitude and frequency of transverse vibration is done to determine the dominant factor inducing the failure.

Keywords: bolt self-loosening, contact state, finite element method, FEM, helical thread modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
4048 Developing Models for Predicting Physiologically Impaired Arm Reaching Paths

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Mustafa Mhawesh, Reza Langari


This paper describes the development of a model of an impaired human arm performing a reaching motion, which will be used to predict hand path trajectories for people with reduced arm joint mobility. Assuming that the arm was in contact with a surface during the entire movement, the contact conditions at the initial and final task locations were determined and used to generate the entire trajectory. The model was validated by comparing it to experimental data, which simulated an arm joint impairment by physically constraining the joint motion with a brace. Future research will include using the model in the development of physical training protocols that avoid early recruitment of “healthy” Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF) for reaching motions, thus facilitating an Active Range-Of-Motion Recovery (AROM) for a particular impaired joint.

Keywords: higher order kinematic specifications, human motor coordination, impaired movement, kinematic synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
4047 Joint Space Hybrid Force/Position Control of 6-DoF Robot Manipulator Using Neural Network

Authors: Habtemariam Alemu


It has been known that the performance of position and force control is highly affected by both robot dynamic and environment stiffness uncertainties. In this paper, joint space hybrid force and position control strategy with self-selecting matrix using artificial neural network compensator is proposed. The objective of the work is to improve controller robustness by applying a neural network technique in order to compensate the effect of uncertainties in the robot model. Simulation results for a 6 degree of freedom (6-DoF) manipulator and different types of environments showed the effectiveness of the suggested approach. 6-DoF Puma 560 family robot manipulator is chosen as industrial robot and its efficient dynamic model is designed using Matlab/SimMechanics library.

Keywords: robot manipulator, force/position control, artificial neural network, Matlab/Simulink

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
4046 Checking Planetary Clutch on the Romania Tractor Using Mathematical Equations

Authors: Mohammad Vahedi Torshizi


In this investigation, at first, bending stress, contact stress, Safety factor of bending and Safety factor of contact between sun gear and planet gear tooth was determined using mathematical equations. Also, The amount of Sun Revolution in, Speed carrier, power Transmitted of the sun, sun torque, sun peripheral speed, Enter the tangential force gears, was calculated using mathematical equations. According to the obtained results, maximum of bending stress and contact stress occurred in three plantary and low status of four plantary. Also, maximum of Speed carrier, sun peripheral speed, Safety factor of bending and Safety factor of contact obtained in four plantary and maximum of power Transmitted of the sun, Enter the tangential force gears, bending stress and contact stress was in three pantry and factors And other factors were equal in the two planets.

Keywords: bending stress, contact stress, plantary, mathematical equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
4045 Finite Element Analysis of Layered Composite Plate with Elastic Pin Under Uniaxial Load Using ANSYS

Authors: R. M. Shabbir Ahmed, Mohamed Haneef, A. R. Anwar Khan


Analysis of stresses plays important role in the optimization of structures. Prior stress estimation helps in better design of the products. Composites find wide usage in the industrial and home applications due to its strength to weight ratio. Especially in the air craft industry, the usage of composites is more due to its advantages over the conventional materials. Composites are mainly made of orthotropic materials having unequal strength in the different directions. Composite materials have the drawback of delamination and debonding due to the weaker bond materials compared to the parent materials. So proper analysis should be done to the composite joints before using it in the practical conditions. In the present work, a composite plate with elastic pin is considered for analysis using finite element software Ansys. Basically the geometry is built using Ansys software using top down approach with different Boolean operations. The modelled object is meshed with three dimensional layered element solid46 for composite plate and solid element (Solid45) for pin material. Various combinations are considered to find the strength of the composite joint under uniaxial loading conditions. Due to symmetry of the problem, only quarter geometry is built and results are presented for full model using Ansys expansion options. The results show effect of pin diameter on the joint strength. Here the deflection and load sharing of the pin are increasing and other parameters like overall stress, pin stress and contact pressure are reducing due to lesser load on the plate material. Further material effect shows, higher young modulus material has little deflection, but other parameters are increasing. Interference analysis shows increasing of overall stress, pin stress, contact stress along with pin bearing load. This increase should be understood properly for increasing the load carrying capacity of the joint. Generally every structure is preloaded to increase the compressive stress in the joint to increase the load carrying capacity. But the stress increase should be properly analysed for composite due to its delamination and debonding effects due to failure of the bond materials. When results for an isotropic combination is compared with composite joint, isotropic joint shows uniformity of the results with lesser values for all parameters. This is mainly due to applied layer angle combinations. All the results are represented with necessasary pictorial plots.

Keywords: bearing force, frictional force, finite element analysis, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
4044 Pressure-Detecting Method for Estimating Levitation Gap Height of Swirl Gripper

Authors: Kaige Shi, Chao Jiang, Xin Li


The swirl gripper is an electrically activated noncontact handling device that uses swirling airflow to generate a lifting force. This force can be used to pick up a workpiece placed underneath the swirl gripper without any contact. It is applicable, for example, in the semiconductor wafer production line, where contact must be avoided during the handling and moving of a workpiece to minimize damage. When a workpiece levitates underneath a swirl gripper, the gap height between them is crucial for safe handling. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to estimate the levitation gap height by detecting pressure at two points. The method is based on theoretical model of the swirl gripper, and has been experimentally verified. Furthermore, the force between the gripper and the workpiece can also be estimated using the detected pressure. As a result, the nonlinear relationship between the force and gap height can be linearized by adjusting the rotating speed of the fan in the swirl gripper according to the estimated force and gap height. The linearized relationship is expected to enhance handling stability of the workpiece.

Keywords: swirl gripper, noncontact handling, levitation, gap height estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
4043 The Nonlinear Research on Rotational Stiffness of Cuplock Joint

Authors: Liuyu Zhang, Di Mo, Qiang Yan, Min Liu


As the important equipment in the construction field, cuplock scaffold plays an important role in the construction process. As a scaffold connecting member, cuplock joint is of great importance. In order to explore the rotational stiffness nonlinear characteristics changing features of different structural forms of cuplock joint in different tightening torque condition under different conditions of load, ANSYS is used to establish four kinds of cuplock joint models with different forces to simulate the real force situation. By setting the different load conditions which means the cuplock is loaded at a certain distance from the cuplock joint in a certain direction until the cuplock is damaged and considering the gap between the cross bar joint and the vertical bar, the differences in the influence of the structural form and tightening torque on the rotation stiffness of the cuplock under different load conditions are compared. It is significantly important to improve the accuracy of calculating bearing capacity and stability of the cuplock steel pipe scaffold.

Keywords: cuplock joint, highway tunnel, non-linear characteristics, rotational stiffness, scaffold stability, theoretical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
4042 Estimation of the External Force for a Co-Manipulation Task Using the Drive Chain Robot

Authors: Sylvain Devie, Pierre-Philippe Robet, Yannick Aoustin, Maxime Gautier


The aim of this paper is to show that the observation of the external effort and the sensor-less control of a system is limited by the mechanical system. First, the model of a one-joint robot with a prismatic joint is presented. Based on this model, two different procedures were performed in order to identify the mechanical parameters of the system and observe the external effort applied on it. Experiments have proven that the accuracy of the force observer, based on the DC motor current, is limited by the mechanics of the robot. The sensor-less control will be limited by the accuracy in estimation of the mechanical parameters and by the maximum static friction force, that is the minimum force which can be observed in this case. The consequence of this limitation is that industrial robots without specific design are not well adapted to perform sensor-less precision tasks. Finally, an efficient control law is presented for high effort applications.

Keywords: control, identification, robot, co-manipulation, sensor-less

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
4041 Modelling of Atomic Force Microscopic Nano Robot's Friction Force on Rough Surfaces

Authors: M. Kharazmi, M. Zakeri, M. Packirisamy, J. Faraji


Micro/Nanorobotics or manipulation of nanoparticles by Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) is one of the most important solutions for controlling the movement of atoms, particles and micro/nano metrics components and assembling of them to design micro/nano-meter tools. Accurate modelling of manipulation requires identification of forces and mechanical knowledge in the Nanoscale which are different from macro world. Due to the importance of the adhesion forces and the interaction of surfaces at the nanoscale several friction models were presented. In this research, friction and normal forces that are applied on the AFM by using of the dynamic bending-torsion model of AFM are obtained based on Hurtado-Kim friction model (HK), Johnson-Kendall-Robert contact model (JKR) and Greenwood-Williamson roughness model (GW). Finally, the effect of standard deviation of asperities height on the normal load, friction force and friction coefficient are studied.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, contact model, friction coefficient, Greenwood-Williamson model

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
4040 Joint Physical Custody after Divorce and Child Well-Being

Authors: Katarzyna Kamińska


Joint physical custody means that both parents after divorce or separation have the right and responsibility to take care of the child on the daily basis. In a joint physical custody arrangement, the child spends substantial, but not necessarily equal, time with both parents. Joint physical custody can be symmetric care arrangement or not. However, it is accepted in the jurisprudence that the best interests of the child is served when the child spends at least 35% of the time during a two-week period with each parent. Joint physical custody, also known as joint, dual, or shared residence, is a challenge in contemporary family law. It has its supporters and opponents. On the one hand, joint physical custody is beneficial because it provides children with frequent and continuous contact with a mother and father after their divorce or separation. On the other hand, it isn’t good for children to be shuttled back and forth between two residences. Children need a home base. The conclusion is therefore that joint physical custody can’t be seen as a panacea for all post-divorce or post-separation parenting cases and the court shouldn’t automatically make such a determination. The possibility to award this arrangement requires the court to carefully weigh the pros and cons of each individual case. It is difficult to say that joint physical custody is better than single physical custody in any case. It depends on the circumstances and needs of each family. It appears that an individual approach is going to be much better as opposed to a one-size-fits-all idea.

Keywords: joint physical custody, shared residence, dual residence, the best interests of the child

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4039 Fracture Control of the Soda-Lime Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin


The effects of the contact ball-lens on the soda lime glass in laser thermal cleavage with a cw Nd-YAG laser were investigated in this study. A contact ball-lens was adopted to generate a bending force on the crack formation of the soda-lime glass in the laser cutting process. The Nd-YAG laser beam (wavelength of 1064 nm) was focused through the ball-lens and transmitted to the soda-lime glass, which was coated with a carbon film on the surface with a bending force from a ball-lens to generate a tensile stress state on the surface cracking. The fracture was controlled by the contact ball-lens and a straight cutting was tested to demonstrate the feasibility. Experimental observations on the crack propagation from the leading edge, main section and trailing edge of the glass sheet were compared with various mechanical and thermal loadings. Further analyses on the stress under various laser powers and contact ball loadings were made to characterize the innovative technology. The results show that the distributions of the side crack at the leading and trailing edges are mainly dependent on the boundary condition, contact force, cutting speed and laser power. With the increase of the mechanical and thermal loadings, the region of the side cracks might be dramatically reduced with proper selection of the geometrical constraints. Therefore, the application of the contact ball-lens is a possible way to control the fracture in laser cleavage with improved cutting qualities.

Keywords: laser cleavage, stress analysis, crack visualization, laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
4038 Scaling Analysis of the Contact Line and Capillary Interaction Induced by a Floating Tilted Cylinder

Authors: ShiQing Gao, XingYi Zhang, YouHe Zhou


When a floating tilted cylinder pierces a fluid interface, the fulfilment of constant-contact-angle condition along the cylinder results in shift, stretch and distortion of the contact line, thus leading to a capillary interaction. We perform an investigation of the scaling dependence of tilt angle, contact angle, and cylinder radius on the contact line profile and the corresponding capillary interaction by numerical simulation and experiment. Characterized by three characteristic parameters respectively, the dependences for each deformation mode are systematically analyzed. Both the experiment and simulation reveals an invariant structure that is independent of contact angle and radius to characterize the stretch of the contact line for every tilted case. Based on this observation, we then propose a general capillary force scaling law to incredibly grasp all the simulated results, by simply approximating the contact line profile as tilted ellipse.

Keywords: gas-liquid/liquid-fluid interface, colloidal particle, contact line shape, capillary interaction, surface evolver (SE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
4037 Empirical Analysis of Velocity Behavior for Collaborative Robots in Transient Contact Cases

Authors: C. Schneider, M. M. Seizmeir, T. Suchanek, M. Hutter-Mironovova, M. Bdiwi, M. Putz


In this paper, a suitable measurement setup is presented to conduct force and pressure measurements for transient contact cases at the example of lathe machine tending. Empirical measurements were executed on a selected collaborative robot’s behavior regarding allowable operating speeds under consideration of sensor- and workpiece-specific factors. Comparisons between the theoretic calculations proposed in ISO/TS 15066 and the practical measurement results reveal a basis for future research. With the created database, preliminary risk assessment and economic assessment procedures of collaborative machine tending cells can be facilitated.

Keywords: biomechanical thresholds, collaborative robots, force and pressure measurements, machine tending, transient contact

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
4036 Pushover Experiment of Traditional Dieh-Dou Timber Frame

Authors: Ren Zuo Wang


In this paper, in order to investigate the joint behaviors of the Dieh-Dou structure. A pushover experiment of Dieh-Dou Jia-Dong is implemented. NDI, LVDT and image measurement system are used to measure displacements of joints and deformations of Dieh-Dou Jia-Dong. In addition, joint rotation-moment relationships of column restoring force, purlin-supporting, Dou-Shu, Dou-Gong brackets, primary beam-Gua Tong, secondary beam-Gua Tong, Tertiary beam are builied. From Jia-Dong experiments, formulations of joint rotation are proposed.

Keywords: pushover experiment, Dieh-Dou timber frame, image measurement system, joint rotation-moment relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
4035 Tensile Force Estimation for Real-Size Pre-Stressed Concrete Girder using Embedded Elasto-Magnetic Sensor

Authors: Junkyeong Kim, Jooyoung Park, Aoqi Zhang, Seunghee Park


The tensile force of Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) girder is the most important factor for evaluating the performance of PSC girder bridges. To measure the tensile force of PSC girder, several NDT methods were studied. However, conventional NDT method cannot be applied to the real-size PSC girder because the PS tendons could not be approached. To measure the tensile force of real-size PSC girder, this study proposed embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation method. The embedded EM sensor could be installed inside of PSC girder as a sheath joint before the concrete casting. After curing process, the PS tendons were installed, and the tensile force was induced step by step using hydraulic jacking machine. The B-H loop was measured using embedded EM sensor at each tensile force steps and to compare with actual tensile force, the load cell was installed at each end of girder. The magnetization energy loss, that is the closed area of B-H loop, was decreased according to the increase of tensile force with regular pattern. Thus, the tensile force could be estimated by the tracking the change of magnetization energy loss of PS tendons. Through the experimental result, the proposed method can be used to estimate the tensile force of the in-situ real-size PSC girder bridge.

Keywords: tensile force estimation, embedded EM sensor, magnetization energy loss, PSC girder

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
4034 Stress Evaluation at Lower Extremity during Walking with Unstable Shoe

Authors: Sangbaek Park, Seungju Lee, Soo-Won Chae


Unstable shoes are known to strengthen lower extremity muscles and improve gait ability and to change the user’s gait pattern. The change in gait pattern affects human body enormously because the walking is repetitive and steady locomotion in daily life. It is possible to estimate the joint motion including joint moment, force and inertia effect using kinematic and kinetic analysis. However, the change of internal stress at the articular cartilage has not been possible to estimate. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the internal stress of human body during gait with unstable shoes. In this study, FE analysis was combined with motion capture experiment to obtain the boundary condition and loading condition during walking. Motion capture experiments were performed with a participant during walking with normal shoes and with unstable shoes. Inverse kinematics and inverse kinetic analysis was performed with OpenSim. The joint angle and muscle forces were estimated as results of inverse kinematics and kinetics analysis. A detailed finite element (FE) lower extremity model was constructed. The joint coordinate system was added to the FE model and the joint coordinate system was coincided with OpenSim model’s coordinate system. Finally, the joint angles at each phase of gait were used to transform the FE model’s posture according to actual posture from motion capture. The FE model was transformed into the postures of three major phases (1st peak of ground reaction force, mid stance and 2nd peak of ground reaction force). The direction and magnitude of muscle force were estimated by OpenSim and were applied to the FE model’s attachment point of each muscle. Then FE analysis was performed to compare the stress at knee cartilage during gait with normal shoes and unstable shoes.

Keywords: finite element analysis, gait analysis, human model, motion capture

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
4033 A Numerical Investigation of Segmental Lining Joints Interactions in Tunnels

Authors: M. H. Ahmadi, A. Mortazavi, H. Zarei


Several authors have described the main mechanism of formation of cracks in the segment lining during the construction of tunnels with tunnel boring machines. A comprehensive analysis of segmental lining joints may help to guarantee a safe construction during Tunneling and serviceable stages. The most frequent types of segment damage are caused by a condition of uneven segment matching due to contact deficiencies. This paper investigated the interaction mechanism of precast concrete lining joints in tunnels. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) was used to analyze a typical segmental lining model consisting of six segment rings. In the analyses, typical segmental lining design parameters of the Ghomrood water conveyance tunnel, Iran were employed in the study. In the conducted analysis, the worst-case scenario of loading faced during the boring of Ghomrood tunnel was considered. This was associated with the existence of a crushed zone dipping at 75 degree at the location of the key segment. In the analysis, moreover, the effect of changes in horizontal stress ratio on the loads on the segment was assessed. The boundary condition associated with K (ratio of the horizontal to the vertical stress) values of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 were applied to the model and separate analysis was conducted for each case. Important parameters such as stress, moments, and displacements were measured at joint locations and the surrounding rock. Accordingly, the segment joint interactions were assessed and analyzed. Moreover, rock mass properties of the Ghomrood in Ghom were adopted. In this study, the load acting on segments joints are included a crushed zone stratum force that intersect tunnel with 75 slopes in the location of the key segment, gravity force of segments and earth pressures. A numerical investigation was used for different coefficients of stress concentration of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and different geological conditions of saturated crushed zone under the critical scenario. The numerical results also demonstrate that maximum bending moments in longitudinal joints occurred for crushed zone with the weaken strengths (Sandstone). Besides that, increasing the load in segment-stratum interfaces affected radial stress in longitudinal joints and finally the opening of joints occurred.

Keywords: joint, interface, segment, contact

Procedia PDF Downloads 200