Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 123

Search results for: wash fastness

123 Wash Fastness of Textile Fibers Dyed with Natural Dye from Eucalyptus Wood Steaming Waste

Authors: Ticiane Rossi, Maurício C. Araújo, José O. Brito, Harold S. Freeman

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Natural dyes are gaining interest due their expected low risk to human health and to the environment. In this study, the wash fastness of a natural coloring matter from the liquid waste produced in the steam treatment of eucalyptus wood in textile fabrics was investigated. Specifically, eucalyptus wood extract was used to dye cotton, nylon and wool in an exhaust dyeing process without the addition of the traditional mordanting agents and then submitted to wash fastness analysis. The resulting dyed fabrics were evaluated for color fastness. It was found that wash fastness of dyed fabrics was very good to cotton and excellent to nylon and wool.

Keywords: eucalyptus, natural dye, textile fibers, wash fastness

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122 Application of Natural Dyes on Polyester and Polyester-Cellulosic Blended Fabrics

Authors: Deepali Rastogi, Akanksha Rastogi

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Comfort and safety are two essential factors in a newborn’s clothing. Natural dyes are considered safe for infant clothes because they are non-toxic and have medicinal properties. Natural dyes are sensitive to pH and may show changes in hue under different pH conditions. Infant garments face treatments different than adult clothing, for instance, exposure to infant’s saliva, milk, and urine. The present study was designed to study the suitability of natural dyes for infant clothes. Cotton fabric was dyed using fifteen natural dyes and two mordants, alum, and ferrous sulphate. The dyed samples were assessed for colour fastness to washing, rubbing, perspiration and light. In addition, fastness to milk, saliva, and urine was also tested. Simulated solutions of saliva and urine were prepared for the study. For milk, one of the commercial formulations for infants was taken and used as per the directions. A wide gamut of colours was obtained after dyeing the cotton with different natural dyes and mordants. The colour strength of all the dyed samples was determined in terms of K/S values. Most of the ferrous sulphate mordanted dyes gave higher K/S values than alum mordanted samples. The wash fastness of dyed cotton fabrics ranged from 3/4 -5. Perspiration fastness test for the samples was done in both acidic and alkaline mediums. The ratings ranged from 3-5, with most of the dyes falling in the range of 4-5. The rubbing fastness of the dyed samples was tested in dry and wet conditions. The results showed excellent rub fastness ranging between 4-5. Light fastness was found to be good to moderate. The main food for infants is milk, and this becomes one of the main agents to spot infants' garments. All dyes showed excellent fastness properties against milk with a grey scale rating of 4-5. Fastness against saliva is recommended by various eco-labels, standards, and organizations for fabrics of infants or babies. The fastness of most of the dyes was found to be satisfactory against saliva. Infant garments get frequently soiled with urine. Most of the natural dyes on cotton fabric had good to excellent fastness to simulated urine. The grey scale ratings ranged from 3/4 – 5. Thus, it can be concluded that most of the natural dyes can be successfully used for infant wear and accessories and are fast to various liquids to which infant wear are exposed. Therefore, we can surround little ones with beautiful hues from nature's garden and clothe them in natural fibres dyed with natural dyes.

Keywords: fastness properties, infant wear, mordants, natural dyes

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
121 The Role of Metallic Mordant in Natural Dyeing Process: Experimental and Quantum Study on Color Fastness

Authors: Bo-Gaun Chen, Chiung-Hui Huang, Mei-Ching Chiang, Kuo-Hsing Lee, Chia-Chen Ho, Chin-Ping Huang, Chin-Heng Tien

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It is known that the natural dyeing of cloth results moderate color, but with poor color fastness. This study points out the correlation between the macroscopic color fastness of natural dye to the cotton fiber and the microscopic binding energy of dye molecule to the cellulose. With the additive metallic mordant, the new-formed coordination bond bridges the dye to the fiber surface and thus affects the color fastness as well as the color appearance. The density functional theory (DFT) calculation is therefore used to explore the most possible mechanism during the dyeing process. Finally, the experimental results reflect the strong effect of three different metal ions on the natural dyeing clothes.

Keywords: binding energy, color fastness, density functional theory (DFT), natural dyeing, metallic mordant

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120 Short Term Tests on Performance Evaluation of Water-Washed and Dry-Washed Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil

Authors: Shumani Ramuhaheli, Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto

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In this study, biodiesel from used cooking oil was produced as purified by washing with water (water wash) and amberlite (dry wash). The work presents the results of short term tests on performance characteristics of diesel engine using both biodiesel-fuel samples. In this investigation, the water wash biodiesel and dry wash biodiesel and diesel were compared for performance using a four-cylinder diesel engine. The torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The tests showed that in all cases, dry wash biodiesel performed marginally poorer compared to water wash biodiesel. Except for brake thermal efficiency, diesel fuel had better engine performance characteristics compared to the biodiesel-fuel samples. According to these results, dry washing of biodiesel has a marginal effect on engine performance.

Keywords: biodiesel, engine performance, used cooking oil, water wash, dry wash

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119 Dyeing of Wool and Silk with Soxhlet Water Extracted Natural Dye from Dacryodes macrophylla Fruits and Study of Antimicrobial Properties of Extract

Authors: Alvine Sandrine Ndinchout, D. P. Chattopadhyay, Moundipa Fewou Paul, Nyegue Maximilienne Ascension, Varinder Kaur, Sukhraj Kaur, B. H. Patel

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Dacryodes macrophylla is a species of the Burseraceae family that is widespread in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. The only part of D. macrophylla known to use is the pulp contained in the fruit. This very juicy pulp is consumed directly and used in making juices. During consumption, these fruit leaves a dark blackish colour on fingers and garment. This observation means that D. macrophylla fruits must be a good source of natural dye with probably good fastness properties on textile materials. But D. macrophylla has not yet been investigated with reference as a potential source of natural dye to our best knowledge. Natural dye has been extracted using water as solvent by soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/Visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative (Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, Shigella flexneri) and gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. It was observed that the water extract of D. macrophylla showed antimicrobial activities against S. enterica. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Taken together, these results indicate that D. macrophylla can be used as natural dye not only in textile but also in other domains like food coloring.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, natural dye, silk, wash fastness, wool

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118 Fabrication of Eco-Friendly Pigment Printed Textiles by Reducing Formaldehyde Content

Authors: Sidra Saleemi, Raja Fahad Qureshi, Farooq Ahmed, Rabia Almas, Tahir Jameel

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This research aimed to decrease formaldehyde content in substrates printed by pigments using different fixation temperature and concentration of urea in order to produce eco-friendly textiles. Substrates were printed by hand screen printing method as per recipe followed by drying and curing. Standard test methods were adapted to measure formaldehyde content washing and rubbing fastness. Formaldehyde content is instantaneously decreased by raising the temperature during curing printed fabric. Good results of both dry and wet rubbing fastness were found at 160˚C slightly improved dry rubbing results are achieved with 2% urea at a curing temperature of 150˚C.

Keywords: formaldehyde content, pigment printing, urea, washing fastness, rubbing fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
117 Improving Dyeability of Cotton Fabric with Juglans regia L. Natural Dyestuff

Authors: M. Heysem Arslan, Ikilem Gocek, U. Kivanc Sahin

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Natural dyestuff, extracted from Juglans Regia L., a kind of walnut, was used to dye 100% cotton gabardine fabric. The main goal of this study was to enhance dyeing process of cotton fabric with Juglans Regia L. dyestuff in terms of color fastness values by designing and developing a mordant application process. Within the context of this study, different mordants such as tannic acid, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate, calcium carbonate, iron (II) sulphate heptahydrate, aluminum potassium sulphate dodecahydrate and their combinations were applied in the mordanting processes. Spectrophotometric analysis, color fastness to washing and color fastness to light tests were carried out on the fabric samples. In this study, it was shown that by using the right combination of mordants with a proper application process, it is possible to improve color fastness values of cotton fabric samples dyed with natural dyestuff.

Keywords: extraction, Juglans Regia L., mordanting process, natural dyestuff

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116 Natural Dyeing on Wool Fabrics Using Some Red Rose Petals

Authors: Emrah Çimen, Mustafa Demirelli, Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Mahmure Üstün Özgür

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Natural colours are used on a large area such as textile, food and pharmaceutical industries by many researchers. When tannic acid is used together with metal salts for dyeing with natural dyes, antibacterial and fastness properties of textile materials are increased. In addition, the allegens are removed on wool fabrics. In this experimental work, some red rose petals were applied as a natural dye with three different dyeing methods and eight different mordant salts. The effect of tannic acid and different metal salts on dyeing of wool fabric was studied. Colour differences ΔECMC (2:1) and fastness properties of dyed fabrics were investigated and compared with each other. Finally, dark colours and adequate colour fastness results (4+) were obtained after dyeing of wool fabrics with FeSO4.7H2O, FeCl3.6H2O and CuCl2.2H2O in the presence of the tannic acid.

Keywords: natural dye, red rose petals, tannic acid, mordant salts, wool fabric

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115 Disconnect between Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Related Behaviours of Children in School and Family

Authors: Rehan Mohammad

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Background: Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practices in schools ensure children’s health, well-being and cognitive performance. In India under various WASH interventions in schools, teachers, and other staff make every possible effort to educate children about personal hygiene, sanitation practices and harms of open defecation. However, once children get back to their families, they see other practicing inappropriate WASH behaviors, and they consequently start following them. This show disconnect between school behavior and family behavior, which needs to be bridged to achieve desired WASH outcomes. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the factors causing disconnect of WASH-related behaviors between school and the family of children. It also suggests behavior change interventions to bridge the gap. Methodology: The present study has chosen a mixed- method approach. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection have been used in the present study. The purposive sampling for data collection has been chosen. The data have been collected from 20% children in each age group of 04-08 years and 09-12 years spread over three primary schools and 20% of households to which they belong to which is spread over three slum communities in south district of Delhi. Results: The present study shows that despite of several behavior change interventions at school level, children still practice inappropriate WASH behaviors due to disconnect between school and family behaviors. These behaviors show variation from one age group to another. The inappropriate WASH behaviors being practiced by children include open defecation, wrong disposal of garbage, not keeping personal hygiene, not practicing hand washing practices during critical junctures and not washing fruits and vegetables before eating. The present study has highlighted that 80% of children in the age group of 04-08 years still practice inappropriate WASH behaviors when they go back to their families after school whereas, this percentage has reduced to 40% in case of children in the age group 09-12 years. Present study uncovers association between school and family teaching which creates a huge gap between WASH-related behavioral practices. The study has established that children learn and de-learn the WASH behaviors due to the evident disconnect between behavior change interventions at schools and household level. The study has also made it clear that children understand the significance of appropriate WASH practices but owing to the disconnect the behaviors remain unsettled. The study proposes several behavior change interventions to sync the behaviors of children at school and family level to ensure children’s health, well-being and cognitive performance.

Keywords: behavioral interventions, child health, family behavior, school behavior, WASH

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114 Extraction of Dye from Coconut Husk and Its Application on Wool and Silk

Authors: Deepali Rastogi

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Natural dyes are considered to be eco-friendly as they cause no pollution and are safe to use. With the growing interest in natural dyes, new sources of natural dyes are being explored. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is native to tropical eastern region. It is abundantly available in Asia, Africa and South America. While coconut has tremendous commercial value in food, oil, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, the most important use of coconut husk has been as coir which is used for making mats, ropes, etc. In the present study an attempt has been made to extract dye from the coconut husk and study its application on wool and silk. Dye was extracted from coconut husk in an aqueous medium at three different pH. The coconut husk fibres were boiled in water at different pH of 4, 7 and 9 for one hour. On visual inspection of the extracted dye solution, maximum colour was found to be extracted at pH 9. The solution was obtained in neutral medium whereas, no dye was extracted in acidic medium. Therefore, alkaline medium at pH 9 was selected for the extraction of dye from coconut husk. The extracted dye was applied on wool and silk at three different pH, viz., 4, 7 and 9. The effect of pre- and post- mordanting with alum and ferrous sulphate on the colour value of coconut husk dye was also studied. The L*a*b*/L*c*h* values were measured to see the effect of the mordants on the colour values of all the dyed and mordanted samples. Bright golden brown to dark brown colours were obtained at pH 4 on both wool and silk. The colour yield was not very good at pH 7 and 9. Mordanting with alum resulted in darker and brighter shades of brown, whereas mordanting with ferrous sulphate resulted in darker and duller shades. All the samples were tested for colourfastness to light, rubbing, washing and perspiration. Both wool and silk dyed with dye extracted from coconut husk exhibited good to excellent wash, rub and perspiration fastness. Fastness to light was moderate to good.

Keywords: coconut husk, wool, silk, natural dye, mordants

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113 Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions on Water Quality in Primary Schools of Pakistan

Authors: Jamil Ahmed, Li P. Wong, Yan P. Chua

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The United Nation's sustainable development goals include the target to ensure access to water and sanitation for all; however, very few studies have assessed school-based drinking water in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to characterize water quality in primary schools of Pakistan and to characterize how recent WASH interventions were associated with school water quality. We conducted a representative cross-sectional study of primary schools in the Sindh province of Pakistan. We used structured observations and structured interviews to ascertain the school’s WASH conditions. Our primary exposures of interest were the implementation of previous WASH interventions in the school and the water source type. Outcomes of interest included water quality (measured by various chemical and microbiological indicators) and water availability at the school’s primary drinking water source. We used log-binomial regression to characterize how WASH exposures were associated with water quality outcomes. We collected data from 256 schools. Groundwater was the primary drinking water source at most schools (87%). Water testing showed that 14% of the school’s water had arsenic above the WHO recommendations, and over 50% of the water samples exceeded recommendations for both lead and cadmium. A majority of the water sources (52%) had fecal coliform contamination. None of the schools had nitrate contamination (0%), and few had fluoride contamination (5%). Regression results indicated that having a recent WASH intervention at the school was not associated with either arsenic contamination (prevalence ratio=0.97; 95% CI: 0.46-2.1) or with fecal coliform contamination (PR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.67-1.17). Our assessment unveiled several water quality gaps that exist, including high heavy metal and fecal contamination. Our findings will help various stakeholders to take suitable action to improve water quality in Pakistani schools.

Keywords: WASH interventions, water quality, primary school children, heavy metals

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112 Sustainable Dyeing of Cotton and Polyester Blend Fabric without Reduction Clearing

Authors: Mohammad Tofayel Ahmed, Seung Kook An

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In contemporary research world, focus is more set on sustainable products and innovative processes. The global textile industries are putting tremendous effort to achieve a balance between economic development and ecological protection concurrently. The conservation of water sources and environment have become immensely significant issue in textile dyeing production. Accordingly, an attempt has been taken in this study to develop a process to dye polyester blend cotton without reduction clearing process and any extra wash off chemical by simple modification aiming at cost reduction and sustainability. A widely used combination of 60/40 cotton/polyester (c/p) single jersey knitted fabric of 30’s, 180 g/m² was considered for study. Traditionally, pretreatment is done followed by polyester part dyeing, reduction clearing and cotton part dyeing for c/p blend dyeing. But in this study, polyester part is dyed right away followed by pretreatment process and cotton part dyeing by skipping the reduction clearing process diametrically. The dyed samples of both traditional and modified samples were scrutinized by various color fastness tests, dyeing parameters and by consumption of water, steam, power, process time and total batch cost. The modified process in this study showed no necessity of reduction clearing process for polyester blend cotton dyeing. The key issue contributing to avoid the reduction clearing after polyester part dyeing has been the multifunctional effect of NaOH and H₂O₂ while pretreatment of cotton after polyester part dyeing. The results also revealed that the modified process could reduce the consumption of water, steam, power, time and cost remarkably. The bulk trial of modified process demonstrated the well exploitability to dye polyester blend cotton substrate ensuring all fastness and dyeing properties regardless of dyes category, blend ratio, color, and shade percentage thus making the process sustainable, eco-friendly and economical. Furthermore, the proposed method could be applicable to any cellulosic blend with polyester.

Keywords: cotton, dyeing, economical, polyester

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111 The Effects of Applying Wash and Green-A Syrups as Substitution of Sugar on Dough and Cake Properties

Authors: Banafsheh Aghamohammadi, Masoud Honarvar, Babak Ghiassi Tarzi

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Usage of different components has been considered to improve the quality and nutritional properties of cakes in recent years. The effects of applying some sweeteners, instead of sugar, have been evaluated in cakes and many bread formulas up to now; but there has not been any research about the usage of by-products of sugar factories such as Wash and Green-A Syrups in cake formulas. In this research, the effects of substituting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of sugar with Wash and Green-A Syrups on some dough and cake properties, such as pH, viscosity, density, volume, weight loss, moisture, water activity, texture, staling, color and sensory evaluations, are studied. The results of these experiments showed that the pH values were not significantly different among any of the all cake batters and also most of the cake samples. Although differences among viscosity and specific gravity of all treatments were both significant and insignificant, these two parameters resulted in higher volume in all samples than the blank one. The differences in weight loss, moisture content and water activity of samples were insignificant. Evaluating of texture showed that the softness of most of samples is increased and the staling is decreased. Crumb color and sensory evaluations of samples were also affected by the replacement of sucrose with Wash and Green-A Syrups. According to the results, we can increase the shelf life and improve the quality and nutritional values of cake by using these kinds of syrups in the formulation.

Keywords: cake, green-A syrup, quality tests, sensory evaluation, wash syrup

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110 Pre and Post Mordant Effect of Alum on Gamma Rays Assisted Cotton Fabric by Using Ipomoea indica Leaves Extract

Authors: Abdul Hafeez, Shahid Adeel, Ayesha Hussain

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There are number of plants species in the universe which give the protections from different diseases and give colour for the foods and textiles. The environmental condition of the universe suggested toward the ecofriendly textiles. The aim of the paper is to analyze the influence of pre & post mordanting of alum on radiated cotton fabric with Gamma Radiation of different doses by using Ipomoea indica leaves extract. Alum used as mordant with the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% as pre and post mordanting to observe the effect of light and colour fastness of radiated cotton. 6% of alum concentration in pre mordanting gave good colour strength 117.82 with darker in shade toward the greenish tone and in post mordanting 6% concentration gave good colour strength 102.19. The lab values show that the colour is darker in tone and gave bluish effect. Further results showed that alum gave good light and rubbing fastness on gamma radiated cotton fabric.

Keywords: Ipomoea indica, gamma radiation, alum, light fastness

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109 Dyeing Properties of Natural Dyes on Silk Treated with ß-Cyclodextrin

Authors: Samera Salimpour Abkenar

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In this work, silk yarns were treated using ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and cross-linked with citric acid (CA) via pad-dry-cure method. Elemental and FESEM analyses confirmed the presence of ß-CD on the treated silk samples even after five washing cycles. Then, the treated samples were dyed using natural dyes (carrot, orange and tomato). Results showed that the color strength (K/S) of the treated samples had been markedly enhanced compared with the control sample (after treatment with metal mordant). Finally, the color strength (K/S value) and color fastness (fading, staining and light fastness) of the treated samples with ß-CD were investigated and compared.

Keywords: ß-cyclodextrin, dyeing, natural dyes, silk yarn

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108 Effect of Different Types of Washes on the Fabric Strength of Denim

Authors: Hina Gul Rajpoot, Wazeer Hussain Solangi

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Experimental Design (DOE) economically maximizes information; we deliberately change one or more process variables (looms) in order to observe the effect the changes have on one or more response fabric properties. In DOE obtained data can be analyzed to yield valid and objective conclusions. An Experimental Design is lying out of a detailed experimental plan in advance and maximizes the amount of "information" that can be obtained for a given amount of experimental. Fabric of 36 inches having following weaves was used. 3/1 twill, warp cotton (10.5 den), weft Lycra (16 spandex * 70 den) Ends per inch86, Picks per inch 52 and washes process includes Stone wash, Rinse wash, Bleaching and Enzyme wash. Once the samples were ready, they were subjected to tensile and tear strength tests, for these two kinds of samples were considered. One washed fabric samples of warp direction type and other type of the samples was weft direction. Then five samples from each were considered for tensile and teat strength tests separately then takes the mean value. The results found that the lowest strength damaged in the weft direction observed by tensile strength test & Enzyme wash. Maximum breaking load of the enzyme washed fabric sample was 42 kg.

Keywords: twill, indigo dye, tear strength, loom, ball warp, denier or den, seam, waist band, pilling, selvage

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107 Dyeing Cotton with Dyes Extracted from Eucalyptus and Mango Trees

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, K. Shabaridharan

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The use of natural dyes to replace synthetic dyes has been advocated for to circumvent the environmental problems associated with synthetic dyes. This paper is a preliminary study on the use of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus and mango trees. Dyes extracted from eucalyptus bark gave more colourized material than the dyes extracted from eucalyptus leaves and mango pills and leaves. Additionally, the extracts exhibited a deeper colour shade. Cotton fiber dyed using the same dye but with different mordants resulted in fabric that exhibited different colours. It appears that natural dyes from these plants could be effective dyes for use on cotton fabrics especially considering that the dyes exhibited excellent colour fastness.

Keywords: natural dyes, mango, eucalyptus, cotton, mordants, colour fastness

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106 Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer

Authors: Debjani Dasgupta, Aman Zalawadia, Anuj Thapa, Pranjali Sing, Ashish Dabade

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Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products.

Keywords: GCMS, organophosphate, raw material handling, Vitis vinifera, pesticide neutralizer

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105 Fungal Pigments For Fabrics Dyeing: Initial Tests Using Industrial Dyeing Conditions

Authors: Vicente A. Hernandez, Felipe Galleguillos, Rene Thibaut, Alejandro Muller

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Natural pigments have been proposed as an eco-friendly alternative to artificial pigments. Among the diverse organisms able to synthesize natural pigments, several wood colonizing fungi produce extracellular pigments which have been tested to dye fabrics at laboratory conditions with good results. However, the dyeing conditions used at laboratory level not necessary meet the real conditions in which dyeing of fabrics is conducted at industrial level. In this work, yellow and red pigments from the fungi Penicillium murcianum and Talaromyces australis, respectively, were used to dye yarn and linen fabrics using dyeing processes optimized according to the standard conditions used at industrial level. After dyeing treatments, fabrics were tested for color fastness to wash and to wet and dry rubbing, but also to tensile strength tests. Satisfactory result was obtained with both yellow and red pigments in yarn and linen, when used alone or mixed to different proportions. According to these results, natural pigments synthesized by both wood colonizing fungi have a great potential to be used in dyeing processes at industrial level.

Keywords: natural pigments, fungal pigments, yarn, linen

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104 A Practical Methodology for Evaluating Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Education and Training Programs

Authors: Brittany E. Coff, Tommy K. K. Ngai, Laura A. S. MacDonald

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Many organizations in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) sector provide education and training in order to increase the effectiveness of their WASH interventions. A key challenge for these organizations is measuring how well their education and training activities contribute to WASH improvements. It is crucial for implementers to understand the returns of their education and training activities so that they can improve and make better progress toward the desired outcomes. This paper presents information on CAWST’s development and piloting of the evaluation methodology. The Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST) has developed a methodology for evaluating education and training activities, so that organizations can understand the effectiveness of their WASH activities and improve accordingly. CAWST developed this methodology through a series of research partnerships, followed by staged field pilots in Nepal, Peru, Ethiopia and Haiti. During the research partnerships, CAWST collaborated with universities in the UK and Canada to: review a range of available evaluation frameworks, investigate existing practices for evaluating education activities, and develop a draft methodology for evaluating education programs. The draft methodology was then piloted in three separate studies to evaluate CAWST’s, and CAWST’s partner’s, WASH education programs. Each of the pilot studies evaluated education programs in different locations, with different objectives, and at different times within the project cycles. The evaluations in Nepal and Peru were conducted in 2013 and investigated the outcomes and impacts of CAWST’s WASH education services in those countries over the past 5-10 years. In 2014, the methodology was applied to complete a rigorous evaluation of a 3-day WASH Awareness training program in Ethiopia, one year after the training had occurred. In 2015, the methodology was applied in Haiti to complete a rapid assessment of a Community Health Promotion program, which informed the development of an improved training program. After each pilot evaluation, the methodology was reviewed and improvements were made. A key concept within the methodology is that in order for training activities to lead to improved WASH practices at the community level, it is not enough for participants to acquire new knowledge and skills; they must also apply the new skills and influence the behavior of others following the training. The steps of the methodology include: development of a Theory of Change for the education program, application of the Kirkpatrick model to develop indicators, development of data collection tools, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, and use of the findings for improvement. The methodology was applied in different ways for each pilot and was found to be practical to apply and adapt to meet the needs of each case. It was useful in gathering specific information on the outcomes of the education and training activities, and in developing recommendations for program improvement. Based on the results of the pilot studies, CAWST is developing a set of support materials to enable other WASH implementers to apply the methodology. By using this methodology, more WASH organizations will be able to understand the outcomes and impacts of their training activities, leading to higher quality education programs and improved WASH outcomes.

Keywords: education and training, capacity building, evaluation, water and sanitation

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103 Plaque Removal Efficacy of Different Dental Care Products during Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Therapy

Authors: Zeynep Karakoc, Hasan Ilhan Mutaf

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Plaque removal efficacy of different dental brushes and mouth wash during fixed orthodontic appliance therapy was evaluated in this single-blind, crossover and prospective study. Thirty orthodontic patients aged 18 and over undergoing fixed appliance therapy at the end of leveling stage were divided into three groups. Subjects brushed their teeth with a toothbrush under standardized conditions for a period of 30 days prior to inter-dental care products. The same procedure was repeated each time with a different, randomly assigned inter-dental care products in a crossover design. (Inter-dental brush, powered inter-dental brush and mouth wash). At start and end of each removal period, plaque indexes of participants were scored. Each brush achieved statistically significant plaque removal; however, there were no statistical differences among groups for all surfaces of teeth when the plaque score was evaluated. The mouth wash group presented significant improvement in reduction of visible plaque on mesial and distal surfaces of posterior teeth. (-60.9 %, P< .001) Plaque removal for right and left side of mouth showed no significant differences within groups, only mouth wash was more efficient in right side than left side. It is concluded that effectiveness of plaque removal may not be related to the kind of inter-dental products directly. However, toothbrush when used with inter-dental care products is significantly better at removing plaque deposits from fixed appliance patients.

Keywords: orthodontics, dental care, brush, plaque

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
102 Reactive Dyed Superhydrophobic Cotton Fabric Production by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Kuddis Büyükakıllı

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The pretreated and bleached mercerized cotton fabric was dyed with reactive Everzol Brilliant Yellow 4GR (C.I. Yellow 160) dyestuff. Superhydrophobicity is provided to white and reactive dyed fabrics by using a nanotechnological sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane and fluorcarbon water repellent agents by the two-step method. The effect of coating on color yield, fastness and functional properties of fabric was investigated. It was observed that water drop contact angles were higher in colorless coated fabrics compared to colored coated fabrics, there was no significant color change in colored superhydrophobic fabric and high color fastness values. Although there are no significant color losses in the fabrics after multiple washing and dry cleaning processes, water drop contact angles are greatly reduced.

Keywords: fluorcarbon water repellent agent, colored cotton fabric, sol-gel, superhydrophobic

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101 Comparison of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket and an Anaerobic Filter for Treating Wheat Straw Wash Water

Authors: Syazwani Idrus, Charles Banks, Sonia Heaven

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The effect of osmotic stress was carried out to determine the ability for biogas production in two types of digesters; anaerobic sludge blanket and anaerobic filters in treating wheat straw washed water. Two anaerobic filters (AF1 and 2) and two UASB reactors (U1 and 2) with working volumes of 1.5 L were employed at mesophilic temperatures (37°C). Digesters AF1 and two were seeded with an inoculum which had previously been fed on with a synthetic wastewater includingSodium Chloride and Potassium Chloride. Digesters U1 and two were seeded with 1 kg wet weight of granular sludge which had previously been treating paper mill effluent. During the first 48 days, all digesters were successfully acclimated with synthetic wastewater (SW) to organic loading rate (OLR) of 6 g COD l^-1 day-1. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.333 l CH4 g-1 COD). The feed was then changed to wash water from a washing operation to reduce the salt content of wheat straw (wheat straw wash water, WSW) at the same OLR. SMP fell sharply in all reactors to less than 0.1 l CH4 g^-1 COD, with the AF affected more than the UASB. The OLR was reduced to 2.5 g COD l^-1 day^-1 to allow adaptation to WSW, and both the UASB and the AF reactors achieved an SMP of 0.21 l CH4 g^-1 COD added at 82% of COD removal. This study also revealed the accumulation of potassium (K) inside the UASB granules to a concentration of 4.5 mg K g^-1 wet weight of granular sludge. The phenomenon of lower SMP and accumulation of K indicates the effect of osmotic stress when fed on WSW. This finding is consistent with the theory that methanogenic organisms operate a Potassium pump to maintain ionic equilibrium, and as this is an energy-driven process, it will, therefore, reduce the overall methane yield.

Keywords: wheat straw wash water, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, anaerobic filter, specific methane production, osmotic stress

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100 Training During Emergency Response to Build Resiliency in Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Authors: Lee Boudreau, Ash Kumar Khaitu, Laura A. S. MacDonald

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In April 2015, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal, killing, injuring, and displacing thousands of people. The earthquake also damaged water and sanitation service networks, leading to a high risk of diarrheal disease and the associated negative health impacts. In response to the disaster, the Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO), a Kathmandu-based non-governmental organization, worked with the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST), a Canadian education, training and consulting organization, to develop two training programs to educate volunteers on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) needs. The first training program was intended for acute response, with the second focusing on longer term recovery. A key focus was to equip the volunteers with the knowledge and skills to formulate useful WASH advice in the unanticipated circumstances they would encounter when working in affected areas. Within the first two weeks of the disaster, a two-day acute response training was developed, which focused on enabling volunteers to educate those affected by the disaster about local WASH issues, their link to health, and their increased importance immediately following emergency situations. Between March and October 2015, a total of 19 training events took place, with over 470 volunteers trained. The trained volunteers distributed hygiene kits and liquid chlorine for household water treatment. They also facilitated health messaging and WASH awareness activities in affected communities. A three-day recovery phase training was also developed and has been delivered to volunteers in Nepal since October 2015. This training focused on WASH issues during the recovery and reconstruction phases. The interventions and recommendations in the recovery phase training focus on long-term WASH solutions, and so form a link between emergency relief strategies and long-term development goals. ENPHO has trained 226 volunteers during the recovery phase, with training ongoing as of April 2016. In the aftermath of the earthquake, ENPHO found that its existing pool of volunteers were more than willing to help those in their communities who were more in need. By training these and new volunteers, ENPHO was able to reach many more communities in the immediate aftermath of the disaster; together they reached 11 of the 14 earthquake-affected districts. The collaboration between ENPHO and CAWST in developing the training materials was a highly collaborative and iterative process, which enabled the training materials to be developed within a short response time. By training volunteers on basic WASH topics during both the immediate response and the recovery phase, ENPHO and CAWST have been able to link immediate emergency relief to long-term developmental goals. While the recovery phase training continues in Nepal, CAWST is planning to decontextualize the training used in both phases so that it can be applied to other emergency situations in the future. The training materials will become part of the open content materials available on CAWST’s WASH Resources website.

Keywords: water and sanitation, emergency response, education and training, building resilience

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99 Potentials of Henna Leaves as Dye and Its Fastness Properties on Fabric

Authors: Nkem Angela Udeani

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Despite the widespread use of synthetic dyes, natural dyes are still exploited and used to enhance its inherent aesthetic qualities as a major material for the beautification of the body. Centuries before the discovery of synthetic dye, natural dyes were the only source of dye open to mankind. Dyes are extracted from plant - leaves, roots, and barks, insect secretions, and minerals. However, research findings have made it clear that of all, plant- leaves, roots, barks or flowers are the most explored and exploited. Henna (Lawsonia innermis) is one of those plants. The experiment has also shown that henna is used in body painting in conjunction with an alkaline (Ammonium Sulphate) as a fixing agent. This of course gives a clue that if colour derived from henna is properly investigated, it may not only be used as body decoration but possibly, may have affinity to fibre substrate. This paper investigates the dyeing potentials - dyeing ability and fastness qualities of henna dye extract on cotton and linen fibres using mordants like ammonium sulphate and other alkalies (hydrosulphate and caustic soda, potash, common salt and alum). Hot and cold water and ethanol solvent were used in the extraction of the dye to investigate the most effective method of extraction, dyeing ability and fastness qualities of these extracts under room temperature. The results of the experiment show that cotton have a high rate of dye intake than linen fibre. On a similar note, the colours obtained depend most on the solvent and or the mordant used. In conclusion, hot water extraction appear more effective. While the colours obtained from ethanol and both cold and hot method of extraction range from light to dark yellow, light green to army green, there are to some extent shades of brown hues.

Keywords: dye, fabrics, henna leaves, potential

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98 Dyeability of Silk Fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier

Authors: Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Recep Karadağ, Emine Torgan

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Nowadays, many natural dyes are used for colouration of textile materials. The natural dyes are friendly to human health and environment. Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) can be used with other natural dye plants for colouration of silk and wool fabrics. Almost never research works on the dyeing of silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier together. In this study, dyeability of 100 % silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier was studied. Optimum dyeing parameters were determined by using different concentration of Dactylopius coccus Costa (10%), Quercus infectoria Olivier (0,1,5 and 10%) and mordant salt (0 and 3%). The dyed silk fabrics were examined for their colorimetric and fastness properties. The fabrics were dyed succesfully dark colours with 10 % Dactylopius coccus Costa, 10 % Quercus infectoria Olivier and presence of mordanting after dyeing process (3% mordant salt). The washing and light colour fastness of the dyed fabrics were investigated and adequate results were obtained.

Keywords: Dactylopius coccus Costa, Quercus infectoria Olivier, natural dye, dyeing, silk fabric

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97 Sensitizing Bamboo Fabric with Antimicrobial Turmeric Dye

Authors: Varinder Kaur, Amanjit Kaur, Simran Kaur, Samriti Vaid

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Coating of fabrics with anti-microbial dyes is an adaptable technique of protection from various diseases. Natural dyes, which are known to possess antibacterial properties, can be used for antibacterial finishing of fibers like cotton, wool, bamboo and so many. Dyeing of fabrics with natural dyes normally requires the use of mordants so that dyes can stay on the fabric as well as into interstices of the fabric during multiple washings. In this study, the mordants used are alum and chitosan for ensuring a reasonable color fastness to light and washing. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide having significant biological and chemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, bioactivity, microbial activity and polycationicity. The metal ion of alum mordant can act as electron acceptor for electron donor to form coordination bond with the dye molecule, making them insoluble in water. The dyeing of bamboo fabric using a natural dye extracted from turmeric has been studied using conventional dyeing method. Natural dye was extracted using water as solvent by Soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity. The effect of mordants on the dyeing outcome in terms of colour depth as well as fastness properties of the dyeing was investigated. It has been found that employing the conventional dyeing technique at 100 oC, the mordanted samples were deeper in depth than their unmordanted counterparts. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Turmeric extract was found to enhance microbial resistance of bamboo as well as was itself as a good cause of coloration. These textiles dyed with the turmeric as natural dye can be very useful in developing clothing for infants, elderly and infirm people to protect them against common infections. The outcome of this study will provide a new feature to the interface of dyeing and pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bamboo fabric, natural dye, turmeric

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96 An Online Space for Practitioners in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector

Authors: Olivier Mills, Bernard McDonell, Laura A. S. MacDonald

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The increasing availability and quality of internet access throughout the developing world provides an opportunity to utilize online spaces to disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) knowledge to practitioners. Since 2001, CAWST has provided in-person education, training and consulting services to thousands of WASH practitioners all over the world, supporting them to start, troubleshoot, improve and expand their WASH projects. As CAWST continues to grow, the organization faces challenges in meeting demand from clients and in providing consistent, timely technical support. In 2012, CAWST began utilizing online spaces to expand its reach by developing a series of resources websites and webinars. CAWST has developed a WASH Education and Training resources website, a Biosand Filter (BSF) Knowledge Base, a Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Knowledge Base, a mobile app for offline users, a live chat support tool, a WASH e-library, and a series of webinar-style online training sessions to complement its in-person capacity development services. In order to determine the preliminary outcomes of providing these online services, CAWST has monitored and analyzed registration to the online spaces, downloads of the educational materials, and webinar attendance; as well as conducted user surveys. The purpose of this analysis was to find out who was using the online spaces, where users came from, and how the resources were being used. CAWST’s WASH Resources website has served over 5,800 registered users from 3,000 organizations in 183 countries. Additionally, the BSF Knowledge Base has served over 1000 registered users from 68 countries, and over 540 people from 73 countries have attended CAWST’s online training sessions. This indicates that the online spaces are effectively reaching a large numbers of users, from a range of countries. A 2016 survey of the Biosand Filter Knowledge Base showed that approximately 61% of users are practitioners, and 39% are either researchers or students. Of the respondents, 46% reported using the BSF Knowledge Base to initiate a BSF project and 43% reported using the information to train BSF technicians. Finally, 61% indicated they would like even greater support from CAWST’s Technical Advisors going forward. The analysis has provided an encouraging indication that CAWST’s online spaces are contributing to its objective of engaging and supporting WASH practitioners to start, improve and expand their initiatives. CAWST has learned several lessons during the development of these online spaces, in particular related to the resources needed to create and maintain the spaces, and respond to the demand created. CAWST plans to continue expanding its online spaces, improving user experience of the sites, and involving new contributors and content types. Through the use of online spaces, CAWST has been able to increase its global reach and impact without significantly increasing its human resources by connecting WASH practitioners with the information they most need, in a practical and accessible manner. This paper presents on CAWST’s use of online spaces through the CAWST-developed platforms discussed above and the analysis of the use of these platforms.

Keywords: education and training, knowledge sharing, online resources, water and sanitation

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95 Efficacy of Carvacrol as an Antimicrobial Wash Treatment for Reducing Both Campylobacter jejuni and Aerobic Bacterial Counts on Chicken Skin

Authors: Sandip Shrestha, Ann M. Donoghue, Komala Arsi, Basanta R. Wagle, Abhinav Upadhyay, Dan J. Donoghue

Abstract:

Campylobacter, one of the major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, is commonly present in the intestinal tract of poultry. Many strategies are currently being investigated to reduce Campylobacter counts on commercial poultry during processing with limited success. This study investigated the efficacy of the generally recognized as safe compound, carvacrol (CR), a component of wild oregano oil as a wash treatment for reducing C. jejuni and aerobic bacteria on chicken skin. A total of two trials were conducted, and in each trial, a total of 75 skin samples (4cm × 4cm each) were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% CR). Skin samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni (~ 8 log10 CFU/skin). After 30 min of attachment, inoculated skin samples were dipped in the respective treatment solution for 1 min, allowed to drip dry for 2 min and processed at 0, 8, 24 h post treatment for enumeration of C. jejuni and aerobic bacterial counts (n=5/treatment/time point). The data were analyzed by ANOVA using PROC GLM procedure of SAS 9.3. All the tested doses of CR suspension consistently reduced C. jejuni counts across all time points. The 2% CR wash was the most effective treatment and reduced C. jejuni counts by ~4 log₁₀ CFU/sample (P < 0.05). Aerobic counts were reduced for the 0.5% CR dose at 0 and 24h in Trial 1 and at 0, 8 and 24h in Trial 2. The 1 and 2% CR doses consistently reduced aerobic counts in both trials up to 2 log₁₀ CFU/skin.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, carvcrol, chicken skin, postharvest

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94 Colorful Textiles with Antimicrobial Property Using Natural Dyes as Effective Green Finishing Agents

Authors: Shahid-ul-Islam, Faqeer Mohammad

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The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of annatto, teak and flame of the forest natural dyes on color, fastness, and antimicrobial property of protein based textile substrate. The color strength (K/S) of wool samples at various concentrations of dyes were analysed using a Reflective Spectrophotometer. The antimicrobial activity of natural dyes before and after application on wool was tested against common human pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, by using micro-broth dilution method, disc diffusion assay and growth curve studies. The structural morphology of natural protein fibre (wool) was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Annatto and teak natural dyes proved very effective in inhibiting the microbial growth in solution phase and after application on wool and resulted in a broad beautiful spectrum of colors with exceptional fastness properties. The results encourage the search and exploitation of new plant species as source of dyes to replace toxic synthetic antimicrobial agents currently used in textile industry.

Keywords: annatto, antimicrobial agents, natural dyes, green textiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 244