Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Alvine Sandrine Ndinchout

11 Dyeing of Wool and Silk with Soxhlet Water Extracted Natural Dye from Dacryodes macrophylla Fruits and Study of Antimicrobial Properties of Extract

Authors: Alvine Sandrine Ndinchout, D. P. Chattopadhyay, Moundipa Fewou Paul, Nyegue Maximilienne Ascension, Varinder Kaur, Sukhraj Kaur, B. H. Patel


Dacryodes macrophylla is a species of the Burseraceae family that is widespread in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. The only part of D. macrophylla known to use is the pulp contained in the fruit. This very juicy pulp is consumed directly and used in making juices. During consumption, these fruit leaves a dark blackish colour on fingers and garment. This observation means that D. macrophylla fruits must be a good source of natural dye with probably good fastness properties on textile materials. But D. macrophylla has not yet been investigated with reference as a potential source of natural dye to our best knowledge. Natural dye has been extracted using water as solvent by soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/Visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative (Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, Shigella flexneri) and gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. It was observed that the water extract of D. macrophylla showed antimicrobial activities against S. enterica. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Taken together, these results indicate that D. macrophylla can be used as natural dye not only in textile but also in other domains like food coloring.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, natural dye, silk, wash fastness, wool

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10 A Universal Hybrid Adsorbent Based on Chitosan for Water Treatment

Authors: Sandrine Delpeux-Ouldriane, Min Cai, Laurent Duclaux, Laurence Reinert, Fabrice Muller


A novel hybrid adsorbent, based on chitosan biopolymer, clays and activated carbon was prepared. Hybrid chitosan beads containing dispersed clays and activated carbons were prepared by precipitation in basic medium. Such a composite material is still very porous and presents a wide adsorption spectrum. The obtained composite adsorbent is able to handle all the pollution types including heavy metals, polar and hydrophobic organic molecules and nitrates. It could find a place of choice in tertiary water treatment processes or for an ‘at source’ treatment concerning chemical or pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: adsorption, chitosan, clay mineral, activated carbon

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9 Solvent Extraction in Ionic Liquids: Structuration and Aggregation Effects on Extraction Mechanisms

Authors: Sandrine Dourdain, Cesar Lopez, Tamir Sukhbaatar, Guilhem Arrachart, Stephane Pellet-Rostaing


A promising challenge in solvent extraction is to replace the conventional organic solvents, with ionic liquids (IL). Depending on the extraction systems, these new solvents show better efficiency than the conventional ones. Although some assumptions based on ions exchanges have been proposed in the literature, these properties are not predictable because the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. It is well established that the mechanisms underlying solvent extraction processes are based not only on the molecular chelation of the extractant molecules but also on their ability to form supra-molecular aggregates due to their amphiphilic nature. It is therefore essential to evaluate how IL affects the aggregation properties of the extractant molecules. Our aim is to evaluate the influence of IL structure and polarity on solvent extraction mechanisms, by looking at the aggregation of the extractant molecules in IL. We compare extractant systems that are well characterized in common solvents and show thanks to SAXS and SANS measurements, that in the absence of IL ion exchange mechanisms, extraction properties are related to aggregation.

Keywords: solvent extraction in Ionic liquid, aggregation, Ionic liquids structure, SAXS, SANS

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8 Setting up Model Hospitals in Health Care Waste Management in Madagascar

Authors: Sandrine Andriantsimietry, Hantanirina Ravaosendrasoa


Madagascar, in 2018, set up the first best available technology, autoclave, to treat the health care waste in public hospitals according the best environmental practices in health care waste management. Incineration of health care waste, frequently through open burning is the most common practice of treatment and elimination of health care waste across the country. Autoclave is a best available technology for non-incineration of health care waste that permits recycling of treated waste and prevents harm in environment through the reduction of unintended persistent organic pollutants from the health sector. A Global Environment Fund project supported the introduction of the non-incineration treatment of health care waste to help countries in Africa to move towards Stockholm Convention objectives in the health sector. Two teaching hospitals in Antananarivo and one district hospital in Manjakandriana were equipped respectively with 1300L, 250L and 80L autoclaves. The capacity of these model hospitals was strengthened by the donation of equipment and materials and the training of the health workers in best environmental practices in health care waste management. Proper segregation of waste in the wards to collect the infectious waste that was treated in the autoclave was the main step guaranteeing a cost-efficient non-incineration of health care waste. Therefore, the start-up of the switch of incineration into non-incineration treatment was carried out progressively in each ward with close supervision of hygienist. Emissions avoided of unintended persistent organic pollutants during these four months of autoclaves use is 9.4 g Toxic Equivalent per year. Public hospitals in low income countries can be model in best environmental practices in health care waste management but efforts must be made internally for sustainment.

Keywords: autoclave, health care waste management, model hospitals, non-incineration

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7 Lignin Pyrolysis to Value-Added Chemicals: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Binod Shrestha, Sandrine Hoppe, Thierry Ghislain, Phillipe Marchal, Nicolas Brosse, Anthony Dufour


The thermochemical conversion of lignin has received an increasing interest in the frame of different biorefinery concepts for the production of chemicals or energy. It is needed to better understand the physical and chemical conversion of lignin for feeder and reactor designs. In-situ rheology reveals the viscoelastic behaviour of lignin upon thermal conversion. The softening, re-solidification (char formation), swelling and shrinking behaviours are quantified during pyrolysis in real-time [1]. The in-situ rheology of an alkali lignin (Protobind 1000) was conducted in high torque controlled strain rheometer from 35°C to 400°C with a heating rate of 5°C.min-1. The swelling, through glass phase transition overlapped with depolymerization, and solidification (crosslinking and “char” formation) are two main phenomena observed during lignin pyrolysis. The onset of temperatures for softening and solidification for this lignin has been found to be 141°C and 248°C respectively. An ex-situ characterization of lignin/char residues obtained at different temperatures after quenching in the rheometer gives a clear understanding of the pathway of lignin degradation. The lignin residues were sampled from the mid-point temperatures of the softening range and solidification range to study the chemical transformations undergoing. Elemental analysis, FTIR and solid state NMR were conducted after quenching the solid residues (lignin/char). The quenched solid was also extracted by suitable solvent and followed by acetylation and GPC-UV analysis. The combination of 13C NMR and GPC-UV reveals the depolymerization followed by crosslinking of lignin/char. NMR and FTIR provide the evolution of functional moieties upon temperature. Physical and chemical mechanisms occurring during lignin pyrolysis are accounted in this study. Thanks to all these complementary methods.

Keywords: pyrolysis, bio-chemicals, valorization, mechanism, softening, solidification, cross linking, rheology, spectroscopic methods

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6 Crystalline Particles Dispersed Cu-Based Metallic Glassy Composites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Sandrine Cardinal, Jean-Marc Pelletier, Guang Xie, Florian Mercier, Florent Delmas


Bulk metallic glasses exhibit several superior properties, compared to their corresponding crystalline counterpart, such as high strength, high elastic limit or good corrosion resistance. Therefore they can be considered as good candidates for structural applications in many sectors. However, they are generally brittle and do not exhibit plastic deformation at room temperature. These materials are mainly obtained by rapid cooling from a liquid state to prevent crystallization, which limits their size. To overcome these two drawbacks: fragility and limited dimensions, composite metallic glass matrix reinforced by a second phase whose role is to slow crack growth are developed. Concerning the limited size of the pieces, the proposed solution is to get the material from amorphous powders by densifying under load. In this study, Cu50Zr45Al5 bulk metallic glassy matrix composites (MGMCs) containing different volume fraction (Vf) of Zr crystalline particles were manufactured by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Microstructure, thermal stability and mechanical properties of the MGMCs were investigated. Matrix of the composites remains a fully amorphous phase after consolidation at 420°C under 600 MPa. A good dispersion of the particles in the glassy matrix is obtained. Results show that the compressive strength decreases with Vf : 1670 MPa (Vf=0%) to 1300MPa (Vf=30%), the elastic modulus decreases but only slighty respectively 97.3GPa and 94.5 GPa and plasticity is improved from 0 to 4%. Fractographic investigation indicates a good bonding between amorphous and crystalline particles. In conclusion, present study has demonstrated that SPS method is useful for the synthesis of the bulk glassy composites. Large controlled microstructure specimens with interesting ductility can be obtained compared with others methods.

Keywords: composite, mechanical properties, metallic glasses, spark plasma sintering

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5 The Relationship between Central Bank Independence and Inflation: Evidence from Africa

Authors: R. Bhattu Babajee, Marie Sandrine Estelle Benoit


The past decades have witnessed a considerable institutional shift towards Central Bank Independence across economies of the world. The motivation behind such a change is the acceptance that increased central bank autonomy has the power of alleviating inflation bias. Hence, studying whether Central Bank Independence acts as a significant factor behind the price stability in the African economies or whether this macroeconomic aim in these countries result from other economic, political or social factors is a pertinent issue. The main research objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between central bank autonomy and inflation in African economies where inflation has proved to be a serious problem. In this optic, we shall measure the degree of CBI in Africa by computing the turnover rates of central banks governors thereby studying whether decisions made by African central banks are affected by external forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate empirically the association between Central Bank Independence (CBI) and inflation for 10 African economies over a period of 17 years, from 1995 to 2012. The sample includes Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. In contrast to empirical research, we have not been using the usual static panel model for it is associated with potential mis specification arising from the absence of dynamics. To this issue a dynamic panel data model which integrates several control variables has been used. Firstly, the analysis includes dynamic terms to explain the tenacity of inflation. Given the confirmation of inflation inertia, that is very likely in African countries there exists the need for including lagged inflation in the empirical model. Secondly, due to known reverse causality between Central Bank Independence and inflation, the system generalized method of moments (GMM) is employed. With GMM estimators, the presence of unknown forms of heteroskedasticity is admissible as well as auto correlation in the error term. Thirdly, control variables have been used to enhance the efficiency of the model. The main finding of this paper is that central bank independence is negatively associated with inflation even after including control variables.

Keywords: central bank independence, inflation, macroeconomic variables, price stability

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4 Influence of Controlled Retting on the Quality of the Hemp Fibres Harvested at the Seed Maturity by Using a Designed Lab-Scale Pilot Unit

Authors: Brahim Mazian, Anne Bergeret, Jean-Charles Benezet, Sandrine Bayle, Luc Malhautier


Hemp fibers are increasingly used as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites due to their competitive performance (low density, mechanical properties and biodegradability) compared to conventional fibres such as glass fibers. However, the huge variation of their biochemical, physical and mechanical properties limits the use of these natural fibres in structural applications when high consistency and homogeneity are required. In the hemp industry, traditional processes termed field retting are commonly used to facilitate the extraction and separation of stem fibers. This retting treatment consists to spread out the stems on the ground for a duration ranging from a few days to several weeks. Microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) grow on the stem surface and produce enzymes that degrade pectinolytic substances in the middle lamellae surrounding the fibers. This operation depends on the weather conditions and is currently carried out very empirically in the fields so that a large variability in the hemp fibers quality (mechanical properties, color, morphology, chemical composition…) is resulting. Nonetheless, if controlled, retting might be favorable for good properties of hemp fibers and then of hemp fibers reinforced composites. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the influence of controlled retting within a designed environmental chamber (lab-scale pilot unit) on the quality of the hemp fibres harvested at the seed maturity growth stage. Various assessments were applied directly on fibers: color observations, morphological (optical microscope), surface (ESEM), biochemical (gravimetry) analysis, spectrocolorimetric measurements (pectins content), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile testing. The results reveal that controlled retting leads to a rapid change of color from yellow to dark grey due to development of microbial communities (fungi and bacteria) at the stem surface. An increase of thermal stability of fibres due to the removal of non-cellulosic components along retting is also observed. A separation of bast fibers to elementary fibers occurred with an evolution of chemical composition (degradation of pectins) and a rapid decrease in tensile properties (380MPa to 170MPa after 3 weeks) due to accelerated retting process. The influence of controlled retting on the biocomposite material (PP / hemp fibers) properties is under investigation.

Keywords: controlled retting, hemp fibre, mechanical properties, thermal stability

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3 A Quadratic Model to Early Predict the Blastocyst Stage with a Time Lapse Incubator

Authors: Cecile Edel, Sandrine Giscard D'Estaing, Elsa Labrune, Jacqueline Lornage, Mehdi Benchaib


Introduction: The use of incubator equipped with time-lapse technology in Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) allows a continuous surveillance. With morphocinetic parameters, algorithms are available to predict the potential outcome of an embryo. However, the different proposed time-lapse algorithms do not take account the missing data, and then some embryos could not be classified. The aim of this work is to construct a predictive model even in the case of missing data. Materials and methods: Patients: A retrospective study was performed, in biology laboratory of reproduction at the hospital ‘Femme Mère Enfant’ (Lyon, France) between 1 May 2013 and 30 April 2015. Embryos (n= 557) obtained from couples (n=108) were cultured in a time-lapse incubator (Embryoscope®, Vitrolife, Goteborg, Sweden). Time-lapse incubator: The morphocinetic parameters obtained during the three first days of embryo life were used to build the predictive model. Predictive model: A quadratic regression was performed between the number of cells and time. N = a. T² + b. T + c. N: number of cells at T time (T in hours). The regression coefficients were calculated with Excel software (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA), a program with Visual Basic for Application (VBA) (Microsoft) was written for this purpose. The quadratic equation was used to find a value that allows to predict the blastocyst formation: the synthetize value. The area under the curve (AUC) obtained from the ROC curve was used to appreciate the performance of the regression coefficients and the synthetize value. A cut-off value has been calculated for each regression coefficient and for the synthetize value to obtain two groups where the difference of blastocyst formation rate according to the cut-off values was maximal. The data were analyzed with SPSS (IBM, Il, Chicago, USA). Results: Among the 557 embryos, 79.7% had reached the blastocyst stage. The synthetize value corresponds to the value calculated with time value equal to 99, the highest AUC was then obtained. The AUC for regression coefficient ‘a’ was 0.648 (p < 0.001), 0.363 (p < 0.001) for the regression coefficient ‘b’, 0.633 (p < 0.001) for the regression coefficient ‘c’, and 0.659 (p < 0.001) for the synthetize value. The results are presented as follow: blastocyst formation rate under cut-off value versus blastocyst rate formation above cut-off value. For the regression coefficient ‘a’ the optimum cut-off value was -1.14.10-3 (61.3% versus 84.3%, p < 0.001), 0.26 for the regression coefficient ‘b’ (83.9% versus 63.1%, p < 0.001), -4.4 for the regression coefficient ‘c’ (62.2% versus 83.1%, p < 0.001) and 8.89 for the synthetize value (58.6% versus 85.0%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This quadratic regression allows to predict the outcome of an embryo even in case of missing data. Three regression coefficients and a synthetize value could represent the identity card of an embryo. ‘a’ regression coefficient represents the acceleration of cells division, ‘b’ regression coefficient represents the speed of cell division. We could hypothesize that ‘c’ regression coefficient could represent the intrinsic potential of an embryo. This intrinsic potential could be dependent from oocyte originating the embryo. These hypotheses should be confirmed by studies analyzing relationship between regression coefficients and ART parameters.

Keywords: ART procedure, blastocyst formation, time-lapse incubator, quadratic model

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2 Mesoporous BiVO4 Thin Films as Efficient Visible Light Driven Photocatalyst

Authors: Karolina Ordon, Sandrine Coste, Malgorzata Makowska-Janusik, Abdelhadi Kassiba


Photocatalytic processes play key role in the production of a new source of energy (as hydrogen), design of self-cleaning surfaces or for the environment preservation. The most challenging task deals with the purification of water distinguished by high efficiency. In the mentioned process, organic pollutants in solutions are decomposed to the simple, non-toxic compounds as H2O and CO2. The most known photocatalytic materials are ZnO, CdS and TiO2 semiconductors with a particular involvement of TiO2 as an efficient photocatalysts even with a high band gap equal to 3.2 eV which exploit only UV radiation from solar emitted spectrum. However, promising material with visible light induced photoactivity was searched through the monoclinic polytype of BiVO4 which has energy gap about 2.4 eV. As required in heterogeneous photocatalysis, the high contact surface is required. Also, BiVO4 as photocatalyst can be optimized by increasing its surface area by achieving the mesoporous structure synthesize. The main goal of the present work consists in the synthesis and characterization of BiVO4 mesoporous thin film. The synthesis method based on sol-gel was carried out using a standard surfactants such as P123 and F127. The thin film was deposited by spin and dip coating method. Then, the structural analysis of the obtained material was performed thanks to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface of resulting structure was investigated using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The computer simulations based on modeling the optical and electronic properties of bulk BiVO4 by using DFT (density functional theory) methodology were carried out. The semiempirical parameterized method PM6 was used to compute the physical properties of BiVO4 nanostructures. The Raman and IR absorption spectra were also measured for synthesized mesoporous material, and the results were compared with the theoretical predictions. The simulations of nanostructured BiVO4 have pointed out the occurrence of quantum confinement for nanosized clusters leading to widening of the band gap. This result overcame the relevance of nanosized objects to harvest wide part of the solar spectrum. Also, a balance was searched experimentally through the mesoporous nature of the films devoted to enhancing the contact surface as required for heterogeneous catalysis without to lower the nanocrystallite size under some critical sizes inducing an increased band gap. The present contribution will discuss the relevant features of the mesoporous films with respect to their photocatalytic responses.

Keywords: bismuth vanadate, photocatalysis, thin film, quantum-chemical calculations

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1 Multicenter Evaluation of the ACCESS Anti-HCV Assay on the DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer, for the Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Antibody

Authors: Dan W. Rhodes, Juliane Hey, Magali Karagueuzian, Florianne Martinez, Yael Sandowski, Vanessa Roulet, Mahmoud Badawi, Mohammed-Amine Chakir, Valérie Simon, Jérémie Gautier, Françoise Le Boulaire, Catherine Coignard, Claire Vincent, Sandrine Greaume, Isabelle Voisin


Background: Beckman Coulter, Inc. (BEC) has recently developed a fully automated second-generation anti-HCV test on a new immunoassay platform. The objective of this multicenter study conducted in Europe was to evaluate the performance of the ACCESS anti-HCV assay on the recently CE-marked DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer as an aid in the diagnosis of HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) infection and as a screening test for blood and plasma donors. Methods: The clinical specificity of the ACCESS anti-HCV assay was determined using HCV antibody-negative samples from blood donors and hospitalized patients. Sample antibody status was determined by a CE-marked anti-HCV assay (Abbott ARCHITECTTM anti-HCV assay or Abbott PRISM HCV assay) with an additional confirmation method (Immunoblot testing with INNO-LIATM HCV Score - Fujirebio), if necessary, according to pre-determined testing algorithms. The clinical sensitivity was determined using known HCV antibody-positive samples, identified positive by Immunoblot testing with INNO-LIATM HCV Score - Fujirebio. HCV RNA PCR or genotyping was available on all Immunoblot positive samples for further characterization. The false initial reactive rate was determined on fresh samples from blood donors and hospitalized patients. Thirty (30) commercially available seroconversion panels were tested to assess the sensitivity for early detection of HCV infection. The study was conducted from November 2019 to March 2022. Three (3) external sites and one (1) internal site participated. Results: Clinical specificity (95% CI) was 99.7% (99.6 – 99.8%) on 5852 blood donors and 99.0% (98.4 – 99.4%) on 1527 hospitalized patient samples. There were 15 discrepant samples (positive on ACCESS anti-HCV assay and negative on both ARCHITECT and Immunoblot) observed with hospitalized patient samples, and of note, additional HCV RNA PCR results showed five (5) samples had positive HCV RNA PCR results despite the absence of HCV antibody detection by ARCHITECT and Immunoblot, suggesting a better sensitivity of the ACCESS anti-HCV assay with these five samples compared to the ARCHITECT and Immunoblot anti-HCV assays. Clinical sensitivity (95% CI) on 510 well-characterized, known HCV antibody-positive samples was 100.0% (99.3 – 100.0%), including 353 samples with known HCV genotypes (1 to 6). The overall false initial reactive rate (95% CI) on 6630 patient samples was 0.02% (0.00 – 0.09%). Results obtained on 30 seroconversion panels demonstrated that the ACCESS anti-HCV assay had equivalent sensitivity performances, with an average bleed difference since the first reactive bleed below one (1), compared to the ARCHITECTTM anti-HCV assay. Conclusion: The newly developed ACCESS anti-HCV assay from BEC for use on the DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer demonstrated high clinical sensitivity and specificity, equivalent to currently marketed anti-HCV assays, as well as a low false initial reactive rate.

Keywords: DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer, HCV, HCV antibody, Hepatitis C virus, immunoassay

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