Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 441

Search results for: BALB/c mice

441 Antidiabetic Evaluation of Pig (Sus scrofa) Bile on Alloxan-Induced BALB/c Mice

Authors: John Lyndon C. Lunnay

Abstract:

This study discerns to evaluate the antidiabetic efficacy of pig bile on alloxan-induced BALB/c mice. The experimental animals were divided and selected using RCBD into 5 groups (n= 4): T1 (negative control), T2 (1ml/kg), T3 (2ml/kg), T4 (3ml/kg) and T5 (Glibenclamide). Hyperglycemia was induced by injecting 1% alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. A glucose tolerance test was performed using a 2g/kg glucose solution, and blood glucose levels were measured at different time intervals. 14 days of monitoring was also done to ensure effectivity and efficacy of the different treatments. Bodyweight was also determined. Results show that administration of treatments on test animals significantly reverted the blood glucose levels of mice in 60 minutes and 120 minutes using an oral glucose tolerance test. After 14 days of monitoring, normal blood glucose levels were seen significantly on T2 (1ml/kg), T3 (2ml/kg), T4 (3ml/kg), and T5 (Glibenclamide), which only suggests the efficacy of pig bile on lowering glucose levels on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Bodyweight analysis shows no significant difference. Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) shows comparable efficacy and effectivity between T4 (3ml/kg) and T5 (Glibenclamide) on lowering BGL at different day and time intervals.

Keywords: pig bile, BALB/c mice, blood glucose, Gllibenclamide

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440 Ribosomal Protein S4 Gene: Exploring the Presence in Syrian Strain of Leishmania Tropica Genome, Sequencing it and Evaluating Immune Response of pCI-S4 DNA Vaccine

Authors: Alyaa Abdlwahab

Abstract:

Cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a serious health problem in Syria; this problem has become noticeably aggravated after the civil war in the country. Leishmania tropica parasite is the main cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria. In order to control the disease, we need an effective vaccine against leishmania parasite. DNA vaccination remains one of the favorable approaches that have been used to face cutaneous leishmaniasis. Ribosomal protein S4 is responsible for important roles in Leishmania parasite life. DNA vaccine based on S4 gene has been used against infections by many species of Leishmania parasite but leishmania tropica parasite, so this gene represents a good candidate for DNA vaccine construction. After proving the existence of ribosomal protein S4 gene in a Syrian strain of Leishmania tropica (LCED Syrian 01), sequencing it and cloning it into pCI plasmid, BALB/C mice were inoculated with pCI-S4 DNA vaccine. The immune response was determined by monitoring the lesion progression in inoculated BALB/C mice for six weeks after challenging mice with Leishmania tropica (LCED Syrian 01) parasites. IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-4 were quantified in draining lymph nodes (DLNa) of the immunized BALB/C mice by using the RT-qPCR technique. The parasite burden was calculated in the final week for the footpad lesion and the DLNs of the mice. This study proved the existence and the expression of the ribosomal protein S4 gene in Leishmania tropica (LCED Syrian 01) promastigotes. The sequence of ribosomal protein cDNA S4 gene was determined and published in Genbank; the gene size was 822 bp. Expression was also demonstrated at the level of cDNA. Also, this study revealed that pCI-S4 DNA vaccine induces TH1\TH2 response in immunized mice; this response prevents partially developing a dermal lesion of Leishmania.

Keywords: ribosomal protein S4, DNA vaccine, Leishmania tropica, BALB\c

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439 Neutralizing Antibody Response against Inactivated FMDV Type O/IRN/2010 Vaccine by Electron Beam in BALB/C Mice

Authors: F. Motamedi Sedeh, Sh. Chahardoli, H. Mahravani, N. Harzandi, M. Sotoodeh, S. K. Shafaei

Abstract:

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most economically important disease of livestock. The aim of the study is inactivation of FMD virus type O/IRN/2010 by electron beam without antigenic changes as electron radio vaccine. The BALB/C mice were divided into three groups, each group containing five mice. Three groups of mice were inoculated with conventional vaccine and electron beam irradiated vaccine FMDV type O/IRN/2010 subcutaneously three weeks interval, the final group as negative control. The sera were separated from the blood samples of mice 14 days after last vaccination and tested for the presence of antibodies against FMDV type O/IRN/2010 by serum neutralization test. The Serum Neutralization Test (SNT) was carried out and antibody titration was calculated according to the Kraber protocol. The results of the SNT in three groups of mice showed the titration of neutralizing antibody in the vaccinated mice groups; electron radio vaccine and conventional vaccine were significantly higher than negative control group (P<0.05). Therefore, the radio vaccine is a good candidate to immunize animals against FMDV type O/IRN/2010.

Keywords: FMDV type O/IRN/2010, neutralizing antibody response, electron beam, radio vaccine

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
438 Antidiarrhea Effect of T-DABUTO from Madinella speciosa L. on Male Balb-C Mice Induced Oleum Ricini

Authors: Adhara Puspa Noorita, Azkiyatin Nailil M., Rita Aryanti, Sushanti Nuraini, Pujiati Abbas, Suparmi

Abstract:

T-Dabuto is a tea made from leaves and fruits of parijoto (Madinella speciosa L.), which flavonoid, saponin and tanin contained in that tea are reported have diarrhea-caused antibacterial activity. However, the in vivo antidiarrhea effect have not clear yet. This study was conducted to determine the effect of T-DABUTO to faecal characteristics in male Balb/C-mice induced oleum ricini. Experimental research with post-test only control group design was conducted using 35 young male mice strain Balb-C which was divided into 5 groups. All groups were induced by 0.7 ml/ head of oleum ricini and 3 hours later followed by aquadest for first group, while the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th group were treated by T-DABUTO solution with 75 mg/kgBW, 150 mg/kgBW, 300 mg/kgBW, and 600 mg/kgBW respectively as 0.7 ml/ head/ 0.5 hous for 8 hours. Feces collected were used to identify the frequency, absorbtion diameter and fecal weight. T-DABUTO on dose 75 mg/kg BW has the highest antidiarrhea activity which the mean of frequency defecation, water feacal absorbsion and feacal weight were 1.71±0.95 times, 0.38±0.49 mm, 0.43±0.28 mg, respectively. The T-DABUTO treatment did not influence the body weight of diarrheal mice. The T-DABUTO is potential as one of natural diarrhea tratment, especially in children.

Keywords: diarrhea, flavonid, tannin, saponin

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437 Morphological and Molecular Evaluation of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection in BALB/c Mice Lungs

Authors: Gabriela C. Caldas, Fernanda C. Jacome, Arthur da C. Rasinhas, Ortrud M. Barth, Flavia B. dos Santos, Priscila C. G. Nunes, Yuli R. M. de Souza, Pedro Paulo de A. Manso, Marcelo P. Machado, Debora F. Barreto-Vieira

Abstract:

The establishment of animal models for studies of DENV infections has been challenging, since circulating epidemic viruses do not naturally infect nonhuman species. Such studies are of great relevance to the various areas of dengue research, including immunopathogenesis, drug development and vaccines. In this scenario, the main objective of this study is to verify possible morphological changes, as well as the presence of antigens and viral RNA in lung samples from BALB/c mice experimentally infected with an epidemic and non-neuroadapted DENV-3 strain. Male BALB/c mice, 2 months old, were inoculated with DENV-3 by intravenous route. After 72 hours of infection, the animals were euthanized and the lungs were collected. Part of the samples was processed by standard technique for analysis by light and transmission electronic microscopies and another part was processed for real-time PCR analysis. Morphological analyzes of lungs from uninfected mice showed preserved tissue areas. In mice infected with DENV-3, the analyzes revealed interalveolar septum thickening with presence of inflammatory infiltrate, foci of alveolar atelectasis and hyperventilation, bleeding foci in the interalveolar septum and bronchioles, peripheral capillary congestion, accumulation of fluid in the blood capillary, signs of interstitial cell necrosis presence of platelets and mononuclear inflammatory cells circulating in the capillaries and/or adhered to the endothelium. In addition, activation of endothelial cells, platelets, mononuclear inflammatory cell and neutrophil-type polymorphonuclear inflammatory cell evidenced by the emission of cytoplasmic membrane prolongation was observed. DEN-like particles were seen in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells. The viral genome was recovered from 3 in 12 lung samples. These results demonstrate that the BALB / c mouse represents a suitable model for the study of the histopathological changes induced by DENV infection in the lung, with tissue alterations similar to those observed in human cases of DEN.

Keywords: BALB/c mice, dengue, histopathology, lung, ultrastructure

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436 Activity Anti-Motility Exstract Kedondong Leaf in Balb/C Strain Male Mice Invivo

Authors: Muhammad Abdul Latif, Edijanti Goenarwo , Intan Rahmania Eka

Abstract:

Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, as well as responsible for the deaths of millions of people each year. Previous research showed that the leaves, bark, and root bark of kedondong contains saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Tannins have anti-diarrheal effects that work as the freeze of protein / astrigen, and may inhibit the secretion of chloride over the tannate bonding between protein in the intestines. Chemical compounds of flavonoids also have an effect as anti-diarrheal block receptors Cl ˉ in intestinal thus reducing the secretion of Cl ˉ to the intestinal lume. This research aims to know the anti-diarrheal activity of extracts kedondong leaf in mice Balb/C strain males in vivo. This research also proves kedondong leaves as an anti-diarrhea through trial efficacy of kedondong leaves as antisekretori and antimotilitas. This research using post-test only controlled group design. Analysis of statistical data normality and homogenity were tested by Kolmogorov Smirnov. If the data obtained homogenous then using ANOVA test. This research using ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg BW to prove there is anti-motility became five treatment groups. The result showed dose of ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 800 mg/kg BW have significant value (p < 0.005). The conclusion from this extracts kedondong leaf research 800 mg/kg BW have pharmacological effects as antimotility on Balb/C strain male mice.

Keywords: anti-diarrhea, anti-motility, castrol oil, kedondong leaf

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435 Activity Antidiarrheal Extract Kedondong Leaf in Balb/C Strain Male Mice Invivo

Authors: Johanrik, Arini Aprilliani, Fikri Haikal, Diyas Yuca, Muhammad A. Latif, Edijanti Goenarwo, Nurita P. Sari

Abstract:

Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, as well as responsible for the deaths of millions of people each year. Previous research showed that the leaves, bark, and root bark of kedondong contains saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Tannins have anti-diarrheal effects that work as the freeze of protein / astrigen, and may inhibit the secretion of chloride over the tannate bonding between protein in the intestines. Chemical compounds of flavonoids also have an effect as anti-diarrheal block receptors Cl ˉ in intestinal thus reducing the secretion of Cl ˉ to the intestinal lume. This research aims to know the anti-diarrheal activity of extracts kedondong leaf in mice Balb/C strain males in vivo. This research also proves kedondong leaves as an anti-diarrhea through trial efficacy of kedondong leaves as antisekretori and antimotilitas. This research using post-test only controlled group design. Analysis of statistical data normality and homogenity were tested by Kolmogorov Smirnov. If the data obtained homogenous then using ANOVA test. This research using ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 200, 400 and 800 mg/kgBW to prove there is anti-diarrhea it makes into six treatment groups, for anti-secretory it makes into five treatment groups and anti-motility became five treatment groups. The result showed dose of ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 800 mg/kgBW have significant value (p < 0.005). The conclusion from this extracts kedondong leaf research 800 mg/kgBW have pharmacological effects as antidiarrhea on Balb/C strain male mice with a mechanism of action as antisecretory and antimotility.

Keywords: anti-diarrhea, anti-secretory, anti-motility, kedondong leaf

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434 Anti-Diarrheal Activity of Extracts Kedondong Leaf in Mice Balb/C Strain Males in Vivo

Authors: Johanrik, Arini Apriliani, Fikri Haikal, Dias Yuca, Muhammad Abdul Latif, Edijanti Goenarwo, Nurita Pratama Sari

Abstract:

Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, as well as responsible for the deaths of millions of people each year. Previous research showed that the leaves, bark, and root bark of kedondong contains saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Tannins have anti-diarrheal effects that work as the freeze of protein/astringent, and may inhibit the secretion of chloride over the tannate bonding between protein in the intestines. Chemical compounds of flavonoids also have an effect as anti-diarrheal block receptors Cl ˉ in intestinal thus reducing the secretion of Cl ˉ to the intestinal lume .This research aims to know the anti-diarrheal activity of extracts kedondong leaf in mice Balb/C strain males in vivo. This research also proves kedondong leaves as an anti-diarrhea through trial efficacy of kedondong leaves as antisekretori and antimotilitas. This research using post-test only controlled group design. Analysis of statistical data normality and homogenity were tested by Kolmogorov Smirnov. If the data obtained homogenous then using ANOVA test. This research using ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 200, 400 and 800 mg/kgBW to prove there is anti-diarrhea it makes into six treatment groups, for anti-secretory it makes into five treatment groups and anti-motility became five treatment groups. The result showed dose of ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 800 mg/kgBW have significant value (p<0.005). The conclusion from this extracts kedondong leaf research 800 mg/kgBW have pharmacological effects as antidiarrhea on Balb/C strain male mice with a mechanism of action as anti-secretory and anti-motility.

Keywords: anti-diarrhea, anti-secretory, anti-motility, kedondong leaf

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433 Biodistribution Studies of 177Lu-DOTATOC in Mouse Tumor Model: Possible Utilization in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer Treatment

Authors: M. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, H. Yousefnia, F. Abbasi-Davani, S. Zolghadri, S. Kakaei

Abstract:

Despite the appropriate characteristics of 177Lu and DOTATOC, to our best knowledge, the therapeutic benefit of 177Lu-DOTATOC complex in breast cancer has not been reported until now. In this study, biodistribution of 177Lu-DOTA-TOC in mouse tumor model for evaluation of possible utilization of this complex in breast cancer treatment was investigated.177Lu was prepared with the specific activity of 2.6-3 GBq.mg-1 and radionuclidic purity higher than 99%. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in the optimized conditions with the radiochemical purity higher than 99%. The final solution was injected to the BALB/c mice with adenocarcinoma breast cancer. The biodistribution results showed major accumulation in the kidneys as the major excretion route and the somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas compared with the other tissues. Also, significant uptake was observed in tumor even in longer time after injection. According to the results obtained in this research study, somatostatin receptors expressed in breast cancers can be targeted with DOTATOC analogues especially with 177Lu-DOTATOC as an ideal therapeutic agent.

Keywords: ¹⁷⁷Lu, adenocarcinoma breast cancer, DOTATOC, BALB/c mice

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432 Siderophore Receptor Protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae as a Promising Immunogen for Serotype-Independent Therapeutic Lead Development

Authors: Sweta Pandey, Samridhi Dhyani, Susmita Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes a wide range of infections, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and liver abscesses. The emergence of multi-drug resistance in this bacterium led to a major setback for clinical management. WHO also endorsed a need for finding alternative therapy to antibiotics for the treatment of these infections. Development of vaccines and passive antibody therapy has been proven as a potent alternative to antibiotics in the case of MDR, XDR, and PDR Klebsiella infections. Siderophore receptors have been demonstrated to be overexpressed for the internalization of iron siderophore complexes during infections in most Gram-negative bacteria. For the present study, immune response to siderophore receptors to establish this protein as a potential immunogen for the development of therapeutic leads was explored. Clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were grown in iron-deficient conditions, and the iron-regulated outer membrane proteins were extracted and characterized through mass spectrometry for specific identification. The gene for identified protein was cloned in pET- 28a vector and expressed in E. coli. The native protein and the recombinant protein were isolated and purified and used as antigens for the generation of immune response in BALB/c mice. The native protein of Klebsiella pneumoniae grown in iron-deficient conditions was identified as FepA (Ferrienterobactin receptor) and other siderophore receptors. This 80 kDa protein generated an immune response in BALB/c mice. The antiserum from mice after subsequent booster doses was collected and showed binding with FepA protein in western blot and phagocytic uptake of the K. pneumoniae in the presence antiserum from immunized mice also observed from the animal studies after bacterial challenge post immunisation in mice have shown bacterial clearance. The antiserum from mice showed binding and clearance of the Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria in vitro and in vivo. These antigens used for generating an active immune response in mice can further be used for therapeutic monoclonal antibody development against Klebsiella pneumoniae infections.

Keywords: antiserum, FepA, Klebsiella pneumoniae, multi drug resistance, siderophore receptor

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431 Determination of the Vaccine Induced Immunodominant Regions of Nucleoprotein Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

Authors: Engin Berber, Nurettin Canakoglu, Ibrahim Sozdutmaz, Merve Caliskan, Shaikh Terkis Islam Pavel, Hazel Yetiskin, Aykut Ozdarendeli

Abstract:

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The CCHFV genome consists of three molecules of negative-sense single-stranded RNA, each encapsulated separately. The virion particle contains viral RNA polymerase (L segment), surface glycoproteins Gn and Gc (Msegment), and a nucleocapsid protein NP (S segment). CCHF is characterized by high case mortality, occurring in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Clinical CCHF was first recognized in Turkey in 2002. The numbers of CCHF cases have gradually increased in Turkey making the virus a public health concern. Between 2002 and 2014, more than 8000 the CCHF cases have been reported in Turkey and mortality rate is around 5%. So, Turkey is one of the countries where the epidemy has become spread to the wider geography and the biggest outbreaks of CCHF have occurred in the world. We have recently developed an inactivated cell-culture based vaccine against CCHF. We have showed that the Balb/c mice immunized with the CCHF vaccine induced the high level of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we aimed to determine the immunodominant regions of nucleoprotein (NP) CCHFV Kelkit06 strain which stimulate T cells. For this purpose, pools of overlapping NP were used for an IFN- γ ELISPOT assay. Balb/c mice were divided into two groups for the experiment. Two groups (n = 10 each) were immunized via the intraperitoneal route with 5, or 10μg of the cell culture-based vaccine. The control group (n = 6) was mock immunized with PBS. Booster injections with the same formulation were given on days 21 and 42 after the first immunization. The higher reactivity against the CCHFV NP pools 31-40 and 80-90 was determined in the two dose groups. In order to analyze the vaccine-induced T cell responses in Balb/c mice immunized with varying doses of the vaccine, we have been also currently working on CD4+, CD8+ and CD3 + T cells by flow cytometry.

Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, immunodominant regions of NP, T cell response, vaccine

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430 Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-Induced Urinary Tract Infections

Authors: Cheng-Chih Tsai, Yu-Hsuan Liu, Cheng-Ying Ho, Chun-Chin Huang

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The aim of this study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) for prevention and amelioration of UTIs. We screened LAB strains with antimicrobial effects on UPEC using a well-diffusion assay, bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium cell line SV-HUC-1 (BCRC 60358), and a coculture inhibition assay. The results showed that the 7 LAB strains (Lactobacillus paracasei, L. salivarius, two Pediococcus pentosaceus strains, two L. plantarum strains, and L. crispatus) and the fermented probiotic products produced by these multi-LAB strains exhibited potent zones of inhibition against UPEC. Moreover, the LAB strains and probiotic products adhered strongly to the uroepithelium SV-HUC-1 cell line. The growth of UPEC strains was also markedly inhibited after co-culture with the LAB strains and probiotic products in human urine. In addition, the enhanced levels of IL-6, IL-8 and lactic acid dehydrogenase were significantly decreased by treatments with the LAB strains and probiotic products in UPEC-induced SV-HUC-1 cells. Furthermore, oral administration of probiotic products reduced the number of viable UPEC in the urine of UPEC-challenged BALB/c mice. Taken together, this study demonstrates that probiotic supplementation may be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of bacterial-induced urinary tract infections.

Keywords: lactic acid bacterium, SV-HUC-1 uroepithelium, urinary tract infection, uropathogenic Escherichia coli, BALB/c mice

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429 Effects of Aerobic Training on MicroRNA Let-7a Expression and Levels of Tumor Tissue IL-6 in Mice With Breast Cancer

Authors: Leila Anoosheh

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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess The effects of aerobic training on microRNA let-7a expression and levels of tumor tissue IL-6 in mice with breast cancer. Method: Twenty BALB/c c mice (4-5 weeks,17 gr mass) were cancerous by injection of estrogen-dependent receptor breast cancer cells MC4-L2 and divided into two groups: tumor-training(TT) and tumor-control(TC) group. Then TT group completed aerobic training for 6 weeks, 5 days per week (14-18 m/min). After tumor emersion, tumor width and length were measured by digital caliper every week. 48 hours after the last exercise subjects were killed. Tissue sampling were collected and stored in -70ᵒ. Tumor tissue was homogenized and let-7a expression and IL-6 levels were accounted with Real time-PCR and ELISA Kit respectively. Statistical analysis of let-7a was conducted by the REST software. Repeated measures and independent tests were used to assess tumor size and IL-6, respectively. Results: Tumor size and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in TT group compare with TC group (p<0.05). microRNA let-7a was increased significantly in TT against control group respectively (p=0/000). Conclusion: Reduction in tumor size, followed by aerobic exercise can be attributed to the loss of inflammatory factors such as IL-6; It seems that regarding to up regulation effects of aerobic exercise training on let-7a and down regulation effects of that on IL-6 in mice with breast cancer, This type of training can be used as adjuvant therapy in conjunction with other therapies for breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, aerobic training, microRNA let-7a, IL-6

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428 Effects of Gamma-Tocotrienol Supplementation on T-Regulatory Cells in Syngeneic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

Authors: S. Subramaniam, J. S. A. Rao, P. Ramdas, K. R. Selvaduray, N. M. Han, M. K. Kutty, A. K. Radhakrishnan

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Immune system is a complex system where the immune cells have the capability to respond against a wide range of immune challenges including cancer progression. However, in the event of cancer development, tumour cells trigger immunosuppressive environment via activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and T regulatory (Treg) cells. The Treg cells are subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, known to have crucial roles in regulating immune homeostasis and promoting the establishment and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Dysregulation of these mechanisms could lead to cancer progression and immune suppression. Recently, there are many studies reporting on the effects of natural bioactive compounds on immune responses against cancer. It was known that tocotrienol-rich-fraction consisting 70% tocotrienols and 30% α-tocopherol is able to exhibit immunomodulatory as well as anti-cancer properties. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of gamma-tocotrienol (G-T3) supplementation on T-reg cells in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. In this study, female BALB/c mice were divided into two groups and fed with either soy oil (vehicle) or gamma-tocotrienol (G-T3) for two weeks followed by inoculation with tumour cells. All the mice continued to receive the same supplementation until day 49. The results showed a significant reduction in tumour volume and weight in G-T3 fed mice compared to vehicle-fed mice. Lung and liver histology showed reduced evidence of metastasis in tumour-bearing G-T3 fed mice. Besides that, flow cytometry analysis revealed T-helper cell population was increased, and T-regulatory cell population was suppressed following G-T3 supplementation. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that there was a marked decrease in the expression of FOXP3 in the G-T3 fed tumour bearing mice. In conclusion, the G-T3 supplementation showed good prognosis towards breast cancer by enhancing the immune response in tumour-bearing mice. Therefore, gamma-T3 can be used as immunotherapy agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, gamma tocotrienol, immune suppression, supplement

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427 Cimifugin Inhibited Th2-Type Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Authors: Xiaoyan Jiang, Huizhu Wang, Lili Gui, Dandan Shen, Xiao Wei, Xi Yu, Hailiang Liu, Min Hong

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Objective: Applicate FITC to establish Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis model, and study the effect and mechanism of Cimifugin on Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis. Methods: The Balb/c mice were sensitized with painting 80 ul of 1.5% FITC onto the shaved abdomen skin at DAY1 and DAY2. The animals were challenged on their right ears with 20 ul of 0.6% FITC, and the left ears were painted with solvent alone at day 6, mice were administered cimifugin for 7 days. 24h later, ear swelling was noted, and the infiltration of eosinophils was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. while part of the ear tissue homogenates prepared for detecting interleukin-4 levels by ELISA .Mice were administered cimifugin In the initial stage of the above model for 5 days(-1DAY—DAY3), ear tissue were homogenized to detect IL-33 levels by ELISA. Results: Cimifugin 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg inhibited mouse ear swelling, ear histopathology showed that mice given Cimifugin has significantly reduced levels of local tissue fluid exudation, congestion, infiltration of lymphocytes, and other inflammatory conditions compared with the model group. At the same time, it has significantly reduce of Th2 cytokines IL-4 in the mouse ear tissue homogenate. Data of the initial stage shows that 12.5mg/kg, 50mg/kg Cimifugin significantly inhibited IL-33 levels. Conclusion: Cimifugin inhibit FITC-induced Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis, and its mechanism may be related to inhibition of IL-33.

Keywords: cimifugin, allergic contact dermatitis, Th1/Th2, IL-33

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426 Antioxidant Activity of Chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus Leaves in Female Mice Induced Sodium Nitrite

Authors: Suparmi, Sampurna

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Sodium nitrite which is widespread used as a color fixative and preservative in foods can increase oxidative stress and cause hemolytic anemia. Consumption of food supplement containing sufficient antioxidant, e.g. chlorophyll, reported can decrease these negative effects. This study was conducted to determine the effect of chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus leaves on Malodialdehide (MDA) and ferritin level. Experimental research with post-test only control group design was conducted using 24 female mice strain Balb-c. Sodium nitrite 0.3 ml/head/day given during 18 days, while the chlorophyll or Cu-chlorophyllin as much as 0.7 ml/head/day given the following day for 14 days. The mean of MDA levels of blood plasma in the control group, NaNO2 induction, induction NaNO2 and chlorophyll of S. androgynus leaves, induction of NaNO2 and Cu-chlorophyllin from K-Liquid in sequence is 2.10±0.11mol/L, 3.44±0.38 mol/L, 2.31±0.18 mol/L, 2.31±0.13 mol/L, whilst the ferritin levels mean in each group is 62.71±6.42 ng/ml; 63.22±7.59 ng/ml; 67.45±8.03 ng/ml, and 64.74±7.80 ng/ml, respectively. Results of Mann Whitney test found no significant difference in MDA levels (p>0.05), while the One-Way Anova test result found no significant difference in ferritin levels between the groups of mice that received S. androgynus chlorophyll with a group of mice that received Cu-chlorophyllin after induction NaNO2 (p>0.05). This indicates that chlorophyll from S. androgynus leaves as effective as Cu-chlorophyllin in decrease of MDA levels and increase of ferritin levels. Chlorophyll from S. androgynus are potential as food supplement in anemic conditions caused by sodium nitrite consumptions.

Keywords: ferritin, MDA, chlorophyll, sodium nitrite

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425 Protection against Sodium Arsenate Induced Fetal Toxicity in Albino Mice by Vitamin C and E

Authors: Fariha Qureshi, Mohammad Tahir

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Epidemiological evidences indicated that arsenic contamination in drinking water increased the incidence of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and premature babies in pregnant women. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of vitamin C&E against sodium arsenate induced fetal toxicity in albino mice. Twenty-four pregnant albino mice of BALB/c strain were randomly divided into 4 groups having 6 animals in each. Group A1 served as control and was injected with 0.1ml/kg/day distilled water I/P for 18 days. Groups A2,A3 & A4 received single I/P injection of sodium arsenate 35mg/kg on 8th gestational day, whereas groups A3 and A4 were also given Vitamin C and E by I/P injection, 9 mg/kg/day and 15 mg/kg/day respectively, starting from 8th GD and continued for the rest of the pregnancy period. The early implantation sites, fetal resorptions, weight of live fetuses and crown rump length were recorded. Gross morphological examination was carried out for malformations. Fetal kidneys were extracted for histological and micrometric analysis. Group A2 exhibited an increased incidence of abortion, fetal resorptions, significant decrease in number of litter and fetal weight; the difference of means was statistically significant among the groups (p<0.000). In group A2 fetal kidneys presented glomerulonephritis with acute tubular necrotic changes and interstitial fibrosis. Groups A3&A4 showed statistically significant improvement in these parameters. The results revealed the antioxidant potential of Vitamin C and E in protecting against arsenic induced fetal toxicity in mice.

Keywords: fetal toxicity, fetal resorptions, interstitial fibrosis, tocopherol

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424 Protective Role of Peroxiredoxin V against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

Authors: Eun Gyeong Lee, Ji Young Park, Hyun Ae Woo

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney of mice. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between ROS production and reduced antioxidant defenses. Many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems including peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are present in kidney to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and prevent oxidative damage. Prxs are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. In this study, we examined the protective role of Prx V against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) using Prx V wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We compared the response of Prx V WT and KO mice in mice model of I/R injury. Renal structure, functions, oxidative stress markers, protein levels of oxidative damage marker were worse in Prx V KO mice. Ablation of Prx V enhanced susceptibility to I/R-induced oxidative stress. Prx V KO mice were seen to have more severe renal damage than Prx V WT mice in mice model of I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that Prx V is protective against I/R-induced AKI.

Keywords: peroxiredoxin, ischemia/reperfusion, kidney, oxidative stress

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423 Effect of Experience on Evacuation of Mice in Emergency Conditions

Authors: Teng Zhang, Shenshi Huang, Gang Xu, Xuelin Zhang, Shouxiang Lu

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With the acceleration of urbanization and the increasing of the population in the city, the evacuation of pedestrians suffering from disaster environments such as fire in a room or other limited space becomes a vital issue in modern society. Mice have been used in experimental crowd evacuation in recent years for its good similarities to human in physical structure and stress reaction. In this study, the effect of experience or memory on the collective behavior of mice was explored. To help mice familiarize themselves with the design of the space and the stimulus caused by smoke, we trained them repeatedly for 2 days so that they can escape from the emergency conditions as soon as possible. The escape pattern, trajectories, walking speed, turning angle and mean individual escape time of mice in each training trail were analyzed. We found that mice can build memory quickly after the first trial on the first day. On the second day, the evacuation of mice was maintained in a stable and efficient state. Meanwhile, the group with size of 30 (G30) had a shorter mean individual escape time compared with G12. Furthermore, we tested the experience of evacuation skill of mice after several days. The results showed that the mice can hold the experience or memory over 3 weeks. We proposed the importance of experience of evacuation skill and the research of training methods in experimental evacuation of mice. The results can deepen our understanding of collective behavior of mice and conduce to the establishment of animal models in the study of pedestrian crowd dynamics in emergency conditions.

Keywords: experience, evacuation, mice, group size, behavior

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422 Evaluation of the Laser and Partial Vibration Stimulation on Osteoporosis

Authors: Ji Hyung Park, Dong-Hyun Seo, Young-Jin Jung, Han Sung Kim

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The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the laser and partial vibration stimulation on the mice tibia with morphological characteristics. Twenty female C57BL/6 mice (12 weeks old) were used for the experiment. The study was carried out on four groups of animals each consisting of five mice. Four groups of mice were ovariectomized. Animals were scanned at 0 and 2 weeks after ovariectomy by using micro-computed tomography to estimate morphological characteristics of tibial trabecular bone. Morphological analysis showed that structural parameters of multi-stimuli group appear significantly better phase in BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and Tb.pf than single stimulation groups. However, single stimulation groups didn’t show significant effect on tibia with Sham group. This study suggests that multi-stimuli may restrain the change as the degenerate phase on osteoporosis in the mice tibia.

Keywords: laser, partial vibration, osteoporosis, in-vivo micro-CT, mice

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421 Aloe vera Prevents Injuries Induced by Whole Body X-ray Irradiation in Rodents

Authors: Shashi Bala, Neha A. Chugh, Subhash C. Bansal, Mohal L. Garg, Ashwani Koul

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Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera from whole body X-ray exposure in rodents. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, after on week’s acclimatization, male balb/c mice procured from Central Animal House, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India), were divided into four groups: Group I mice served as control. Group II mice were orally administrated Aloe vera pulp extract (50 mg/ kg body weight) on alternate days for 30 days. Group III mice were subjected to whole body X-ray irradiation to cumulative dose of 2Gy (0.258Gy twice a day for four days in the last week). Group IV animals were pretreated with Aloe vera pulp extract on alternate days as in Group II and in the last week of the study, they were exposed to X-ray as in Group III. Results: Spleen of X-ray irradiated mice showed histopathological alterations accompanied with enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), enhanced activities in Glutathione based enzymes such as Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Glutathione reductase (GR), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) associated with depletion in reduced Glutathione (GSH) concentration were observed after X-ray exposure in blood plasma and spleen.. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α) and Inteleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were also found to be enhanced in serum of irradiated mice. Irradiation-induced significant elevation in Total leucocyte counts (TLC), neutrophil counts and decline in platelet counts, associated with unaltered levels of red blood cell counts (RBC’s) and haemoglobin (Hb) in various treatment groups. Clastogenic damage and apoptosis was also found to be increase in splenic tissue of X-ray exposed mice as assessed by micronucleus and TUNEL assay. However, X-ray irradiated animals administered with Aloe vera revealed significant improvement in levels of ROS/ LPO, LDH activity, and antioxidant mechanism. Aloe vera pretreated animals exhibited less severe damage, and early recovery in micronucleated cells, hematological parameters, apoptotic cells and inflammatory markers as compared to X-ray exposed mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that the radioprotective potential of Aloe vera against X-ray induced damage. This may be due to its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Keywords: aloe vera, antioxidant defense system, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), micronucleus assay, x-ray

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420 Posttranslational Modifications of Histone H3 in Tumor Tissue Isolated from Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Treated Mice

Authors: Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak, Barbara Sochanowicz, Magdalena Matysiak-Kucharek, Magdalena Czajka, Krzysztof Sawicki, Marcin Kruszewski

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Due to the strong antimicrobial activity silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in various medical and general applications, among others, in cosmetics, odour resistant textiles, etc. The aim of this study was to compare effect of AgNPs and gold NPs (AuNPs) on histones posttranslational modifications. Histone molecule posttranscriptional modifications are responsible for chromatin compaction and repackaging. In this study, BALB/c mice were inoculated with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells and treated with AgNPs coated with citrate (AgNPs(cit) or PEG (AgNPs(PEG), or AuNPs. Thereafter the histone H3 acetylation on Lys9 and H3 methylation on Lys4, Lys9, Lys29 was investigated. All NPs tested decreased H3 methylation, while no effect was observed for H3 acetylation. Modification of histone H3 methylation dependent on type of NPs used its coating, site of methylation and treatment used. Conclusion, epigenetic effects of nanomaterials depend on nanomaterial composition, its coating, and way of application. This work was supported by National Science Centre grant No. 2014/15/B/NZ7/01036 (MK, LKS, MMK, MC, KS), statutory funding for INTC (BS).

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, histone, methylation, silver nanoparticles

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419 Effects of Supplementation with Annatto (Bixa Orellana)-Derived δ-Tocotrienol on the Nicotine-Induced Reduction in Body Weight and 8-Cell Preimplantation Embryonic Development in Mice

Authors: M. H. Rajikin, S. M. M. Syairah, A. R. Sharaniza

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Effects of nicotine on pre-partum body weight and preimplantation embryonic development has been reported previously. Present study was conducted to determine the effects of annatto (Bixa orellana)-derived delta-tocotrienol (TCT) (with presence of 10% gamma-TCT isomer) on the nicotine-induced reduction in body weight and 8-cell embryonic growth in mice. Twenty four 6-8 weeks old (23-25g) female balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (G1-G4; n=6). Those groups were subjected to the following treatments for 7 consecutive days: G1 (control) were gavaged with 0.1 ml tocopherol stripped corn oil, G2 was subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with 3 mg/kg/day of nicotine, G3 received concurrent treatment of nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) and 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture (contains 90% delta & 10% gamma isomers) and G4 was given 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture alone. Body weights were recorded daily during the treatment. On Day 8, females were superovulated with 5 IU Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) for 48 hours followed with 5 IU human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) before mated with males at the ratio of 1:1. Females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation for embryo collection 48 hours post-coitum. Collected embryos were cultured in vitro. Results showed that throughout Day 1 to Day 7, the body weight of nicotine treated group (G2) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of G1, G3 and G4. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) managed to increase the body weight close to the control group. This is also observed in the group treated with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4). The development of 8-cell embryos following in vitro culture (IVC) was totally inhibited in G2. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) resulted in the production of 8-cell embryos, although it was not up to that of the control group. Treatment with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4) caused significant increase in the average number of produced 8-cell embryo compared to G1. Present data indicated that δ-TCT mixture was able to reverse the body weight loss in nicotine treated mice and the development of 8-cell embryos was also improved.

Keywords: δ-tocotrienol, body weight, nicotine, preimplantation embryonic development

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418 Cholesterol Modulating Properties of a Proprietary Extract from Phyllanthus spp on Hypercholesteraemic Mice Models

Authors: Anne R. Fernandez, Mohammad Akmal Adnan, Tanes Prasat, Indu Bala Jaganath, Brian Kirby, Kamalan Jeevaratnam

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Introduction: Plants from the Phyllantus genus have been used indigenously for the treatment of a variety of ailments for generations. A cocktail of phytonutrients prepared from a plant of the genus Phyllanthus has demonstrated the potential to alleviate ailments which include cardiovascular disorders. In this study, we investigated the cholesterol modulating properties of a highly purified proprietary extract of a Phyllanthus species in hypercholesteraemic mice. Methods: Hypercholesteraemia was induced in ICR mice by ad-libitum feeding of high fat diet daily for six weeks. The mice were then divided into 3 groups and force fed with 10mg/kg of atorvastatin, 200mg/kg of the proprietary Phyllanthus extract and water respectively. Blood samples were taken at the end of fourth week of treatment by a tail prick. At the end of the eighth week of treatment, mice were sacrificed and serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides were measured. Results: The mean cholesterol levels in the mice fed with high fat diet were 44% (p < 0.05) higher than the mice on normal diet thus validating the model developed. The plasma HDL was significantly elevated in mice treated with the formulation (p ˂ 0.05) in comparison to the statin-treated and control mice. The total cholesterol levels in the mice treated with the proprietary extract were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 4 weeks of treatment in comparison to the mice treated with atorvastatin. By the end of 8 weeks of treatment, there was no significant difference in the cholesterol levels of the mice in all groups. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that this proprietary extract from Phyllanthus species has the beneficial effect of reducing total cholesterol level more rapidly than atorvastatin and increasing HDL levels. Since an increase in the HDL cholesterol can reduce the risk of heart disease, this proprietary extract is a useful and safe therapeutic option compared to atorvastatin.

Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, hypercholesteraemic mice model, ICR mice, Phyllanthus spp.

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417 Effects of Exercise on Klotho Expression and Klotho DNA Methylation in Obese Mice

Authors: Yao Huang, Hongjie Yu, Fangrong Xu, Longbiao Cai, Qiqiang He

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The Klotho gene has been found to be involved in cardiovascular health, and epigenetic mechanism has risen as good candidates to understand the role of lifestyle factors in obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intervention on the expression and DNA methylation of Klotho gene in high-fat diet induced obese mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. HFD induced obese mice were divided into secondary group (SED) and exercise group (EX) randomly. The treadmill exercise was performed in EX group for 8 weeks. The expression and DNA methylation of Klotho were evaluated by Western blot, RT-PCR, and Methylation-specific PCR. Results indicated that Klotho protein and mRNA expression were significantly lower in the SED group than those in the ND and EX groups (P<0.01), whereas no significant difference, was found between ND group and EX group (P>0.05). Furthermore, mice in the ND group and SED group showed significantly lower levels of completely methylated Klotho DNA in ND group (0%) and SED group (50%) compared with the EX group (90%), and unmethylated Klotho DNA level in ND group (80%) was significantly higher than those in the SED (0%) and EX (0%) groups. These results suggested that exercise leads to increased Klotho expression and reduced Klotho DNA methylation level in HFD induced obese mice.

Keywords: DNA methylation, exercise intervention, klotho, obese mice

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416 In vivo Anticandida Activity of Three Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in East Africa

Authors: Daniel P. Kisangau, Ken M. Hosea, Herbert V. M. Lyaruu, Cosam C. Josep, Zakaria H. Mbwambo, Pax J. Masimba

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Crude extracts of Dracaena steudneri bark (DSB), Sapium ellipticum bark (SEB) and Capparis erythrocarpos root (CER) were investigated for their antifungal activity in immunocompromised mice infected with Candida albicans in an in vivo mice infection model. The results revealed a substantial dose dependency in all treatments given, with mice survival to the end of the experiment correlating well to the dose levels. At a dose of 400 mg/kg, C. erythrocarpos was the most effective with mice survival of 60% and organ burden clearance ranging from 64.0%-99.9% (P<0.0001) in all treatments. At the same dose, the least effective plant was S. ellipticum which had a mice survival of 20% and organ burden clearance ranging from 78.0%-96.6 (P>0.05). Mice survival for D. steudneri was 30% with organ burden clearance ranging from 89.0%-99.9% (P<0.05). All mice receiving no active treatment died before ten days post infection. In all treatment groups, there was a steady decline in mean weights of mice immediately after immunosuppression followed by gradual recovery in some cases which appeared to be dose dependent a few days post infection. Thus, extracts of D. steudneri and C. erythrocarpos portrayed the most significant potential as sources of antifungal drugs.

Keywords: antifungal activity, medicinal plants, candida albicans, East Africa

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415 Anti-Obesity Effect of Cordyceps militaris Fermented Black Rice

Authors: Chih-Hung Liang, Jung-Jung Chen, Shen-Shih Chiang

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Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health, which are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Cordyceps militaris (CM) is a well-known traditional medicine in Asian countries and a rich source of biologically active components. Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a special cultivar of rice that contains rich anthocyanins and regarded as a health-promoting food in China and other Eastern. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of Cordyceps militaris fermented black rice (CB) on HFD-induced BALB/c mice model. The results indicated that administration of low and high dosage of CB powder significantly reduced the body weights (7.38% and 7.78%), body fat ratio (2.37% and 2.78%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels compared to the HF group (p<0.05). Histopathological analysis showed that the score of fatty liver in HF group (5.0) was significantly higher than CB groups (2.1 and 3.6) (p<0.05). In conclusion, Cordyceps militaris fermented black rice can reduce the body weight via inhibition of the fat accumulation in liver and body and possess the anti-obesity potency.

Keywords: Cordyceps militaris, black rice, obesity, HFD-induced mice

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414 Ability of Bentonite-lactobacillus Rhamnosus GAF06 Mixture to Mitigate Aflatoxin M1 Damages in Balb/C Mice

Authors: Amina Aloui, Jalila Ben Salah-Abbès, Abdellah Zinedine, Amar Riba, Noel Durand, Catherine Brabet, Didier Montet, Samir Abbès

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Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed-isa globaconcern, both economically and for public health. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1. It is frequently found in milk and other dairy products. It is responsible for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and immunotoxic in humans and animals. The reduction of its bioavailabilitybecomesa great demand in order to protect human and animal health. The use of probiotic bacteria and clay are demonstrated to be able to bind AFM1 in vitro. This study aimed to investigate, in vivo, the activity of two-component mixture: L. rhamnosusGAF06 (LR) and bentonite for reducing the oxidative stress and the histological alterationsinduced by AFM1 in the liver andkidneys. For the experiment, male mice were divided into 7 groups (6 mice/group) and treated, orally, by AFM1, alone or in combination with LR and/or bentonite, for 10 days as follows: group 1 control, group 2 treated with LR alone (2.108 CFU/ml), group 3 treated with bentonite alone (1g/kg), group 4 treated with AFM1 alone (100μg/kg), group 5 co-treated with LR+AFM1, group 6 co-treated with bentonite+AFM1, group 7 co-treated with bentonite+LR+AFM1. At the end of the treatment, the mice were sacrificed, and the livers and kidneys were collected for histological assays. Intracellular antioxidant activities and lipid peroxidation were also studied. The results showed that AFM1causeddamage in liver and kidney tissues, being evidence of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity marked by necrotic cells. It increased the MDA level and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD) in both organs. In contrast, the co-treatment with AFM1 plus LR and/or bentonitesignificantly improved the hepatic and renal tissues, regulated kidney, and liver antioxidant enzyme activities. This improvement was more remarkable with the administration of LR-bentonite mixture with AFM1.LR and bentonite alone showed to be safe during the treatment. This mixture can be a promising candidate for future applications in biotechnological processes that aimed to detoxify AFM1in food and feed.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, bentonite, L. rhamnosus GAF06, oxidative stress, prevention

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413 Methylprednisolone Injection Did Not Inhibit Anti-Hbs Response Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Mice

Authors: P. O. Ughachukwu, P. O. Okonkwo, P. C. Unekwe, J. O. Ogamba

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Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection is high worldwide with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as important complications. Cases of poor antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination abound. Immunosuppression, especially from glucocorticoids, is often cited as a cause of poor antibody response and there are documented evidences of irrational administration of glucocorticoids to children and adults. The study was, therefore, designed to find out if administration of glucocorticoids affects immune response to vaccination against hepatitis B in mice. Methods: Mice of both sexes were randomly divided into 2 groups. Daily intramuscular methylprednisolone injections, (15 mg kg-1), were given to the test group while sterile deionized water (0.1ml) was given to control mice for 30 days. On day 6 all mice were given 2 μg (0.1ml) hepatitis B vaccine and a booster dose on day 27. On day 34, blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-HBs titres using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was done using Graph Pad Prism 5.0 and the results taken as statistically significant at p value < 0.05. Results: There were positive serum anti-HBs responses in all mice groups but the differences in titres were not statistically significant. Conclusions: At the dosages and length of exposure used in this study, methylprednisolone injection did not significantly inhibit anti-HBs response in mice following immunization against hepatitis B virus. By extrapolation, methylprednisolone, when used in the usual clinical doses and duration of therapy, is not likely to inhibit immune response to hepatitis B vaccinations in man.

Keywords: anti-HBs, hepatitis B vaccine, immune response, methylprednisolone, mice

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412 A Small-Molecular Inhibitor of Influenza Virus via Disrupting the PA and PB1 Interaction of the Viral Polymerase

Authors: Shuofeng Yuan, Bojian Zheng

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Assembly of the heterotrimeric polymerase complex of influenza virus from the individual subunits PB1, PA, and PB2 is a prerequisite for viral replication, in which the interaction between the N-terminal of PB1 (PB1N) and the C terminal of PA (PAC) may be a desired target for antiviral development. In this study, we first compared the feasibility of high throughput screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescence polarization (FP) assay. Among the two, ELISA was demonstrated to own broader dynamic range so that it was used for screening inhibitors, which blocked PA and PB1 interaction. Several binding inhibitors of PAC-PB1N were identified and subsequently tested for the antiviral efficacy. Apparently, 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-7-methyl[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5-ol, designated ANA-1, was found to be a strong inhibitor of PAC-PB1N interaction and act as a potent antiviral agent against the infections of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7, H7N9 and H9N2 subtypes, in cell cultures. Intranasal administration of ANA-1 protected mice from lethal challenge and reduced lung viral loads in H1N1 virus infected BALB/c mice. Docking analyses predicted that ANA-1 bound to an allosteric site of PAC, which would cause conformational changes thereby disrupting the PAC-PB1N interaction. Overall, our study has identified a novel compound with potential to be developed as an anti-influenza drug.

Keywords: influenza, antiviral, viral polymerase, compounds

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