Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 147

Search results for: runner bean

147 Comparison of Chlorophyll Contents in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Runner Bean (P. coccineous L.) Genotypes

Authors: Huseyin Canci

Abstract:

Chlorophylls are green photosynthetic pigment in plants. Therefore, photosynthesis in plants occurs in the leaves. Roles of chlorophylls help plants to get energy from light. The aim of the present study is to compare of chlorophyll contents in some bean species including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner bean (P. coccineous L.) and genotypes. This research was carried out in fields of Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University in Antalya. Species and genotypes were grown in 2 m single row and 50 cm row spacing. A randomized blocks design was used with two replications. Totally, 124 beans species and genotypes which 122 common beans and 2 runner beans were sown on February, 17th 2014 by hand. Chlorophyll a + b (SPAD values) were determined seedling stage, days to flowering 50% and pod setting stage on bean genotypes. Results showed that there were significant differences for genotypes, stages and interaction of genotypes X stages. There was statistically significant relationships between yield and chlorophyll content of bean species and genotypes.

Keywords: bean, chlorophyll, Phaseolus, SPAD values

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
146 LHCII Proteins Phosphorylation Changes Involved in the Dark-Chilling Response in Plant Species with Different Chilling Tolerance

Authors: Malgorzata Krysiak, Anna Wegrzyn, Maciej Garstka, Radoslaw Mazur

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Under constantly fluctuating environmental conditions, the thylakoid membrane protein network evolved the ability to dynamically respond to changing biotic and abiotic factors. One of the most important protective mechanism is rearrangement of the chlorophyll-protein (CP) complexes, induced by protein phosphorylation. In a temperate climate, low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses that heavily affect plant growth and productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the role of LHCII antenna complex phosphorylation in the dark-chilling response. The study included an experimental model based on dark-chilling at 4 °C of detached chilling sensitive (CS) runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) and chilling tolerant (CT) garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. This model is well described in the literature as used for the analysis of chilling impact without any additional effects caused by light. We examined changes in thylakoid membrane protein phosphorylation, interactions between phosphorylated LHCII (P-LHCII) and CP complexes, and their impact on the dynamics of photosystem II (PSII) under dark-chilling conditions. Our results showed that the dark-chilling treatment of CS bean leaves induced a substantial increase of phosphorylation of LHCII proteins, as well as changes in CP complexes composition and their interaction with P-LHCII. The PSII photochemical efficiency measurements showed that in bean, PSII is overloaded with light energy, which is not compensated by CP complexes rearrangements. On the contrary, no significant changes in PSII photochemical efficiency, phosphorylation pattern and CP complexes interactions were observed in CT pea. In conclusion, our results indicate that different responses of the LHCII phosphorylation to chilling stress take place in CT and CS plants, and that kinetics of LHCII phosphorylation and interactions of P-LHCII with photosynthetic complexes may be crucial to chilling stress response. Acknowledgments: presented work was financed by the National Science Centre, Poland grant No.: 2016/23/D/NZ3/01276

Keywords: LHCII, phosphorylation, chilling stress, pea, runner bean

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
145 Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Ana R. B. Figueiredo, Paula M. R. Correia, Fernando J. Gonçalves

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The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial analysis that revealed that the bean, apple and cinnamon jam was globally better accepted. However, with this study, the consumers determined that the bean and carrot jam had the most attractive color and the bean and apple jam the better consistency. Additionally, it was possible to analyze the jams for their chemical components, namely fat, fiber, protein, sugars and antioxidant activity. The obtained results showed that the bean and carrot jam had the highest lipid content, while the bean, apple and cinnamon jam had the highest fiber content, when compared to the other two jams. Regarding the sugar content, both jams with apple revealed similar sugar values, which were higher than the sugar content of the bean and carrot jam. The antioxidant activity was on average 10 mg TE/g.

Keywords: Bean jam, chemical composition, sensorial analysis, product acceptability

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144 Comparative Analysis of White Bean Cake and Soybean Cake through Sensory Evaluation

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu, Linda Ojeyokan

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This study produced and compared the acceptability of white bean cake (akara) and soy bean cake (akara) through sensory evaluation. Two varieties of beans were used; white (haricot) beans and soy beans; processed in the wet (paste) form and dry (flour) form. They were all used in the production of samples of bean cake (akara) under the same condition. Sensory evaluation was carried out on the products; 100% white beans cake paste was labeled (A1), 50% white bean and 50% soya bean cake paste was (B1), 100% white bean cake flour was (A2); 50% white bean cake flour and 50% soya bean cake flour (B2). A five (5) point hedonic scale rating, very good (5), good (4), fair (3), poor (2) and very poor (1) was administered on the ten panel of judge. 40 questionnaires were administered to the general public to access their knowledge of soya beans akara. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine which product is more acceptable. Table, percentages and mean score were methods employed in analyzing data collected. The analysis revealed that soya bean (akara) is generally acceptable except for sample B1 that was rated poor with 2 points, white beans cake was rated very well with 5 points. It was recommended that the hospitality industry could introduce soya bean cakes in the breakfast menu. Families can also include these products in their breakfast.

Keywords: akara, bean cake, soybean, white bean

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143 Utilization of Sorghum and White Bean Flour for the Production of Gluten Free and Iron Rich Cookies

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Emmerich Berghofer

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The aim of this study is to find innovative approaches for the production of iron rich foods using natural iron sources. The vehicle used for fortification was sorghum whereas the iron fortificant was white bean. Fortified sorghum cookies were produced from five different mixtures; iron content, iron bioavailability, cookie texture and acceptability were measured. Cookies were prepared from the three fortified flours; 90% sorghum + 10% white bean (S9WB1), 75% sorghum + 25% white bean (S3WB1), 50% sorghum + 50% white bean (S1WB1) and 100% sorghum and 100% white bean. The functional properties gave good results in all the formulations. Statistical analysis of the iron content in the five different cookies showed that there was significant difference at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA). The iron content in all the recipes including the 100% sorghum improved, the increase ranging from 112% in 100% sorghum cookies to 476% in 100% white bean cookies. This shows that the increase in the amount of white bean used for fortification leads to the improvement of the iron content of cookies. The bioavailability of iron ranged from 21.3% in 100% sorghum to 28.6% in 100% white bean cookies. In the 100% sorghum cookies the iron bioavailability increased with reference to raw sorghum due to the addition of eggs. Bioavailability of iron in raw sorghum is 16.2%, therefore the percentage increase ranged from 5.1% to 28.6%. The cookies prepared from 10% white bean (S9WB1) scored the lowest 3.7 in terms of acceptability. They were the least preferred due to their somewhat soft texture. The 30% white bean cookies (S3WB1) gave results comparable to the 50% (S1WB1) and 100% white bean cookies. Cookies prepared with high percentage of white bean (50% and 100% white bean) gave the best results. Therefore cookie formulations from sorghum and white bean are successful in improving the iron status of anaemic individuals.

Keywords: sorghum, white bean, iron content, bioavailable iron, cookies

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142 Assessment of Relationships between Agro-Morphological Traits and Cold Tolerance in Faba Bean (vicia faba l.) and Wild Relatives

Authors: Nisa Ertoy Inci, Cengiz Toker

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Winter or autumn-sown faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one the most efficient ways to overcome drought since faba bean is usually grown under rainfed where drought and high-temperature stresses are the main growth constraints. The objectives of this study were assessment of (i) relationships between cold tolerance and agro-morphological traits, and (ii) the most suitable agro-morphological trait(s) under cold conditions. Three species of the genus Vicia L. includes 109 genotypes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), three genotypes of narbon bean (V. narbonensis L.) and two genotypes of V. montbretii Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Davis and Plitmann were sown in autumn at highland of Mediterranean region of Turkey. All relatives of faba bean were more cold-tolerant than the faba bean genotypes. Three faba bean genotypes, ACV-42, ACV-84 and ACV-88, were selected as sources of cold tolerance under field conditions. Path and correlation coefficients and factor and principal component analyses indicated that biological yield should be evaluated in selection for cold tolerance under cold conditions ahead of many agro-morphological traits. The seed weight should be considered for selection in early breeding generations because they had the highest heritability.

Keywords: cold tolerance, faba bean, narbon bean, selection

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141 Effect of BYMV on Faba Bean Productivity in Libya

Authors: Abdullah S. El-Ammari, Omar M. El-Sanousi, Fathi S. El-Mesmari

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One distinct virus namely bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (BYMV) was isolated from naturally infected faba bean plants and identified through the serological reaction, mechanical transmission, host range and symptomology. To study the effect of BYMV on faba bean crop productivity, the experiment was carried out in naturally infected field in a completely randomized design with two treatments (the early infected plants and the lately infected plants). T- test was used to analyze the data. plants of each treatment were harvested when the pods were fully ripened. Early infection significantly reduced the yield of broad bean crop leading to 85.04% yield loss in productivity of seeds per plant, 72.42% yield loss in number of pods per plants, 31.58% yield loss in number of seeds per pod and 18.2% yield loss in weight of seeds per plant.

Keywords: bean yellow mosaic potyvirus, faba bean, productivity, libya

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
140 Activities of Processors in Domestication/Conservation and Processing of Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) in Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Authors: Iwuchukwu J. C., Mbah C.

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There seems to be dearth on information on how oil bean is being exploited, processed and conserved locally. This gap stifles initiatives on the evaluation of the suitability of the methods used and the invention of new and better methods. The study; therefore, assesses activities of processors in domestication/conservation and processing of oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) Enugu State, South East Nigeria. Three agricultural zones, three blocks, nine circles and seventy-two respondents that were purposively selected made up the sample for the study. Data were presented in percentage, chart and mean score. The result shows that processors of oil bean in the area were middle-aged, married with relatively large household size and long years of experience in processing. They sourced oil bean they processed from people’s farmland and sourced information on processing of oil bean from friends and relatives. Activities involved in processing of oil bean were boiling, dehulling, washing, sieving, slicing, wrapping. However, the sequence of these activities varies among these processors. Little or nothing was done by the processors towards the conservation of the crop while poor storage and processing facilities and lack of knowledge on modern preservation technique were major constraints to processing of oil bean in the area. The study concluded that efforts should be made by governments and processors through cooperative group in provision of processing and storage facility for oil bean while research institute should conserve and generate improved specie of the crop to arouse interest of the farmers and processors on the crop which will invariably increase productivity.

Keywords: conservation, domestication, oil bean, processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
139 Different Tillage Possibilities for Second Crop in Green Bean Farming

Authors: Yilmaz Bayhan, Emin Güzel, Ömer Barış Özlüoymak, Ahmet İnce, Abdullah Sessiz

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In this study, determining of reduced tillage techniques in green bean farming as a second crop after harvesting wheat was targeted. To this aim, four different soil tillage methods namely, heavy-duty disc harrow (HD), rotary tiller (ROT), heavy-duty disc harrow plus rotary tiller (HD+ROT) and no-tillage (NT) (seeding by direct drill) were examined. Experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The highest green beans yields were obtained in HD+ROT and NT as 5,862.1 and 5,829.3 Mg/ha, respectively. The lowest green bean yield was found in HD as 3,076.7 Mg/ha. The highest fuel consumption was measured 30.60 L ha-1 for HD+ROT whereas the lowest value was found 7.50 L ha-1 for NT. No tillage method gave the best results for fuel consumption and effective power requirement. It is concluded that no-tillage method can be used in second crop green bean in the Thrace Region due to economic and erosion conditions.

Keywords: green bean, soil tillage, yield, vegetative

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
138 The Effect of Fermentation and Germination on the Nutrient and Antinutrient Composition of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) Flour

Authors: P. N. Okeke

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Fermentation and germination of legumes have been an ancient practice. In this study, the influence of fermentation and germination on the chemical properties of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) flour were evaluated. The flours were analyzed for their proximate and mineral composition, using the standard assay methods. The result showed that fermentation and germination increased the moisture, protein and ash content of the flours while fiber, fat and carbohydrate were decreased. The protein level of fermented and germinated lima bean increased from 21.06–26.60%. The minerals: iron, copper, zinc, and phosphorous increased due to germination and fermentation. The phytate and tannin levels were drastically reduced in both the fermented and germinated flours. The result of this study revealed that fermentation and germination makes the nutrient in lima beans more accessible as it reduces the anti-nutrients. It is therefore recommended that lima bean be process accordingly for richer and more bio-availability of the nutrients.

Keywords: nutrient, anti-nutrient, fermented, germinated, lima bean flour

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
137 Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Cavitating Turbulent Flow in Francis Turbines with ANSYS

Authors: Raza Abdulla Saeed

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In this study, the three-dimensional cavitating turbulent flow in a complete Francis turbine is simulated using mixture model for cavity/liquid two-phase flows. Numerical analysis is carried out using ANSYS CFX software release 12, and standard k-ε turbulence model is adopted for this analysis. The computational fluid domain consist of spiral casing, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. The computational domain is discretized with a three-dimensional mesh system of unstructured tetrahedron mesh. The finite volume method (FVM) is used to solve the governing equations of the mixture model. Results of cavitation on the runner’s blades under three different boundary conditions are presented and discussed. From the numerical results it has been found that the numerical method was successfully applied to simulate the cavitating two-phase turbulent flow through a Francis turbine, and also cavitation is clearly predicted in the form of water vapor formation inside the turbine. By comparison the numerical prediction results with a real runner; it’s shown that the region of higher volume fraction obtained by simulation is consistent with the region of runner cavitation damage.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, hydraulic francis turbine, numerical simulation, two-phase mixture cavitation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
136 Effects of Beeswax Coating on the Properties of Cocoa Bean Shell Based Papers

Authors: Sri Rejeki, Tamrin Tamrin, RH. F. Faradilla, Muhammad N. Ibrahim, Mariana M., Irnawati Irnawati

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Cocoa bean shells, despite their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, are still considered as an underutilized agricultural waste. The functional properties and their lignocelluloses content make cocoa bean shells a potential material for paper-based food packaging. In our previous research, we have successfully produced papers from cocoa bean shells that had antioxidant and antibacterial activities. However, the hydrophilic nature of the lignocelluloses of cocoa bean shells hinders the application of the paper to be used as a food packaging. In this research, we aimed to study the effects of beeswax coating on the wettability and mechanical properties of the paper. The coating was done by dipping the papers in beeswax solution several times and in three different beeswax concentrations. The number of dipping and beeswax concentration significantly (p<0.05) affected the water contact angle of the papers. Results show that the water contact angle increases dramatically due to the coating treatment. The control paper or uncoated paper had a contact angle of 40.50o, while the contact angle of the best-coated paper (D3B3: 3x dipping, 3g/10mL beeswax) reached 96.93o. Both tensile strength and percent elongation were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the coating treatment. This showed that beeswax was a potential organic material to improve the hydrophobicity of paper from cocoa bean shells without any undesirable effects on the mechanical properties of the paper.

Keywords: cocoa bean shell, paper, beeswax, coating, contact angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
135 Phytotoxicity of Lead on the Physiological Parameters of Two Varieties of Broad Bean (Vicia faba)

Authors: El H. Bouziani, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad

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The phytotoxicity of heavy metals can be expressed on roots and visible part of plants and is characterized by molecular and metabolic answers at various levels of organization of the whole plant. The present study was undertaken on two varieties of broad bean Vicia faba (Sidi Aïch and Super Aguadulce). The device was mounted on a substrate prepared by mixing sand, soil and compost, the substrate was artificially contaminated with three doses of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] 0, 500 and 1000 ppm. Our objective is to follow the behavior of plant opposite the stress by evaluating the physiological parameters. The results reveal a reduction in the parameters of the productivity (chlorophyll and proteins production) with an increase in the osmoregulators (soluble sugars and proline).These results show that the production of broad bean is strongly modified by the disturbance of its internal physiology under lead exposure.

Keywords: broad bean, lead, stress, physiological parameters, phytotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
134 Physicochemical and Antioxidative Characteristics of Black Bean Protein Hydrolysates Obtained from Different Enzymes

Authors: Zhaojun Zheng, Yuanfa Liu, Jiaxin Li, Jinwei Li, Yong-jiang Xu, Chen Cao

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Black bean is an excellent protein source for preparing hydrolysates, which attract much attention due to their biological activity. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black bean protein, hydrolyzed by ficin, bromelain or alcalase until 300 min of hydrolysis. Results showed that bromelain and alcalase hydrolysates possessed a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) than that of ficin, thereby presenting different ultraviolet absorption, fluorescence intensity, and circular dichroism. Moreover, all hydrolysates possessed the capacity to scavenge DPPH radical with the lowest IC₅₀ of 21.11 µg/mL, as well as to chelate ferrous ion (Fe²⁺) with the IC₅₀ values ranging from 6.82 to 30.68 µg/mL. Intriguingly, the oxidation of linoleic acid, sunflower oil, and sunflower oil-in-water emulsion was remarkedly retarded by the three selected protein hydrolysates, especially by bromelain-treated protein hydrolysate, which might attribute to their high hydrophobicity and emulsifying properties. These findings can provide strong support for black bean protein hydrolysates to be employed in food products acting as natural antioxidant alternatives.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, black bean protein hydrolysate, emulsion physicochemical properties, sunflower oil

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133 Antioxidant Enzymes and Crude Mitochondria ATPases in the Radicle of Germinating Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Different Concentrations of Crude Oil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

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The study examined the effect of Bonny Light whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle of germinating bean (Vigna unguiculata). The percentage germination, level of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme, and mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase activities were measured in the radicle of bean after 7, 14, and 21 days post germination. Viable bean seeds were planted in soils contaminated with 10ml, 25ml, and 50ml of whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) to obtain 2, 5, and 10% v/w crude oil contamination. There was dose dependent reduction of the number of bean seeds that germinated in the contaminated soils compared with control (p<0.001). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as, adenosine triphosphatase enzymes, were also significantly (p<0.001) altered in the radicle of the plants grown in contaminated soil compared with the control. Generally, the level of lipid peroxidation was highest after 21 days post germination when compared with control. Stress to germinating bean caused by Bonny Light crude oil or its water soluble fraction resulted in adaptive changes in crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, bonny light crude oil, radicle, mitochondria ATPases

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132 The Influence of Addition of Asparagus Bean Powder (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) on Gonad Maturity of Nilem Carp (Osteochilus hasselti) at the Floating Net Cage of Cirata Reservoir

Authors: Rita Rostika, Junianto, Zulfiqar W. Ibrahim, Iskandar, Lantun P. Dewanti

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The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of asparagus bean powder and its most effective administration dose to improve the gonad maturity of nilem carp (Osteochilus hasselti). The research is conducted in October-July 2017 located at Cirata Reservoir and Aquaculture Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor. The research employs an experimental method using a Complete Random Design (RAL) with six treatments and three repetitions. The treatments include the addition of asparagus bean powder by 0% (Control), 4% per kg of feed, 5% per kg of feed, 6% per kg of feed, 7% per kg of feed, as well as the addition of vitamin E essential as the control. The results show that the addition of asparagus bean powder to the feed may influence the gonad maturity of nilem carp shown by its Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) parameter, fecundity, egg diameter and egg reaching its maturity phase or GVBD (Germinal Vesicle Breakdown). The best administration dose influencing nilem carp is the addition of asparagus bean powder by 7% per kg of feed with the average GSI of 15.02%, relative fecundity of 137 eggs/g of fish parent weight, egg diameter of 1,263 mm, and egg reaching its maturity phase (GVBD) of 78.15%.

Keywords: asparagus bean powder, nilem carp, gonad maturity, Cirata reservoir

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131 Power Generation from Sewage by a Micro-Hydraulic Turbine

Authors: Tomomi Uchiyama, Tomoko Okayama, Yukio Ide

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This study is concerned with the development of a micro-hydraulic turbine for power generation installed in sewer pipes. The runner has a circular hollow around the central (rotating) axis so that solid materials included in water can be easily flow through the runner without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are also conducted. The hollow is very effective to make polyester fibers pass through the turbine. The guide vane is useful to heighten the turbine performance. But it is easily blocked by the fibers, making the turbine lose the function.

Keywords: micro-hydraulic turbine, power generation, sewage, sewer pipe

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130 Determination of Phytostearol in Serial Grains

Authors: Sumonthip Kongtun Janphuk

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Ten cereal grains that usually used as ingredients in healthy products were studied for phytosteryl glucoside contents. β-sitosteryl glucoside in 10 cereal grains, including Phasecolus vulgaris L. (kidney bean), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus), Vigna radiate L. (mung bean), Coix lacrymajobi (job’tears), Oryza sativa. (red rice), Glycine max L. Merrill. (soybean),Cucurbita maschata Decne (pumpkin) and Helianthas annuus (sunflower seeds), were analyzed using Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All grains were extracted with methanol before analysis. Red bean showed the maximum phytosteryl glucoside content of 0.42% w/w. The content of others were as follows: pumpkin seed 0.173%, mung bean 0.099 %, soybean 0.07%, dried moringa seed 0.067%, lotus seed 0.044%, sorghum 0.032%, sunflower seed 0.016%, Job's tears 0.012%, and brown rice 0.006%.

Keywords: cereal grains, phytosterol, β-sitosteryl glucoside, food analysis.

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129 Bean in Turkey: Characterization, Inter Gene Pool Hybridization Events, Breeding, Utilizations

Authors: Faheem Shahzad Baloch, Muhammad Azhar Nadeem, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Ephrem Habyarimana, Gonul Comertpay, Tolga Karakoy, Rustu Hatipoglu, Mehmet Zahit Yeken, Vahdettin Ciftci

Abstract:

Turkey is considered a bridge between Europe, Asia, and Africa and possibly played an important role in the distribution of many crops including common bean. Hundreds of common bean landraces can be found in Turkey, particularly in farmers’ fields, and they consistently contribute to the overall production. To investigate the existing genetic diversity and hybridization events between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools in the Turkish common bean, 188 common bean accessions (182 landraces and 6 modern cultivars as controls) were collected from 19 different Turkish geographic regions. These accessions were characterized using phenotypic data (growth habit and seed weight), geographic provenance, 12557 high-quality whole-genome DArTseq markers, and 3767 novel DArTseq loci were also identified. The clustering algorithms resolved the Turkish common bean landrace germplasm into the two recognized gene pools, the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools. Hybridization events were observed in both gene pools (14.36% of the accessions) but mostly in the Mesoamerican (7.97% of the accessions), and was low relative to previous European studies. The lower level of hybridization witnessed the existence of Turkish common bean germplasm in its original form as compared to Europe. Mesoamerican gene pool reflected a higher level of diversity, while the Andean gene pool was predominant (56.91% of the accessions), but genetically less diverse and phenotypically more pure, reflecting farmers greater preference for the Andean gene pool. We also found some genetically distinct landraces and overall, a meaningful level of genetic variability which can be used by the scientific community in breeding efforts to develop superior common bean strains.

Keywords: bean germplasm, DArTseq markers, genotyping by sequencing, Turkey, whole genome diversity

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128 Interaction of Water Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Green Bean under Different P Levels

Authors: Shahram Baghban Cirus, Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie

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In a greenhouse experiment, green bean were inoculated with three levels of phosphorus (P1, P2, P3, respectively 0, 50, 100 kgP/h) and four levels of water stress(Fc1, Fc2, Fc3 ,Fc4, respectively 0.8Fc, 0.7Fc, 0.6Fc, 0.5Fc) and one species of VA mycorrhiza (Glomus versiform) or left uninocolated as control plants in the steril soil. AM colonization significantly stimulated plant growth, leaf area, shoot, and pod dry weight but water stress significantly decreased colonization, pod and shoot dry weight, and shoot P. The use P levels significantly increased leaf area, shoot, and pod dry weight, pods length, and colonization.

Keywords: green bean, plant growth, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

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127 Phenotypic and Symbiotic Characterization of Rhizobia Isolated from Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) in Moroccan Soils

Authors: Y. Hajjam, I. T. Alami, S. M. Udupa, S. Cherkaoui

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Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important food legume crop in Morocco. It is mainly used as human food and feed for animals. Faba bean also plays an important role in cereal-based cropping systems, when rotated with cereals it improves soil fertility by fixing N2 in root nodules mediated by Rhizobium. Both faba bean and its biological nitrogen fixation symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium are affected by different stresses such as: salinity, drought, pH, heavy metal, and the uptake of inorganic phosphate compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenotypic diversity among the faba bean rhizobial isolates and to select the tolerant strains that can fix N2 under environmental constraints for inoculation particularly for affected soils, in order to enhance the productivity of faba bean and to improve soil fertility. Result have shown that 62% of isolates were fast growing with the ability of producing acids compounds , while 38% of isolates are slow growing with production of alkalins. Moreover, 42.5% of these isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 and the index of solubilization was ranged from 2.1 to 3.0. The resistance to extreme pH, temperature, water stress heavy metals and antibiotics lead us to classify rhizobial isolates into different clusters. Finally, the authentication test under greenhouse conditions showed that 55% of the rhizobial isolates could induce nodule formation on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) under greenhouse experiment. This phenotypic characterization may contribute to improve legumes and non legumes crops especially in affected soils and also to increase agronomic yield in the dry areas.

Keywords: rhizobia, vicia faba, phenotypic characterization, nodule formation, environmental constraints

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
126 Study of Pseudomonas as Biofertiliser in Salt-Affected Soils of the Northwestern Algeria: Solubilisation of Calcium Phosphate and Growth Promoting of Broad Bean (Vcia faba)

Authors: A. Djoudi, R. Djibaou, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad

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Our study focuses on the study of a bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas solubilizing tricalcium phosphate. They were isolated from rhizosphere of a variety of broad bean grown in salt-affected soils (electrical conductivity between 4 and 8 mmhos/cm) of the irrigated perimeter of Mina in northwestern Algeria. Isolates which have advantageous results in the calcium phosphate solubilization index test were subjected to identification using API20 then used to re-inoculate the same soil in pots experimentation to assess the effects of inoculation on the growth of the broad bean (Vicia faba). Based on the results obtained from the in-vitro tests, two isolates P5 and P8 showed a significant effect on the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate with an index I estimated at 314% and 283% sequentially. According to the results of in-vivo tests, the inoculation of the soil with P5 and P8 were significantly and positively influencing the growth in biometric parameters of the broad bean. Inoculation with strain P5 has promoted the growth of the broad bean in stem height, stem fresh weight and stem dry weight of 108.59%, 115.28%, 104.33%, respectively. Inoculation with strain P8 has fostered the growth of the broad bean stem fresh weight of 112.47%. The effect of Pseudomonas on the development of Vicia faba is considered as an interesting process by which PGPR can increase biological production and crop protection.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Vicia faba, promoting of plant growth, solubilization tricalcium phosphate

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125 Effects of Excess-Iron Stress on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Efficiency of Yardlong-Bean Plants

Authors: Hong Li, Tingxian Li, Xudong Wang, Qinghuo Lin

Abstract:

Excess-iron (Fe) stresses involved in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation are not understood. Our objectives were to investigate the tolerance of yardlong-bean plants to soil excess-Fe stress and antagonistic effects of organic amendments and rhizobial inoculants on plant root nodulation and stem ureide formation. The study was conducted in the tropical Hainan Island during 2012-2013. The soil was strongly acidic (pH 5.3±0.4) and highly variable in Fe concentrations(596±79 mg/kg). The treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks. The treatment effects were significant on root nodulation, stem ureide, amino acids, plant N/Fe accumulation and bean yields (P<0.05). The yardlong-bean stem allantoin, amino acids and nitrate concentrations and relative ureide % declined with high soil Fe concentrations (>300 mg/kg). It was concluded that the co-variance of excess Fe stress could inhibit legume symbiotic N fixation efficiency. Organic amendments and rhizobial inoculants could help improve crop tolerance to excess Fe stress.

Keywords: atmospheric N fixation, root nodulation, soil Fe co-variance, stem ureide, yardlong-bean plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
124 Rural Women’s Skill Acquisition in the Processing of Locust Bean in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Adekunle, A. M. Omoare, W. O. Oyediran

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess rural women’s skill acquisition in the processing of locust bean in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 90 women locust bean processors for this study. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The result showed that the mean age of respondents was 40.72 years. Most (70.00%) of the respondents were married. The mean processing experience was 8.63 years. 93.30% of the respondents relied on information from fellow locust beans processors and friends. All (100%) the respondents did not acquire improved processing skill through trainings and workshops. It can be concluded that the rural women’s skill acquisition on modernized processing techniques was generally low. It is hereby recommend that the rural women processors should be trained by extension service providers through series of workshops and seminars on improved processing techniques.

Keywords: locust bean, processing, skill acquisition, rural women

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
123 Effects of Roasting as Preservative Method on Food Value of the Runner Groundnuts, Arachis hypogaea

Authors: M. Y. Maila, H. P. Makhubele

Abstract:

Roasting is one of the oldest preservation method used in foods such as nuts and seeds. It is a process by which heat is applied to dry foodstuffs without the use of oil or water as a carrier. Groundnut seeds, also known as peanuts when sun dried or roasted, are among the oldest oil crops that are mostly consumed as a snack, after roasting in many parts of South Africa. However, roasting can denature proteins, destroy amino acids, decrease nutritive value and induce undesirable chemical changes in the final product. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of various roasting times on the food value of the runner groundnut seeds. A constant temperature of 160 °C and various time-intervals (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were used for roasting groundnut seeds in an oven. Roasted groundnut seeds were then cooled and milled to flour. The milled sundried, raw groundnuts served as reference. The proximate analysis (moisture, energy and crude fats) was performed and the results were determined using standard methods. The antioxidant content was determined using HPLC. Mineral (cobalt, chromium, silicon and iron) contents were determined by first digesting the ash of sundried and roasted seed samples in 3M Hydrochloric acid and then determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. All results were subjected to ANOVA through SAS software. Relative to the reference, roasting time significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced moisture (71%–88%), energy (74%) and crude fat (5%–64%) of the runner groundnut seeds, whereas the antioxidant content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased (35%–72%) with increasing roasting time. Similarly, the tested mineral contents of the roasted runner groundnut seeds were also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced at all roasting times: cobalt (21%–83%), chromium (48%–106%) and silicon (58%–77%). However, the iron content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) unaffected. Generally, the tested runner groundnut seeds had higher food value in the raw state than in the roasted state, except for the antioxidant content. Moisture is a critical factor affecting the shelf life, texture and flavor of the final product. Loss of moisture ensures prolonged shelf life, which contribute to the stability of the roasted peanuts. Also, increased antioxidant content in roasted groundnuts is essential in other health-promoting compounds. In conclusion, the overall reduction in the proximate and mineral contents of the runner groundnuts seeds due to roasting is sufficient to suggest influences of roasting time on the food value of the final product and shelf life.

Keywords: dry roasting, legume, oil source, peanuts

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
122 Effect of Chemical Mutagen on Seeds Germination of Lima Bean

Authors: G. Ultanbekova, Zh. Suleimenova, Zh. Rakhmetova, G. Mombekova, S. Mantieva

Abstract:

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of free-living bacteria that colonize the rhizosphere, enhance plant growth of many cereals and other important agricultural crops and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth. In the present study, strain improvement of PGPR isolates were carried out by chemical mutagenesis for the improvement of growth and yield of lima bean. Induced mutagenesis is widely used for the selection of microorganisms producing biologically active substances and further improving their activities. Strain improvement is usually done by classical mutagenesis which involves exposing the microbes to chemical or physical mutagens. The strains of Pseudomonas putida 4/1, Azotobacter chroococcum Р-29 and Bacillus subtilis were subjected to mutation process for strain improvement by treatment with a chemical agent (sodium nitrite) to cause mutation and were observed for its consequent action on the seeds germination and plant growth of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Bacterial mutant strains of Pseudomonas putida M-1, Azotobacter chroococcum M-1 and Bacillus subtilis M-1, treated with sodium nitrite in the concentration of 5 mg/ml for 120 min, were found effective to enhance the germination of lima bean seeds compared to parent strains. Moreover, treatment of the lima bean seeds with a mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis M-1 had a significant stimulation effect on plant growth. The length of the stems and roots of lima bean treated with Bacillus subtilis M-1 increased significantly in comparison with parent strain in 1.6 and 1.3 times, respectively.

Keywords: chemical mutagenesis, germination, kidney bean, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
121 Impact of Zinc on Heavy Metals Content, Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Faba Bean in Milk Ripeness

Authors: M. Timoracká, A. Vollmannová., D.S. Ismael, J. Musilová

Abstract:

We investigated the effect of targeted contaminated soil by Zn model conditions. The soil used in the pot trial was uncontaminated. Faba beans (cvs Saturn, Zobor) were harvested in milk ripeness. With increased doses applied into the soil the strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and Zn amount in seeds of both of faba bean cultivars was confirmed. Despite the high Zn doses applied into the soil in model conditions, in all variants the determined Zn amount in faba bean cv. Saturn was just below the maximal allowed content in foodstuffs given by the legislative. In cv. Zobor the determined Zn content was higher than maximal allowed amount (by 2% and 12%, respectively). Faba bean cvs. Saturn and Zobor accumulated (in all variants higher than hygienic limits) high amounts of Pb and Cd. The contents of all other heavy metals were lower than hygienic limits. With increased Zn doses applied into the soil the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity determined in seeds of both cultivars Saturn and Zobor were increased. The strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity in seeds of faba bean cultivars was confirmed.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, faba bean, polyphenols, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
120 Normal and Peaberry Coffee Beans Classification from Green Coffee Bean Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

Authors: Hira Lal Gope, Hidekazu Fukai

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop a system which can identify and sort peaberries automatically at low cost for coffee producers in developing countries. In this paper, the focus is on the classification of peaberries and normal coffee beans using image processing and machine learning techniques. The peaberry is not bad and not a normal bean. The peaberry is born in an only single seed, relatively round seed from a coffee cherry instead of the usual flat-sided pair of beans. It has another value and flavor. To make the taste of the coffee better, it is necessary to separate the peaberry and normal bean before green coffee beans roasting. Otherwise, the taste of total beans will be mixed, and it will be bad. In roaster procedure time, all the beans shape, size, and weight must be unique; otherwise, the larger bean will take more time for roasting inside. The peaberry has a different size and different shape even though they have the same weight as normal beans. The peaberry roasts slower than other normal beans. Therefore, neither technique provides a good option to select the peaberries. Defect beans, e.g., sour, broken, black, and fade bean, are easy to check and pick up manually by hand. On the other hand, the peaberry pick up is very difficult even for trained specialists because the shape and color of the peaberry are similar to normal beans. In this study, we use image processing and machine learning techniques to discriminate the normal and peaberry bean as a part of the sorting system. As the first step, we applied Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as machine learning techniques to discriminate the peaberry and normal bean. As a result, better performance was obtained with CNN than with SVM for the discrimination of the peaberry. The trained artificial neural network with high performance CPU and GPU in this work will be simply installed into the inexpensive and low in calculation Raspberry Pi system. We assume that this system will be used in under developed countries. The study evaluates and compares the feasibility of the methods in terms of accuracy of classification and processing speed.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, coffee bean, peaberry, sorting, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
119 The Biofertilizer Effect of Pseudomonas of Salt Soils of the North-West Algerian, Study of Comportment of Bean (Vicia Faba)

Authors: Djoudi Abdelhak, Djibaoui Rachid, Reguieg Yassaad Houcine

Abstract:

Our study focuses on the identification of some species of Pseudomonas (P4, P5, P7 and P8) isolated from saline soils in northwestern Algeria and the effect of their metabolites on the growth of Alternaria alternata the causative agent of the blight of the bean disease (Vicia faba). We are also interested in stimulating the growth of this plant species in saline conditions (60 mM/l NaCl) and the absence of salts. The analysis focuses on rates of inhibition of mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata strain and the rate of growth of plants inoculated with strains of Pseudomonas expressed by biometrics. According to the results of the in-vitro test, P5 and P8 species and their metabolites showed a significant effect on mycelia growth and production of spores of Alternaria alternata. The in-vivo test shows that the species P8 and P5 were significantly and positively influencing the growth in biometric parameters of the bean in saline and salt-free condition. Inoculation with strain P5 has promoted the growth of the bean in stem height, stem fresh weight and dry weight of stems of 108.59%, 115.28%, 104.33%, respectively, in the presence of salt Inoculation with strain P5 has fostered the growth of the bean stem fresh weight of 112.47% in the presence of salt The effect of Pseudomonas species on the development of Vicia faba and the growth of Alternaria alternata is considering new techniques and methods of biological production and crop protection.

Keywords: pseudomonas, vicia faba, alternaria alternata, promoting of plant growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
118 Tofu Flour as a Protein Sources

Authors: Dicky Eka Putra, S. P. Nadia Chairunissa, Lidia Paramita, Roza Hartati, Ice Yolanda Puri

Abstract:

Background: Soy bean and the products such as tofu, tempeh and soy milk are famous in the community. Moreover, another product is tofu flour which is not familiar in Indonesia yet and it is well known as Okara. There are massive differences of energy, protein and carbohydrate between them which is know as good for protein sources as well. Unfortunately, it is seldom used as food variety. Basically, it can be benefit in order to create many products for example cakes, snacks and some desserts. Aim: the study was in order to promote the benefit of tofu flour as school feeding of elementary school and baby porridge and also to compare the nutrient. Method: Soy pulp was filtered and steamed approximately 30 minutes. Then, it was put at a plate under sunrise or barked on the oven for 10 hours at 800C. When it have dried and milling and tofu flour is ready to be used. Result: Tofu flour could be used as substitute of flour and rice flour when people want to cook some foods. In addition, some references said that soy bean is good for a specific remedy for the proper functioning of the heart, liver, kidneys, stomach, and bowels, constipation, as a stimulant for the lungs, for eradication of poison from the system, improving the complexion by cleaning the skin of impurities, and stimulating the growth and appearance of the hair. Discussion: Comparing between soy bean, tofu and tofu flour which has difference amount of nutrients. For example energy 382 kcal, 79 kcal and 393 kcal respectively and also protein 30.2 kcal, 7.8 kcal, and 17.4 kcal. In addition, carbohydrate of soy pulp was high than soy bean and tofu (30.1 kcal). Finally, local should replace flour, rice and gelatin rice flour with tofu flour.

Keywords: tofu flour, protein, soy bean, school feeding

Procedia PDF Downloads 306