Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: β-sitosteryl glucoside

25 Determination of Phytostearol in Serial Grains

Authors: Sumonthip Kongtun Janphuk

Abstract:

Ten cereal grains that usually used as ingredients in healthy products were studied for phytosteryl glucoside contents. β-sitosteryl glucoside in 10 cereal grains, including Phasecolus vulgaris L. (kidney bean), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus), Vigna radiate L. (mung bean), Coix lacrymajobi (job’tears), Oryza sativa. (red rice), Glycine max L. Merrill. (soybean),Cucurbita maschata Decne (pumpkin) and Helianthas annuus (sunflower seeds), were analyzed using Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All grains were extracted with methanol before analysis. Red bean showed the maximum phytosteryl glucoside content of 0.42% w/w. The content of others were as follows: pumpkin seed 0.173%, mung bean 0.099 %, soybean 0.07%, dried moringa seed 0.067%, lotus seed 0.044%, sorghum 0.032%, sunflower seed 0.016%, Job's tears 0.012%, and brown rice 0.006%.

Keywords: cereal grains, phytosterol, β-sitosteryl glucoside, food analysis.

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24 Bioavailability Enhancement of Ficus religiosa Extract by Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Karunanithi Priyanka, Ramoji Kosuru, Raju Prasad Sharma

Abstract:

Herbal drugs are well known for their mixed pharmacological activities with the benefit of no harmful side effects. The use of herbal drugs is limited because of their higher dose requirement, frequent drug administration, poor bioavailability of phytochemicals and delayed onset of action. Ficus religiosa, a potent anti-oxidant plant useful in the treatment of diabetes and cancer was selected for the study. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of Ficus religiosa extract was developed for the enhancement in oral bioavailability of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside, principal components present in the extract. Hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication method was used to develop extract loaded SLN. Developed extract loaded SLN were characterized for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and kinetics, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractrometry and stability studies. Entrapment efficiency of optimized extract loaded SLN was found to be 68.46 % (56.13 % of stigmasterol and 12.33 % of β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside, respectively). RP HPLC method development was done for simultaneous estimation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside in Ficus religiosa extract in rat plasma. Bioavailability studies were carried out for extract in suspension form and optimized extract loaded SLN. AUC of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside were increased by 6.7-folds by 9.2-folds, respectively in rats treated with extract loaded SLN compared to extract suspension. Also, Cmax of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside were increased by 4.3-folds by 3.9-folds, respectively in rats treated with extract loaded SLN compared to extract suspension. Mean residence times (MRT) for stigmasterol were found to be 12.3 ± 0.67 hours from extract and 7.4 ± 2.1 hours from SLN and for β-sitosterol-d-glucoside, 10.49 ± 2.9 hours from extract and 6.4 ± 0.3 hours from SLN. Hence, it was concluded that SLN enhanced the bioavailability and reduced the MRT of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside in Ficus religiosa extract which in turn may lead to reduction in dose of Ficus religiosa extract, prolonged duration of action and also enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

Keywords: Ficus religiosa, phytosterolins, bioavailability, solid lipid nanoparticles, stigmasterol and β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside

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23 Chemical Analysis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Asphodelus Aestivus Brot. Flowers

Authors: Mai M. Farid, Mona El-Shabrawy, Sameh R. Hussein, Ahmed Elkhateeb, El-Said S. Abdel-Hameed, Mona M. Marzouk

Abstract:

Asphodelus aestivus Brot. Is a wild plant distributed in Egypt and is considered one of the five Asphodelus spp. from the family Asphodelaceae; it grows in dry grasslands and on rocky or sandy soil. The chemical components of A. aestivus flowers extract were analyzed using different chromatographic and spectral techniques and led to the isolation of two anthraquinones identified as emodin and emodin-O-glucoside. In addition to, five flavonoid compounds;kaempferol,Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside,Apigenin-6-C-glucoside-7-O-glucoside (Saponarine), luteolin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside, Isoorientin-O-malic acid which is a new compound in nature. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the flower extract of A. aestivus led to the identification of twenty- two compounds characterized by the presence of flavones, flavonols, and flavone C-glycosides. While GC/MS analysis led to the identification of 24 compounds comprising 98.32% of the oil, the major components of the oil were 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrieoic acid methyl ester 28.72%, and 9, 12-Octadecadieroic acid (Z, Z)-methyl ester 19.96%. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the aqueous methanol extract of A. aestivus flowers against HEPG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, and A549 culture was examined and showed moderate inhibition (62.3±1.1)% on HEPG2 cell line followed by (36.8±0.2)% inhibition on HCT-116 and a weak inhibition (5.7± 0.0.2) on MCF-7 cell line followed by (4.5± 0.4) % inhibition on A549 cell line and this is considered the first cytotoxic report of A. aestivus flowers.

Keywords: Anthraquinones, Asphodelus aestivus, Cytotoxic activity, Flavonoids, LC-ESI-MS/MS

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22 Nitrate-Induced Biochemical and Histopathological Changes in the Kidney of Rats: Attenuation by Hyparrhenia hirta

Authors: Hanen Bouaziz, Moez Rafrafi, Ghada Ben Salah, Kamel Jamoussi, Tahia Boudawara, Najiba Zeghal

Abstract:

The present study investigated the protective role of Hyparrhenia hirta against sodium nitrate (NaNO3)-induced nephrotoxicity. A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) method was developed to separate and identify flavonoids in Hyparrhenia hirta. Seven flavonoids were identified as 3-O-methylquercetin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-8-C-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside and luteolin-6-C-glucoside. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group and two treated groups during 50 days with NaNO3 administered either alone in drinking water or co-administered with Hyparrhenia hirta. NaNO3 treatment induced a significant increase in plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric while urinary level decreased significantly. Nephrotoxicity induced by NaNO3 was characterized by significant increase in creatinine clearance. In parallel, a significant increase in malondialdehyde level along with a concomitant decrease in total glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were observed in the kidney after NaNO3 treatment. The histopathological changes in kidney after NaNO3 administration were shrunken. There were renal tubule cell degeneration and infiltration of mononuclear cells. Most glomeruli revealed shrinkage, a wide capsular space and a peri-glomerular mononuclear cells infiltration. Hyparrhenia hirta supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of the abnormalities cited above. The results concluded that the treatment with Hyparrhenia hirta had a significant role in protecting the animals from nitrate-induced kidney dysfunction.

Keywords: flavonoids, hyparrhenia hirta, kidney, nitrate toxicity, oxidative stress, rat

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21 Inhibitory Activity of Podospermum canum and Its Active Components on Collagenase, Elastase and Hyaluronidase Enzymes

Authors: Ozlem Bahadir Acikara, Mert Ilhan, Ekin Kurtul, Karel Smejkal, Esra Kupeli Akkol

Abstract:

Present study is aimed to investigate in vitro inhibitory effects of the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Podospermum canum (Asteraceae) on hyaluronidase, collagenase, and elastase enzymes using a bioassay-guided fractionation. Inhibitory effects of the extract, sub-extracts, fractions obtained by column chromatography, and isolated compounds on collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase were performed by using in vitro enzyme inhibitory assays based on spectrophotometric evaluation. The ethyl acetate and remaining water extracts prepared from the plant displayed significant inhibitory activities on collagenase and elastase, while petroleum ether and chloroform extracts did not show any inhibitory activity. Eleven known compounds: arbutin, 6'-O-caffeoylarbutin, cichoriin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-rutinoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, procatechuic acid, and compound 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid 4-(6-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranosyl) benzyl ester have been obtained from ethyl acetate sub-extract of the plant through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation. Results of the present study have revealed that among the isolated compounds, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-rutinoside and isoorientin showed potent enzyme inhibitory activities. However, methanolic extract of P. canum displayed a greater inhibitory activity than fractions and isolated compounds both on collagenase and elastase.

Keywords: Asteraceae, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, Podospermum canum

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20 Genoprotective Effect of Lepidium sativum L. Seed Methanolic Extract on Cyclophosphamide-Induced DNA Damage in Mice and Characterization of Its Flavonoidal Content

Authors: Iman A. A. Kassem, Ayman A. Farghaly, Zeinab M. Hassan, Farouk R. Melek, Neveen S. Ghaly

Abstract:

Lipidium sativum L, an annual herb that grows to 50 cm, is known as an important member of family Brassicaceae. Besides its nutritional value, the seeds were widely used in folk medicine for treatment of cough, asthma, and headache. It was also reported to possess hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. In this study, the genoprotective properties of L. sativum seed methanolic extract (LSME) were evaluated in vivo. Three groups of mice were given LSME for five consecutive days at the three dose levels 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. The three groups were then injected intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.wt. to induce DNA damage. A group received only cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg b.wt.) served as control. LSME significantly inhibited the DNA aberrations in mice caused by cyclophosphamide in a dose-dependent manner in the two groups that received LSME at 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. dose levels. The chromosomal aberrations' inhibitory indices were calculated as 18 and 31 in mice bone marrow cells and 27 and 48 in mice spermatocytes, respectively. Phytochemical examination carried out by us revealed that flavonoids were the main chemical constituents of LSME. The major flavonoids kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were isolated and characterized. It was concluded that the genoprotective effect of LSME might be attributed to the presence of flavonoids which are well-known for their antioxidant properties.

Keywords: cyclophosphamide, flavonoids, genoprotective effect, Lepidium sativum

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19 Extraction and Analysis of Anthocyanins Contents from Different Stage Flowers of the Orchids Dendrobium Hybrid cv. Ear-Sakul

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Khumthong Mahawongwiriya

Abstract:

Dendrobium hybrid cv. Ear-Sakul has become one of the important commercial commodities in Thailand agricultural industry worldwide, either as potted plants or as cut flowers due to the attractive color produced in flower petals. Anthocyanins are the main flower pigments and responsible for the natural attractive display of petal colors. These pigments play an important role in functionality, such as to attract animal pollinators, classification, and grading of these orchids. Dendrobium hybrid cv. Ear-Sakul has been collected from local area farm in different stage flowers (F1, F2-F5, and F6). Anthocyanins pigment were extracted from the fresh flower by solvent extraction (MeOH–TFA 99.5:0.5v/v at 4ºC) and purification with ethyl acetate. The main anthocyanins components are cyanidin, pelargonidin, and delphinidin. Pure anthocyanin contents were analysis by UV-Visible spectroscopy technique at λ max 535, 520 and 546 nm respectively. The anthocyanins contents were converted in term of monomeric anthocyanins pigment (mg/L). The anthocyanins contents of all sample were compared with standard pigments cyanidin, pelargonidin and delphinidin. From this experiment is a simple extraction and analysis anthocyanins content in different stage of flowers results shown that monomeric anthocyanins pigment contents of different stage flowers (F1, F2-F5 and F6 ): cyanidin – 3 – glucoside (mg/l) are 0.85+0.08, 24.22+0.12 and 62.12+0.6; Pelargonidin 3,5-di- glucoside(mg/l) 10.37+0.12, 31.06+0.8 and 81.58+ 0.5; Delphinidin (mg/l) 6.34+0.17, 18.98+0.56 and 49.87+0.7; and the appearance of extraction pure anthocyanins in L(a, b): 2.71(1.38, -0.48), 1.06(0.39,-0.66) and 2.64(2.71,-3.61) respectively. Dendrobium Hybrid cv. Ear-Sakul could be used as a source of anthocyanins by simple solvent extraction and stage of flowers as a guideline for the prediction amount of main anthocyanins components are cyanidin, pelargonidin, and delphinidin could be application and development in quantities, and qualities with the advantage for food pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

Keywords: analysis, anthocyanins contents, different stage flowers, Dendrobium Hybrid cv. Ear-Sakul

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18 The Influence of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Haskap Composition and Anti-Diabetic Properties

Authors: Aruma Baduge Kithma Hansanee De Silva

Abstract:

Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a recently commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting effects. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most prominent anthocyanin of haskap berries. Recent literature reveals the efficacy of C3G in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects in various ways, including improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, including alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvesting date on haskap composition, biological properties, and antidiabetic properties. The polyphenolic compounds present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa and Evie among five harvesting stages (H1-H5), were extracted separately in 80% ethanol and analyzed to characterize their phenolic profiles. The haskap berries contain different types of polyphenols including flavonoids and phenolic acids. Anthocyanin is the major type of flavonoid. C3G is the most prominent type of anthocyanin, which accounts for 79% of total anthocyanin in all extracts. The variety Larissa at H5 contained the highest average C3G content, and its ethanol extract had the highest (1212.3±63.9 mg/100g FW) while, Evie at H1 contained the lowest C3G content (96.9±40.4 mg/100g FW). The average C3G content of Larissa from H1 – H5 varies from 208 – 1212 mg/100g FW. Quarcetin-3-Rutinoside (Q3Rut) is the major type of flavonol and highest is observed in Rebecca at H4 (47.81 mg/100g FW). The haskap berries also contained phenolic acids, but approximately 95% of the phenolic acids consisted of chlorogenic acid. The cultivar Larissa has a higher level of anthocyanin than the other four cultivars. The highest total phenolic content is observed in Evie at H5 (2.97±1.03 mg/g DW) while the lowest in Rebecca at H1 (1.47±0.96 mg/g DW). The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was higher (14.40±2.21 µmol TE/ g DW) among other cultivars and the lowest observed in Aurora at H3 (5.69±0.34 µmol TE/ g DW). Furthermore, Larissa H5 shows the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion Larissa, at H5 demonstrated highest polyphenol composition and antidiabetic properties.

Keywords: anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, haskap, type 2 diabetes

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17 Production of Functional Crackers Enriched with Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Extract

Authors: Rosa Palmeri, Julieta I. Monteleone, Antonio C. Barbera, Carmelo Maucieri, Aldo Todaro, Virgilio Giannone, Giovanni Spagna

Abstract:

In recent years, considerable interest has been shown in the functional properties of foods, and a relevant role has been played by phenolic compounds, able to scavenge free radicals. A more sustainable agriculture has to emerge to guarantee food supply over the next years. Wheat, corn, and rice are the most common cereals cultivated, but also other cereal species, such as barley can be appreciated for their peculiarities. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a C3 winter cereal that shows high resistance at drought and salt stresses. There are growing interests in barley as ingredient for the production of functional foods due to its high content of phenolic compounds and Beta-glucans. In this respect, the possibility of separating specific functional fractions from food industry by-products looks very promising. Olive leaves represent a quantitatively significant by-product of olive grove farming, and are an interesting source of phenolic compounds. In particular, oleuropein, which provide important nutritional benefits, is the main phenolic compound in olive leaves and ranges from 17% to 23% depending upon the cultivar and growing season period. Together with oleuropein and its derivatives (e.g. dimethyloleuropein, oleuropein diglucoside), olive leaves further contain tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and a series of secondary metabolities structurally related to them: verbascoside, ligstroside, hydroxytyrosol glucoside, tyrosol glucoside, oleuroside, oleoside-11-methyl ester, and nuzhenide. Several flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, and phenolic acids have also described in olive leaves. The aim of this work was the production of functional food with higher content of polyphenols and the evaluation of their shelf life. Organic durum wheat and barley grains contain higher levels of phenolic compounds were used for the production of crackers. Olive leaf extract (OLE) was obtained from cv. ‘Biancolilla’ by aqueous extraction method. Two baked goods trials were performed with both organic durum wheat and barley flours, adding olive leaf extract. Control crackers, made as comparison, were produced with the same formulation replacing OLE with water. Total phenolic compound, moisture content, activity water, and textural properties at different time of storage were determined to evaluate the shelf-life of the products. Our the preliminary results showed that the enriched crackers showed higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity than control. Alternative uses of olive leaf extracts for crackers production could represent a good candidate for the addition of functional ingredients because bakery items are daily consumed, and have long shelf-life.

Keywords: barley, functional foods, olive leaf, polyphenols, shelf life

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16 Recovery of Polyphenolic Phytochemicals From Greek Grape Pomace (Vitis Vinifera L.)

Authors: Christina Drosou, Konstantina E. Kyriakopoulou, Andreas Bimpilas, Dimitrios Tsimogiannis, Magdalini C. Krokida

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Rationale: Agiorgitiko is one of the most widely-grown and commercially well-established red wine varieties in Greece. Each year viticulture industry produces a large amount of waste consisting of grape skins and seeds (pomace) during a short period. Grapes contain polyphenolic compounds which are partially transferred to wine during winemaking. Therefore, winery wastes could be an alternative cheap source for obtaining such compounds with important antioxidant activity. Specifically, red grape waste contains anthocyanins and flavonols which are characterized by multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antiviral and antibacterial properties attributed mainly to their antioxidant activity. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) is considered an effective way to recover phenolic compounds, since it combines the advantage of mechanical effect with low temperature. Moreover, green solvents can be used in order to recover extracts intended for used in the food and nutraceutical industry. Apart from the extraction, pre-treatment process like drying can play an important role on the preservation of the grape pomace and the enhancement of its antioxidant capacity. Objective: The aim of this study is to recover natural extracts from winery waste with high antioxidant capacity using green solvents so they can be exploited and utilized as enhancers in food or nutraceuticals. Methods: Agiorgitiko grape pomace was dehydrated by air drying (AD) and accelerated solar drying (ASD) in order to explore the effect of the pre-treatment on the recovery of bioactive compounds. UAE was applied in untreated and dried samples using water and water: ethanol (1:1) as solvents. The total antioxidant potential and phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. Finally, the profile of anthocyanins and flavonols was specified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The efficiency of processes was determined in terms of extraction yield, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and the anthocyanins and flavovols profile. Results & Discussion: The experiments indicated that the pre-treatment was essential for the recovery of highly nutritious compounds from the pomace as long as the extracts samples showed higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Water: ethanol (1:1) was considered a more effective solvent on the recovery of phenolic compounds. Moreover, ASD grape pomace extracted with the solvent system exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=0.36±0.01mg/mL) and phenolic content (TPC=172.68±0.01mgGAE/g dry extract), followed by AD and untreated pomace. The major compounds recovered were malvidin3-O-glucoside and quercetin3-O-glucoside according to the HPLC analysis. Conclusions: Winery waste can be exploited for the recovery of nutritious compounds using green solvents such as water or ethanol. The pretreatment of the pomace can significantly affect the concentration of phenolic compounds, while UAE is considered a highly effective extraction process.

Keywords: agiorgitico grape pomace, antioxidants, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction

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15 Effects of Vitexin on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats

Authors: Mehdi Sheikhi, Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Esmail Abbasi, Mahsa Shafiee

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Various synthetic derivatives of natural flavonoids are known to have neuroactive properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of vitexin (5, 7, 4-trihydroxyflavone-8-glucoside), a flavonoid found in such plants as tartary buckwheat sprouts, wheat leaves phenolome, Mimosa pudica Linn and Passiflora spp, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. To achieve this goal, we assessed the effects of vitexin on memory retrieval in the presence or absence of scopolamine using a step-through passive avoidance trial. In the first part of the study, vitexin (25, 50, and 100 μM) was administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) before acquisition trials. In the second part, vitexin, at the same doses, was administered before scopolamine (10 μg, i.c.v.) and before the acquisition trials. During retention tests, vitexin (100 μM) in the absence of scopolamine significantly increased the stepthrough latencies compared to scopolamine. In addition, vitexin (100 μM) significantly reversed the shorter step-through latencies induced by scopolamine (P < 0.05). These results indicate that vitexin has a potential role in enhancing memory retrieval. A possible mechanism is modulation of cholinergic receptors; however, other mechanisms may be involved in its effects in acute exposure.

Keywords: flavonoid, memory retrieval, passive avoidance, scopolamine, vitexin

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14 Phytochemical and Biological Study of Chrozophora oblongifolia

Authors: Al-Braa Kashegari, Ali M. El-Halawany, Akram A. Shalabi, Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim, Hossam M. Abdallah

Abstract:

Chemical investigation of Chrozophora oblongifolia resulted in the isolation of five major compounds that were identified as apeginin-7-O-glucoside (1), quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid (2), quercetin-3-O-glacturonic acid (3), rutin (4), and 1,3,6-trigalloyl glucose (5). The identity of isolated compounds was assessed by different spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional NMR. The isolated compounds were tested for their antioxidant activity using different assays viz., DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, ORAC, and metal chelation effects. In addition, the inhibition of target enzymes involved in the metabolic syndrome, such as alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, were carried out. Moreover, the effect of the compounds on the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) as one of the major complications of oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in metabolic syndromes were carried out using BSA‐fructose (bovine serum albumin), BSA-methylglyoxal, and arginine methylglyoxal models. The pure isolates showed a protective effect in metabolic syndromes as well as promising antioxidant activity. The results showed potent activity of compound 5 in all measured parameters meanwhile, none of the tested compounds showed activity against pancreatic lipase.

Keywords: Chrozophora oblongifolia, antioxidant, pancreatic lipase, metabolic syndromes

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13 Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extracts

Authors: P. Rahnemoon, M. Sarabi Jamab, M. Javanmard Dakheli, A. Bostan

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In recent years, tendency to use of natural antimicrobial agents in food industry has increased. Pomegranate peels containing phenolic compounds and anti-microbial agents, are counted as valuable source for extraction of these compounds. In this study, the extraction of pomegranate peel extract was carried out at different ethanol/water ratios (40:60, 60:40, and 80:20), temperatures (25, 40, and 55 ˚C), and time durations (20, 24, and 28 h). The extraction yield, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were measured. ‎Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts were determined against some food-borne ‎microorganisms such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, ‎‎Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar diffusion and MIC methods. Results showed that at ethanol/water ratio 60:40, 25 ˚C and 24 h maximum amount of phenolic compounds ‎(‎‎349.518‎‏ ‏mg gallic acid‏/‏g dried extract), ‎flavonoids (250.124 mg rutin‏/‏g dried extract), anthocyanins (252.047 ‎‏‏mg ‎cyanidin‎3‎glucoside‏/‏‎100 g dried extract), and the strongest antimicrobial activity were obtained. ‎All extracts’ antimicrobial activities were demonstrated against every tested ‎‎microorganisms.‎Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest sensitivity among the tested ‎‎‎microorganisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, pomegranate peel, solvent extraction‎

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12 The Influence of Temperature on Apigenin Extraction from Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by Superheated Water

Authors: J. Švarc-Gajić, A. Cvetanović

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Apigenin is a flavone synthetized by many plants and quite abundant in chamomile (Matricaria recutita) in its free form and in the form of its glucoside and different acylated forms. Many beneficial health effects have been attributed to apigenin, such as chemo-preventive, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antispasmodic. It is reported that free apigenin is much more bioactive in comparison to its bound forms. Subcritical water offers numerous advantages in comparison to conventional extraction techniques, such as good selectivity, low price and safety. Superheated water exhibits high hydrolytical potential which must be carefully balanced when using this solvent for the extraction of bioactive molecules. Moderate hydrolytical potential can be exploited to liberate apigenin from its bound forms, thus increasing biological potential of obtained extracts. The polarity of pressurized water and its hydrolytical potential are highly dependent on the temperature. In this research chamomile ligulate flowers were extracted by pressurized hot water in home-made subcritical water extractor in conditions of convective mass transfer. The influence of the extraction temperature was investigated at 30 bars. Extraction yields of total phenols, total flavonoids and apigenin depending on the operational temperature were calculated based on spectrometric assays. Optimal extraction temperature for maximum yields of total phenols and flavonoids showed to be 160°C, whereas apigenin yield was the highest at 120°C.

Keywords: superheated water, temperature, chamomile, apigenin

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11 Phytochemistry and Biological Activity of Extracts of the Red Raspberry Rubus rosifolius

Authors: Theresa Campbell, Camille Bowen-Forbes, William Aalbersberg

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Differences in the sensory properties of two subtly distinct varieties of Rubus rosifolius lead to the examination of their anthocyanin, essential oil and polyphenol profiles. In both cases, notable differences were identified. Pelargonidin-3-rhutinoside (17.2 mg/100 g FW) and Cyanidin-3-glucoside (66.2 mg/100g FW) proved to be the dominant anthocyanins in the red and wine red varieties respectively. Linalool and terpineol were the major constituents of the essential oil from the red variety; however, those of the wine red variety are unidentified. In regard to phenolic compounds, caffeic acid and quercetin were in a higher concentration in the red variety (1.85 and 0.73 mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 1.22 and 0.34 mg/100g FW respectively in the wine red fruits); while ellagic acid and ferulic acid were of a higher concentration in the wine red variety (0.92 and 0.84mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 0.15 and 0.48 mg/100g FW respectively in the red variety). The methanol extract of both fruit varieties showed great antioxidant activity. Analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts against the growth of drug resistant pathogens revealed that they are active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), rifampicin resistant S. aureus (RRSA), wild-type S. aureus (WTSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). Activity was also reported against several food-borne pathogens including two strains of E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Enterobacter aerogenes. The cytotoxicity of the various extracts was assessed and the essential oil extracts exhibited superior activity. The phenolic composition and biological activity of the fruits indicate that their consumption is beneficial to health and also that their incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals should be considered.

Keywords: phytochemicals, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, Rubus rosifolius

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10 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Nine Genotypes of Thai Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Pitchaon Maisuthisakul, Ladawan Changchub

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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple diet in Thailand. Rice cultivation is traditional occupation of Thailand which passed down through generations. The 1 Rai 1 san project is new agricultural theory according to sufficient economy using green technology without using chemical substances. This study was conducted to evaluate total phenolics using HPLC and colorimetric methods including total anthocyanin content of Thai rice extracting by simulated gastric and intestinal condition and to estimate antioxidant capacity using DPPH and thiocyanate methods. Color and visible spectrum of rice grains were also investigated. Rice grains were classified into three groups according to their color appearance. The light brown grain genotypes are Sin Lek, Jasmine 105, Lao Tek and Hawm Ubon. The red group is Sang Yod and Red Jasmine. Genotypes Kum, Hawm Kanya and Hawm Nil are black rice grains. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was found in only black rice genotypes, whereas chlorogenic acid was found in all rice grains. The black rice had higher phenolic content than red and light brown samples. Phenolic acids constitute a small portion of phenolic compounds after digestion in human and contribute to the antioxidant activity of Thai rice grains. Anthocyanin contents of all rice extracts ranged from 45.9 to 442.1 mg CGE/kg. All rice extracts showed the antioxidant efficiency lower than ferulic acid. Genotype Kum and Hawm nil exhibited the ability of antioxidant efficiency higher than α-tocopherol. Interestingly, the visible spectrum of only black rice genotypes showed the maximum peak at 530-540 nm. The results suggest that consumption of black rice gives more health benefits of grain to consumer.

Keywords: rice, phenolic, antioxidant, anthocyanin

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9 Treatment of Histopathological Symptoms in N-Nitrosopyrrolidine Induced Changes in Lung Tissue by Isolated Flavonoid from Indigofera tinctoria

Authors: Aastha Agarwal, Veena Sharma

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N-nitrosopyrollidine or NPYR is a tobacco-specific nitrosamine which upon intoxicated causes abnormal production of Reactive Oxygen Species disrupt the endogenous antioxidant system. The study was designed to evaluate the histological changes in lung tissue of Mus musculus in NPYR administered lungs and effect of isolated flavonoid 3,6-dihydroxy-(3’,4’,7’-trimethoxyphenyl)-chromen-4-one-7-glucoside (ITC) from experimental plant Indigofera tinctorial. Post treatment with isolated compound significantly restored the abnormal symptoms and changes in pulmonary tissue. Transverse section of mouse lung in control animals appeared as a thin lace. Histologically, most of the lung was arranged as alveoli which were thin walled structures made up of single layered squamous epithelial cells. In the transverse section of lung at 100 X will clearly show the component of alveoli, surround by a thin layer of connective tissue and blood vessels. Smaller bronchioles were lined by cuboidal epithelial cells while larger bronchioles were lined by ciliated columnar epithelium layer while in NPYR intoxicated lungs signs of vast pulmonary damages and carcinogenesis as alveolar damage, necrosis, DADs or defused alveolar damages hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia and next stage of carcinogenesis were revealed. Treatment with ITC showed the significant positive changes in the lung tissue due to the side hydroxyl and methoxy groups in its structure which help in combating oxidative injuries and give protection from the free radicals generated during the metabolism of NPYR in body. Thus, histopathological analysis confirms the development of the cancerous conditions in the lung tissue in mice model and the protective effects of ITC.

Keywords: flavonoid, histopathology, Indigofera tinctoria, lung

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8 Mentha piperita Formulations in Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents: Phenolic Profile and Biological Activity

Authors: Tatjana Jurić, Bojana Blagojević, Denis Uka, Ružica Ždero Pavlović, Boris M. Popović

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Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) represent a class of modern systems that have been developed as a green alternative to toxic organic solvents, which are commonly used as extraction media. It has been considered that hydrogen bonding is the main interaction leading to the formation of NADES. The aim of this study was phytochemical characterization and determination of the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Mentha piperita leaf extracts obtained by six choline chloride-based NADES. NADES were prepared by mixing choline chloride with different hydrogen bond donors in 1:1 molar ratio following the addition of 30% (w/w) water. The mixtures were then heated (60 °C) and stirred (650 rpm) until the clear homogenous liquids were obtained. The Mentha piperita extracts were prepared by mixing 75 mg of peppermint leaves with 1 mL of NADES following by the heating and stirring (60 °C, 650 rpm) within 30 min. The content of six phenolics in extracts was determined using HPLC-PDA. The dominant compounds presented in peppermint leaves - rosmarinic acid and luteolin 7-O-glucoside, were extracted by NADES at a similar level as 70% ethanol. The microdilution method was applied to test the antibacterial activity of extracts. Compared with 70% ethanol, all NADES systems showed higher antibacterial activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram -), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram +), Escherichia coli (Gram -), and Salmonella enterica (Gram -), especially NADES containing organic acids. The majority of NADES extracts showed a better ability to neutralize DPPH radical than conventional solvent and similar ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ ions in FRAP assay. The obtained results introduce NADES systems as the novel, sustainable, and low-cost solvents with a variety of applications.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, green extraction, natural deep eutectic solvents, polyphenols

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7 Effect of Xenobiotic Bioactive Compounds from Grape Waste on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pigs

Authors: Ionelia Taranu, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Mihai Alexandru Gras, Mihai Laurentiu Palade, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Sanda Chedea

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In the last decade bioactive compounds from grape waste are investigated as new therapeutic agents for the inhibition of carcinogenesis and other diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize several bioactive compounds (polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids) of a dried grape pomace (GP) derived from a Romanian winery and further to evaluate their effect on inflammation and oxidative markers in liver of pig used as animal model. The total polyphenol concentration of pomace was 36.2g gallic acid equiv /100g. The pomace was rich in polyphenols from the flavonoids group, the main class being flavanols (epicatechins, catechin, epigallocatechin, procyanidins) and antocyanins (Malvidin 3-O-glucoside). The highest concentration was recorded for epicatechin (51.96g/100g) and procyanidin dimer (22.79g/100g). A high concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) especially ω-6 fatty acids (59.82 g/100g fat) was found in grape pomace. 20 crossbred TOPIG hybrid fattening pigs were randomly assigned (n = 10) to two experimental treatments: a normal diet (control group) and a diet included 5% grape pomace (GP group) for 24 days. The GP diet lowered the gene expression and protein concentration of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokines in liver suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect of GP diet. Concentration of hepatic TBARS also decreased, but the total antioxidant capacity (liver TEAC) and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) did not differ between the GP and control diet. The results showed that GP diet exerted an anti-inflammatory effect, but the 5% dietary inclusion modulated only partially the oxidative stress.

Keywords: animal model, inflammation, grape waste, immune organs

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6 Phenolic Rich Dry Extracts and Their Antioxidant Activity

Authors: R. Raudonis, L. Raudonė, V. Janulis, P. Viškelis

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Pharmacological and clinical studies demonstrated that phenolic compounds particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids are responsible for a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are regarded as natural antioxidants that play an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Qualitatively prepared dry extracts possess high stability and concentration of bio active compounds, facility of standardization and quality control. The aim of this work was to determine the phenolic and antioxidant profiles of Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Betula pendula Roth., Tilia cordata Mill., Sorbus aucuparia L. leaves dry extracts and to identify markers of antioxidant activity. Extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with FRAP post-column assay. Dry extracts are versatile forms possessing wide area of applications, final product ensure consistent phytochemical and functional properties. Seven flavonoids: rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin were identified in dry extract of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. leaves. Predominant compounds were flavonol glycosides which were chosen as markers for quantitative control of dry extracts. Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, isorhamnetin were prevailing compounds in Betula pendula Roth. leaves extract, whereas strongest ferric reducing activity was determined for chlorogenic acid and hyperoside. Notable amounts of protocatechuic acid and flavonol glycosides, rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, isoquercitrin were identified in the chromatographic profile of Tilia cordata Mill. Neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids were significantly dominant compounds in antioxidant profile in dry extract of Sorbus aucuparia L. leaves. Predominant compounds of antioxidant profiles could be proposed as functional markers of quality of phenolic rich raw materials. Dry extracts could be further used for manufacturing of pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals.

Keywords: dry extract, FRAP, antioxidant activity, phenolic

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5 Black Soybeans Show Acute and Chronic Liver Protective Functions against CCl4 Induced Liver Damage

Authors: Cheng-Kuang Hsu, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Chi-Chih Wang

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Black soybeans contain high amount of antioxidants including polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavones. The protective function of black soybean against CCl4 (a strong oxidant) induced acute and chronic liver damage was investigated in vivo using SD rats or ICR mouse. The evaluation of CCl4 induced oxidative stress in the liver tissues included the measurements of the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase GPx), as well as the level of histological lesion in the liver tissues. For chronic experiment, a decoction at the concentration of 100 or 1000 mg/kg of body weight, produced by baking black soybean at 130°C for 5 min and followed by immerging in 100°C hot water for 20 min, showed the inhibitory effect against CCl4 induced liver damage in SD rats. Hot-water extract (80 °C for 30 min) from un-preheated black soybean at the concentration of 200 mg/kg of body weight could not reduce ALT and AST levels in CCl4 treated SD rats, but the hot-water extract from preheated black soybean did enhance antioxidant enzymes activities, decline ALT and AST levels. Specially, the hot-water extract from the seed cost of black soybean had the highest liver protective function since it can reduce vacuolization and necrosis in the liver tissues. For acute experiment, the hot-water extracts from black soybean and the seed coat, as well as pure cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) could reduce ALT and AST levels of CCl4 induced ICR mouse. The decoction and hot-water extract from the seed coat of black soybean had higher total polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavones contents than those extracts from whole black soybean. Such results agreed with high liver protective function in the decoction and hot-water from the seed coat of black soybean. Black soybean showed protective function only after preheating process (baking at 130°C for 5 to 10 min) because preheating treatment damaged the cell wall and made the extraction of the antioxidants more effectively.

Keywords: black soybean, liver protective function, antioxidant, antioxidative stress

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4 The Effect of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Polyphenol Composition of Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) and Anti-diabetic Properties of Haskap Polyphenols

Authors: Aruma Baduge Kithma De Silva

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Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a newly commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including, anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting properties. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant anthocyanin of haskap berries. The compound C3G has the ability to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects through several ways, including inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), reduction of gluconeogenesis, improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvests maturity of haskap on C3G, other fruit quality characteristics and anti-diabetic activities of haskap berries using in vitro studies. The polyphenols present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa, and Evie harvested at five harvesting dates (H1-H5) apart from 2-3 days, were extracted separately. High-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyzes of polyphenols revealed that haskap berries contain predominantly anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids. The compound C3G was the most prominent anthocyanin, which is available in approximately 79% of total anthocyanin in four cultivars. The Larissa at H5 contained the highest C3G content. The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was greater than other cultivars. Furthermore, Larissa H5 showed the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion, the haskap variety and harvesting date influenced the polyphenol composition and biological properties. The variety Larissa, at H5 harvesting date, contained the highest polyphenol content and the ability of inhibition of the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme as well as DPP4 enzyme in order to reduce type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: anthocyanin, Haskap, type 2 diabetes, polyphenol

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3 Structure, Bioinformatics Analysis and Substrate Specificity of a 6-Phospho-β-Glucosidase Glycoside Hydrolase 1 Enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis

Authors: Wayde Veldman, Ozlem T. Bishop, Igor Polikarpov

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In bacteria, mono and disaccharides are phosphorylated during uptake into the cell via the widely used phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase transport system. As an initial step in the phosphorylated disaccharide metabolism pathway, certain glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) enzymes play a crucial role in releasing phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated monosaccharides. However, structural determinants for the specificity of these enzymes still need to be clarified. GH1 enzymes are known to have a wide array of functions. According to the CAZy database, there are twenty-one different enzymatic activities in the GH1 family. Here, the structure and substrate specificity of a GH1 enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis, hereafter known as BlBglH, was investigated. The sequence of the enzyme BlBglH was compared to the sequences of other characterized GH1 enzymes using sequence alignment, sequence identity calculations, phylogenetic analysis, and motif discovery. Through these various analyses, BlBglH was found to have sequence features characteristic of the 6-phospho-β-glucosidase activity enzymes. Additionally, motif and structure comparisons of the three most commonly studied GH1 enzyme-activities revealed a shared loop amongst the different structures that consist of different sequence motifs – this loop is thought to guide specific substrates (depending on activity) towards the active-site. To further affirm BlBglH enzyme activity, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed. Docking was carried out using 6-phospho-β-glucosidase enzyme-activity positive (p-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside-6-phosphate) and negative (p-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside-6-phosphate) control ligands, followed by 400 ns molecular dynamics simulations. The positive-control ligand maintained favourable interactions within the active site until the end of the simulation. The negative-control ligand was observed exiting the enzyme at 287 ns. Binding free energy calculations showed that the positive-control complex had a substantially more favourable binding energy compared to the negative-control complex. Jointly, the findings of this study suggest that the BlBglH enzyme possesses 6-phospho-β-glucosidase enzymatic activity.

Keywords: 6-P-β-glucosidase, glycoside hydrolase 1, molecular dynamics, sequence analysis, substrate specificity

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2 Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on in vitro Biosynthesis of Antioxidative Compounds in Callus Culture and Regenerated Plantlets Derived from Taraxacum officinale

Authors: Neha Sahu, Awantika Singh, Brijesh Kumar, K. R. Arya

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Taraxacum officinale Weber or dandelion (Asteraceae) is an important Indian traditional herb used to treat liver detoxification, digestive problems, spleen, hepatic and kidney disorders, etc. The plant is well known to possess important phenolic and flavonoids to serve as a potential source of antioxidative and chemoprotective agents. Biosynthesis of bioactive compounds through in vitro cultures is a requisite for natural resource conservation and to provide an alternative source for pharmaceutical applications. Thus an efficient and reproducible protocol was developed for in vitro biosynthesis of bioactive antioxidative compounds from leaf derived callus and in vitro regenerated cultures of Taraxacum officinale using MS media fortified with various combinations of auxins and cytokinins. MS media containing 0.25 mg/l 2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichloro phenoxyacetic acid) with 0.05 mg/l 2-iP [N6-(2-Isopentenyl adenine)] was found as an effective combination for the establishment of callus with 92 % callus induction frequency. Moreover, 2.5 mg/l NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid) with 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-Benzyl aminopurine) and 1.5 mg/l NAA showed the optimal response for in vitro plant regeneration with 80 % regeneration frequency and rooting respectively. In vitro regenerated plantlets were further transferred to soil and acclimatized. Quantitative variability of accumulated bioactive compounds in cultures (in vitro callus, plantlets and acclimatized) were determined through UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry) and compared with wild plants. The phytochemical determination of in vitro and wild grown samples showed the accumulation of 6 compounds. In in vitro callus cultures and regenerated plantlets, two major antioxidative compounds i.e. chlorogenic acid (14950.0 µg/g and 4086.67 µg/g) and umbelliferone (10400.00 µg/g and 2541.67 µg/g) were found respectively. Scopoletin was found to be highest in vitro regenerated plants (83.11 µg/g) as compared to wild plants (52.75 µg/g). Notably, scopoletin is not detected in callus and acclimatized plants, but quinic acid (6433.33 µg/g) and protocatechuic acid (92.33 µg/g) were accumulated at the highest level in acclimatized plants as compared to other samples. Wild grown plants contained highest content (948.33 µg/g) of flavonoid glycoside i.e. luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Our data suggests that in vitro callus and regenerated plants biosynthesized higher content of antioxidative compounds in controlled conditions when compared to wild grown plants. These standardized cultural conditions may be explored as a sustainable source of plant materials for enhanced production and adequate supply of oxidative polyphenols.

Keywords: anti-oxidative compounds, in vitro cultures, Taraxacum officinale, UPLC-MS/MS

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1 Organic Tuber Production Fosters Food Security and Soil Health: A Decade of Evidence from India

Authors: G. Suja, J. Sreekumar, A. N. Jyothi, V. S. Santhosh Mithra

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Worldwide concerns regarding food safety, environmental degradation and threats to human health have generated interest in alternative systems like organic farming. Tropical tuber crops, cassava, sweet potato, yams, and aroids are food-cum-nutritional security-cum climate resilient crops. These form stable or subsidiary food for about 500 million global population. Cassava, yams (white yam, greater yam, and lesser yam) and edible aroids (elephant foot yam, taro, and tannia) are high energy tuberous vegetables with good taste and nutritive value. Seven on-station field experiments at ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, India and seventeen on-farm trials in three districts of Kerala, were conducted over a decade (2004-2015) to compare the varietal response, yield, quality and soil properties under organic vs conventional system in these crops and to develop a learning system based on the data generated. The industrial, as well as domestic varieties of cassava, the elite and local varieties of elephant foot yam and taro and the three species of Dioscorea (yams), were on a par under both systems. Organic management promoted yield by 8%, 20%, 9%, 11% and 7% over conventional practice in cassava, elephant foot yam, white yam, greater yam and lesser yam respectively. Elephant foot yam was the most responsive to organic management followed by yams and cassava. In taro, slight yield reduction (5%) was noticed under organic farming with almost similar tuber quality. The tuber quality was improved with higher dry matter, starch, crude protein, K, Ca and Mg contents. The anti-nutritional factors, oxalate content in elephant foot yam and cyanogenic glucoside content in cassava were lowered by 21 and 12.4% respectively. Organic plots had significantly higher water holding capacity, pH, available K, Fe, Mn and Cu, higher soil organic matter, available N, P, exchangeable Ca and Mg, dehydrogenase enzyme activity and microbial count. Organic farming scored significantly higher soil quality index (1.93) than conventional practice (1.46). The soil quality index was driven by water holding capacity, pH and available Zn followed by soil organic matter. Organic management enhanced net profit by 20-40% over chemical farming. A case in point is the cost-benefit analysis in elephant foot yam which indicated that the net profit was 28% higher and additional income of Rs. 47,716 ha-1 was obtained due to organic farming. Cost-effective technologies were field validated. The on-station technologies developed were validated and popularized through on-farm trials in 10 sites (5 ha) under National Horticulture Mission funded programme in elephant foot yam and seven sites in yams and taro. The technologies are included in the Package of Practices Recommendations for crops of Kerala Agricultural University. A learning system developed using artificial neural networks (ANN) predicted the performance of elephant foot yam organic system. Use of organically produced seed materials, seed treatment in cow-dung, neem cake, bio-inoculant slurry, farmyard manure incubated with bio-inoculants, green manuring, use of neem cake, bio-fertilizers and ash formed the strategies for organic production. Organic farming is an eco-friendly management strategy that enables 10-20% higher yield, quality tubers and maintenance of soil health in tuber crops.

Keywords: eco-agriculture, quality, root crops, healthy soil, yield

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