Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: botanicals

17 Varietal Screening of Watermelon against Powdery Mildew Disease and Its Management

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Amer Habib, Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Sufyan, Iqra, Hasnain Sajjad

Abstract:

Except for few scattered cases, powdery mildew disease was not a big problem for watermelon in the past but with the outbreaks of its pathotypes, races 1W and 2W, this disease becomes a serious issue all around the globe. The severe outbreak of this disease also increased the rate of fungicide application for its proper management. Twelve varieties of watermelon were screened in Research Area of Department of Plant pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to check the incidence of powdery mildew disease. Disease inoculum was prepared and applied with the help of foliar spray method. Fungicides and plants extracts were also applied after the disease incidence. Percentage leaf surface area diseased was assessed visually with a modified Horsfall-Barratt scale. The results of the experiment revealed that among all varieties, WT2257 and Zcugma F1 were highly resistant showing less than 5% disease incidence while Anar Kali and Sugar baby were highly susceptible with disease incidence of more than 65%. Among botanicals neem extract gave best results with disease incidence of less than 20%. Besides neem, all other botanicals also gave significant control of powdery mildew disease than the untreated check. In case of fungicides, Gemstar showed least disease incidence i.e. < 10%, however besides control maximum disease incidence was observed in Curzate (> 30%).

Keywords: botanicals, fungicides, pathotypes, powdery mildew

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16 Storage of Maize Grains Using Powder and Oils of Commonly Used Medicinal Plants (Aframomum melegueta, Garcinia kola and Piper guineense)

Authors: T. O. Adejumo, O. S. Akinyemi

Abstract:

Powders and oils of Aframomum melegueta, Garcinia kola and Piper guineense were tested as preservatives for the storage of maize grains for four weeks. The concentrations of the powders were 32.5gkg-1, 65.0gkg-1 and 97.5gkg-1 maize, while those of oils were 0.85mlkg-1, 0.50mlkg-1 and 0.75mlkg-1 maize respectively. Powders of the three botanicals at 97.5gkg-1 maize possessed insecticidal effect on Sitophilus zeamais and also inhibitory activities on Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and Fusarium verticillioides, while little effect was observed for other concentrations. Oils of the three botanicals at 0.50mlkg-1 and 0.75mlkg-1 maize showed an insecticidal effect on S. zeamais and also inhibitory activities on A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. verticillioides, Penicillium and Rhizopus species. Oils showed more potential as a protectant against fungal and insect pest in storage maize grains than powders. Powders and oils of A. melegueta, G. kola and P. guineense could be successfully used as biopesticides.

Keywords: aframomum melegueta, garcinia kola, maize, powder, oils, piper guineense

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15 Antagonistic Effect of Indigenous Plant Extracts toward Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus laetus

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq Shahid, Ali Hassan, Umm-e- Rubab, Muhammad Nadeem

Abstract:

Insecticidal property of plant extracts was assessed toward dusky bug of cotton. Plant extracts consisted of bari pata (Ziziphus jajuba), Ak (Calotropis gigantean), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Bakine (Melia azedarach),Kanar (Nerium oleander),Kurtuma (Mitragyna speciosa) and one Control was also included with distilled water treatment. Forced feeding experiment was used to determine the antibiotic effect of bug plant extracts on dusky bug whereas Multi-choice experiment to determine the antixenosis/ repellent property of botanicals. It is evident from the results that mortality and antibiosis percentage of dusky bug due to the use of botanicals ranged from 15-95% and 20-87.3% respectively that was maximum in tobacoo extract followed by bakain and kurtama, minimum was on Ak, kanair and bakain extract. Non preference ranged from 14.28 to 85.7 where maximum non preference of dusky bug was found on bakain and kurtama followed by ak and kanair however minimum was on Bari pata extract. It was further found that local plant extract possessed insecticidal property toward dusky bug as well as also possesses repellency effect toward dusky bug, thus should be included in integrated pest management program of cotton in order to minimize the ill effects of pesticides it is compulsory to adopt eco-friendly methods of insect pest management.

Keywords: botanical extract, insecticidal and repellency activity, Gossypium hirsutum, oxycarenus laetus

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14 Evaluation of Nematicidal Action of Some Botanicals on Plant-Parasitic Nematode

Authors: Lakshmi, Yakshita Awasthi, Deepika, Lovleen Jha, Archna Kumar

Abstract:

From the back of centuries, plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) have been recognized as a major threat to agriculturalists globally. It causes 21.3% global food loss annually. The utilization of harmful chemical pesticides to minimize the nematode population may cause acute and delayed health hazards and harmful impacts on human health. In recent years, a variety of plants have been evaluated for their nematicidal properties and efficacy in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Several Phyto-nematicides are available, but most of them are incapable of sustainable management of PPN, especially Meloidogyne spp. Thus, there is a great need for a new eco-friendly, highly efficient, sustainable control measure for this nematode species. Keeping all these facts and after reviewing the literature, aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus, Tagetes erecta, and Azadirachta indica were prepared by adding distilled water (1 g sample mixed with 10ml of water). In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacious nature of targeted botanicals against PPN Meloidogyne spp. The mortality status of PPN was recorded by counting the live and dead individuals after applying 100μl of selected extract. The impact was observed at different time durations, i.e., 24h and 48h. The result showed that the highest 100% mortality was at 48h in all three extracts. Thus, these extracts, with the addition of a suitable shelf-life enhancer, may be exploited in different nematode control programs as an economical, sustainable measure.

Keywords: Meloidogyne, Cymbopogon citratus, Tagetes erecta, Azadirachta indica, nematicidal

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13 Ethnobotanical Findings on Botanicals Frequently Used for Children’s Health in South-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chioma Nwakamma, Garuba Omosun, Blessing Oyedemi

Abstract:

This research surveys and documents information on medicinal plants and their botanical preparations used in the treatment of children’s ailments in South-eastern Nigeria. Children under the age of 5 in developing countries suffer from diseases with high morbidity and mortality rate yearly due to inaccessible and unaffordable health care. Structured questionnaires were administered to the herbal sellers, traditional medicine practitioners, nursing mothers and adult dwellers to collect data on the names of plants used to treat the conditions, methods of preparation, duration of treatment, adverse effects and the methods of administration of the plant materials. A total of 135 plants belonging to 55 plant families were identified for the management of children’s health in the area. Common pediatric ailments which were said to be treated with herbal remedies by the respondents included malaria, pneumonia, stomach ache, diarrhea, dysentery, measles, chickenpox/smallpox, convulsion, jaundice, pile, ringworm, scabies, eczema, stubborn cough, scurvy, catarrh, wounds, boils, insect bites, food poison, cholera, and umbilical cord complications. Percentages of respondents were; herbal sellers (48.2%), traditional medical practitioners (21.6%), nursing mothers (11.1%) and others (19.1%). The most occurring plant families were Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Apocynaceae with eight species of plants each, followed by Annonaceae and Asteriaceae with 7 and 6 species, respectively. The recipes were made from the combination of different parts of two or more plants species, and others were made from single plant parts. Methods of extraction were mostly decoction, raw squeezing-out of the juice and infusion, while oral administration was the main route of administration.

Keywords: botanicals, ethnomedical, children's health, South Eastern Nigeria, survey

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12 Efficacy of Different Plant Extracts against Brevicoryne brassicae and Their Effects on Pollinators

Authors: Hafiza Javaria Ashraf, Asim Abbasi, Muhammad Hussnain Babar, Muhammad Sufyan

Abstract:

Brevicoryne brassicae (Aphid) is not only the major biotic constraint of rapeseed crop but also transmits 20 different viral pathogens that cause diseases in crucifers. Aphids cause major losses to rapeseed by stunting growth and yield, with real damage being contamination of harvested heads. The misuse of pesticides has led to tremendous economic losses and hazards to human health and environmental pollution. Thus, newer approaches for pest control are continuously being sought. The naturally occurring, biologically active plant-based products seem to have a prominent role in the development of future commercial pesticides not only for increased productivity but their eco-friendly nature. The present experiment was carried out in Research Area of Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad to check the efficacy of different botanicals against rapeseed aphid. The tested botanicals were, neem seed extract, neem leaf extract, dathora seed extract, kaner leaf extract and aak leaf extract. Insecticide, advantage 20 EC served as the positive control in the experiment. Data was recorded before and after 1, 3 and 7 days of treatment application. The results of the experiment revealed that neem seed extract exhibited maximum mortality (48.42%) followed by dathora (45.54%) and kaner leaf extract (40.29%) after 7 days of treatment application. However minimum mortality i.e. 26.64% was observed in case of aak leaf extract. Advantage encountered maximum mortality i.e. 86.14%. All treatments caused maximum mortality after 7 days of treatment application. In case of pollinators maximum population reduction was observed in case of insecticide (74.29%) while minimum reduction was observed in neem leaf extract (11.57%). Hence it was concluded that unlike insecticides, plant based products can be a better option for regulating pests and conserving beneficial insect fauna.

Keywords: Aphid, mortality, plant based, pollinators

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11 Influence of Cucurbitacin-Containing Phytonematicides on Nematode Biocontrol Agent: Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Jacqueline T. Madaure, Phatu W. Mashela

Abstract:

Cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides consistently suppress root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematode population densities. However, the impact of these products on nematode biocontrol agents is not documented. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides on growth of Trichoderma harzianum under in vitro conditions. The two phytonematicides were separately prepared to concentrations of 3% and used in poison plate assays. After exposure at different times from 0 to 72 h, there was 100% mycelial growth of T. harzianum. In conclusion, at the recommended concentrations of phytonematicides used in managing nematode population densities, there was no evidence of suppressive effects on growth of T. harzianum by the two phytonematicides.

Keywords: botanicals, crude extracts, cucumis africanus, cucumis myriocarpus, cucurbitacin a, cucurbitacin b, ethnomedicinal plants

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10 Evaluation of South African Plants with Acaricide Activity against Ticks

Authors: G. Fouché, J. N. Eloff, K. Wellington

Abstract:

Acaricides are commonly used to control ticks but are toxic, harmful to the environment and too expensive to resource-limited farmers. Traditionally, many communities in South Africa rely on a wide range of indigenous practices to keep their livestock healthy. One of these health care practices includes the use of medicinal plants and this offers an alternative to conventional medicine. An investigation was conducted at the CSIR in South Africa, and selected indigenous plants used in communities were scientifically evaluated for the management of ticks in animals. 17 plants were selected from 239 plants used traditionally in South Africa. Two different organic extracts were prepared from the 17 samples, resulting in 34 plant samples. These were tested for efficacy against two tick species, namely Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The plant extracts were also screened against Vero cells and most were found to have low cytotoxicity. This study has shown that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against ticks that are non-toxic and environmentally benign.

Keywords: South Africa, ticks, plant extracts, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

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9 Integrated Management of Diseases of Vegetables and Flower Crops Grown in Protected Condition under Organic Production System

Authors: Shripad Kulkarni

Abstract:

Plant disease is an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. Disease occurs on different parts of plants and cause heavy losses. Diagnosis of Problem is very important before planning any management practice and this can be done based on appearance of the crop, examination of the root and examination of the soil. There are various types of diseases such as biotic (transmissible) which accounts for ~30% whereas , abiotic (not transmissible) diseases are the major one with ~70% incidence. Plant diseases caused by different groups of organism’s belonging fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and few others have remained important in causing significant losses in different crops indicating the urgent need of their integrated management. Various factors favor disease development and different steps and methods are involved in management of diseases under protected condition. Management of diseases through botanicals and bioagents by modifying root and aerial environment, vector management along with care to be taken while managing the disease are analysed.

Keywords: organic production system, diseases, bioagents and polyhouse, agriculture

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8 Comparison of Overall Sensitivity of Meloidogyne incognita to Pure Cucurbitacins and Cucurbitacin-Containing Crude Extracts

Authors: Zakheleni P. Dube, Phatu W. Mashela

Abstract:

The Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data (CARD) model had been adopted as a valuable tool in enhancing the understanding of the efficacy of cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides on the suppression of nematodes. In most cases, for registration purposes, the active ingredients should be in purified form. Evidence in other phytonematicides suggested that purified active ingredients were less effective in suppression of nematodes. The objective of this study was to use CARD model to compare the overall sensitivities of Meloidogyne incognita J2 hatch, mobility and mortality to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicides, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B. Meloidogyne incognita eggs and J2 were exposed to 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00, 3.50, 4.00, 4.50 and 5.00% of each phytonematicide, whereas in purified form the concentrations were 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 μg.mL⁻¹. The exposure period to each concentration was 24-, 48- and 72-h. The overall sensitivities of J2 hatch to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B were 1, 30, 5 and 2 units, respectively, whereas J2 mobiltity were 3, 17, 3 and 6 units, respectively. For J2 mortality overall sensitivities to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B were 2, 4, 1 and 4 units, respectively. In conclusion, the two crude extracts, Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides were generally more potent to M. incognita compared to their pure active ingredients. The crude plant extract preparation is easy, and they could be an ideal tactic for the management of nematodes in resource poor farming communities.

Keywords: Botanicals, cucumin, leptodermin, plant extracts, triterpenoids

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7 Extraction and Antibacterial Studies of Oil from Three Mango Kernel Obtained from Makurdi, Nigeria

Authors: K. Asemave, D. O. Abakpa, T. T. Ligom

Abstract:

The ability of bacteria to develop resistance to many antibiotics cannot be undermined, given the multifaceted health challenges in the present times. For this reason, a lot of attention is on botanicals and their products in search of new antibacterial agents. On the other hand, mango kernel oils (MKO) can be heavily valorized by taking advantage of the myriads bioactive phytochemicals it contains. Herein, we validated the use of MKO as bioactive agent against bacteria. The MKOs for the study were extracted by soxhlet means with ethanol and hexane for 4 h from 3 different mango kernels, namely; 'local' (sample A), 'julie' (sample B), and 'john' (sample C). Prior to the extraction, ground fine particles of the kernels were obtained from the seed kernels dried in oven at 100 °C for 8 h. Hexane gave higher yield of the oils than ethanol. It was also qualitatively confirmed that the mango kernel oils contain some phytochemicals such as phenol, quinone, saponin, and terpenoid. The results of the antibacterial activities of the MKO against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at different concentrations showed that the oils extracted with ethanol gave better antibacterial properties than those of the hexane. More so, the bioactivities were best with the local mango kernel oil. Indeed this work has completely validated the previous claim that MKOs are effective antibacterial agents. Thus, these oils (especially the ethanol-derived ones) can be used as bacteriostatic and antibacterial agents in say food, cosmetics, and allied industries.

Keywords: bacteria, mango, kernel, oil, phytochemicals

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6 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

Authors: B. M. Pardeshi

Abstract:

Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux* 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, India, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.

Keywords: instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, medicinal plants, trace elemental analysis, mineral contents

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5 Use of Radiation Chemistry Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

Authors: B. M. Pardeshi

Abstract:

Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux * 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, INDIA, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.

Keywords: instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, medicinal plants, trace elemental analysis, mineral contents

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4 Ecofriendly Approach for the Management of Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus koenigii by Botanicals

Authors: S: Kayesth, K. K. Gupta

Abstract:

The indiscriminate use of insecticides causes environmental contamination, adversely affects non-target organisms and develops resistance among insects and pests. There has always been felt a need for methods of control which can overcome these environmental and other ecological issues. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of different plants volatiles on survival, longevity, growth, development and reproduction of Dysdercus koenigii. The hexane extract of three different plants (Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara) was used. The fifth instars were exposed to hexane extract with concentrations of 10%, 5%, 2.5%, 1.25%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.13% and 0.06% while adults were treated with 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25%. 1-ml of each of these concentrations was used to make a thin film in sterilized glass jars of 500 ml capacity. Fifteen newly emerged fifth instar nymphs and ten pairs of adult bugs were treated separately with the extracts for 24 hour exposure to the plant volatiles. The effect of these plant extract was observed and readings were recorded for 23 days. Survival and longevity of both fifth instars and adults were in correlation with the concentrations of the plant extracts. The extracts did not influence growth of fifth instars significantly but impaired their development significantly at higher concentrations. The treated nymphs at higher concentrations either could not moult or died and those which could moult moulted into supranumery instars, adultoids or adults with wing deformities. The supranumery insects retained the nymphal characters except increased body size and wing pads. The adultoids had wing deformities and non-functional reproductive organs. Adultoids exhibited courtship and mounting attempts but were not able to mate. At lower concentrations from 0.1 to 0.06% the fifth instars developed into adults with fewer deformities. At these concentrations, the fecundity and fertility of these adults were drastically reduced. On the contrary, the treated adults also had reduced fecundity and fertility compared to control. Among three plant extracts Ocimcum was most toxic for both fifth instars and adults in terms of survival and longevity. Catharanthus, Ocimum and Lantana appeared to have potential molecules which possessed insect juvenile hormone like activity. Potential application of these plant extracts in IPM was discussed.

Keywords: Catharanthus, Ocimum, Lantana, Dysdercus koenigii

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3 Studying the Effect of Reducing Thermal Processing over the Bioactive Composition of Non-Centrifugal Cane Sugar: Towards Natural Products with High Therapeutic Value

Authors: Laura Rueda-Gensini, Jader Rodríguez, Juan C. Cruz, Carolina Munoz-Camargo

Abstract:

There is an emerging interest in botanicals and plant extracts for medicinal practices due to their widely reported health benefits. A large variety of phytochemicals found in plants have been correlated with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and analgesic properties, which makes plant-derived products promising candidates for modulating the progression and treatment of numerous diseases. Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS), in particular, has been known for its high antioxidant and nutritional value, but composition-wise variability due to changing environmental and processing conditions have considerably limited its use in the nutraceutical and biomedical fields. This work is therefore aimed at assessing the effect of thermal exposure during NCS production over its bioactive composition and, in turn, its therapeutic value. Accordingly, two modified dehydration methods are proposed that employ: (i) vacuum-aided evaporation, which reduces the necessary temperatures to dehydrate the sample, and (ii) window refractance evaporation, which reduces thermal exposure time. The biochemical composition of NCS produced under these two methods was compared to traditionally-produced NCS by estimating their total polyphenolic and protein content with Folin-Ciocalteu and Bradford assays, as well as identifying the major phenolic compounds in each sample via HPLC-coupled mass spectrometry. Their antioxidant activities were also compared as measured by their scavenging potential of ABTS and DPPH radicals. Results show that the two modified production methods enhance polyphenolic and protein yield in resulting NCS samples when compared to traditional production methods. In particular, reducing employed temperatures with vacuum-aided evaporation demonstrated to be superior at preserving polyphenolic compounds, as evidenced both in the total and individual polyphenol concentrations. However, antioxidant activities were not significantly different between these. Although additional studies should be performed to determine if the observed compositional differences affect other therapeutic activities (e.g., anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunoprotective), these results suggest that reducing thermal exposure holds great promise for the production of natural products with enhanced nutritional value.

Keywords: non-centrifugal cane sugar, polyphenolic compounds, thermal processing, antioxidant activity

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2 High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography (HPTLC) Analysis of Multi-Ingredient Traditional Chinese Medicine Supplement

Authors: Martin Cai, Khadijah B. Hashim, Leng Leo, Edmund F. Tian

Abstract:

Analysis of traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) supplements has always been a laborious task, particularly in the case of multi‐ingredient formulations. Traditionally, herbal extracts are analysed using one or few markers compounds. In the recent years, however, pharmaceutical companies are introducing health supplements of TCM active ingredients to cater to the needs of consumers in the fast-paced society in this age. As such, new problems arise in the aspects of composition identification as well as quality analysis. In most cases of products or supplements formulated with multiple TCM herbs, the chemical composition, and nature of each raw material differs greatly from the others in the formulation. This results in a requirement for individual analytical processes in order to identify the marker compounds in the various botanicals. Thin-layer Chromatography (TLC) is a simple, cost effective, yet well-regarded method for the analysis of natural products, both as a Pharmacopeia-approved method for identification and authentication of herbs, and a great analytical tool for the discovery of chemical compositions in herbal extracts. Recent technical advances introduced High-Performance TLC (HPTLC) where, with the help of automated equipment and improvements on the chromatographic materials, both the quality and reproducibility are greatly improved, allowing for highly standardised analysis with greater details. Here we report an industrial consultancy project with ONI Global Pte Ltd for the analysis of LAC Liver Protector, a TCM formulation aimed at improving liver health. The aim of this study was to identify 4 key components of the supplement using HPTLC, following protocols derived from Chinese Pharmacopeia standards. By comparing the TLC profiles of the supplement to the extracts of the herbs reported in the label, this project proposes a simple and cost-effective analysis of the presence of the 4 marker compounds in the multi‐ingredient formulation by using 4 different HPTLC methods. With the increasing trend of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) bringing natural products and health supplements into the market, it is crucial that the qualities of both raw materials and end products be well-assured for the protection of consumers. With the technology of HPTLC, science can be incorporated to help SMEs with their quality control, thereby ensuring product quality.

Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine supplement, high performance thin layer chromatography, active ingredients, product quality

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1 Severe Infestation of Laspeyresia Koenigana Fab. and Alternaria Leaf Spot on Azadirachta Indica (Neem)

Authors: Shiwani Bhatnagar, K. K. Srivastava, Sangeeta Singh, Ameen Ullah Khan, Bundesh Kumar, Lokendra Singh Rathore

Abstract:

From the instigation of the world medicinal plants are treated as part and parcel of human society to fight against diseases. Azadirachta indica (Neem) a herbal plant has been used as an Indian traditional medicine since ages and its products are acknowledged to solve agricultural, forestry and public health related problems, owing to its beneficial medicinal properties. Each part of the neem tree is known for its medicinal property. Bark & leaf extracts of neem have been used to control leprosy, respiratory disorders, constipation and also as blood purifier and a general health tonic. Neem is still regarded as ' rural community dispensary' in India or a tree for solving medical problems. Use of Neem as pesticides for the management of insect pest of agriculture crops and forestry has been seen as a shift in the use of synthetic pesticides to ecofriendly botanicals. Neem oil and seed extracts possess germicidal and anti-bacterial properties which when sprayed on the plant helps in protecting them from foliage pests. Azadirachtin, the main active ingredient found in neem tree, acts as an insect repellent and antifeedant. However the young plants are susceptible to many insect pest and foliar diseases. Recently, in the avenue plantation, planted by Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur, around the premises of IIT Jodhpur, two years old neem plants were found to be severely infested with tip borer Laspeyresia koenigana (Family: Eucosmidae). The adult moth of L. koenigana lays eggs on the tender shoots and the young larvae tunnel into the shoot and feed inside. A small pinhole can be seen at the entrance point, from where the larva enters in to the stem. The severely attached apical shoots exhibit profuse gum exudation resulting in development of a callus structure. The internal feeding causes the stem to wilt and the leaves to dry up from the tips resulting in growth retardation. Alternaria Leaf spot and blight symptoms were also recorded on these neem plants. For the management of tip borer and Alternaria Leaf spot, foliar spray of monocrotophos @0.05% and Dithane M-45 @ 0.15% and powermin @ 2ml/lit were found efficient in managing the insect pest and foliar disease problem. No Further incidence of pest/diseases was noticed.

Keywords: azadirachta indica, alternaria leaf spot, laspeyresia koenigana, management

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