Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2709

Search results for: processing

2709 A Review on Artificial Neural Networks in Image Processing

Authors: B. Afsharipoor, E. Nazemi

Abstract:

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful tool for prediction which can be trained based on a set of examples and thus, it would be useful for nonlinear image processing. The present paper reviews several paper regarding applications of ANN in image processing to shed the light on advantage and disadvantage of ANNs in this field. Different steps in the image processing chain including pre-processing, enhancement, segmentation, object recognition, image understanding and optimization by using ANN are summarized. Furthermore, results on using multi artificial neural networks are presented.

Keywords: neural networks, image processing, segmentation, object recognition, image understanding, optimization, MANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
2708 Complex Event Processing System Based on the Extended ECA Rule

Authors: Kwan Hee Han, Jun Woo Lee, Sung Moon Bae, Twae Kyung Park

Abstract:

ECA (Event-Condition-Action) languages are largely adopted for event processing since they are an intuitive and powerful paradigm for programming reactive systems. However, there are some limitations about ECA rules for processing of complex events such as coupling of event producer and consumer. The objective of this paper is to propose an ECA rule pattern to improve the current limitations of ECA rule, and to develop a prototype system. In this paper, conventional ECA rule is separated into 3 parts and each part is extended to meet the requirements of CEP. Finally, event processing logic is established by combining the relevant elements of 3 parts. The usability of proposed extended ECA rule is validated by a test scenario in this study.

Keywords: complex event processing, ECA rule, Event processing system, event-driven architecture, internet of things

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
2707 Resource Creation Using Natural Language Processing Techniques for Malay Translated Qur'an

Authors: Nor Diana Ahmad, Eric Atwell, Brandon Bennett

Abstract:

Text processing techniques for English have been developed for several decades. But for the Malay language, text processing methods are still far behind. Moreover, there are limited resources, tools for computational linguistic analysis available for the Malay language. Therefore, this research presents the use of natural language processing (NLP) in processing Malay translated Qur’an text. As the result, a new language resource for Malay translated Qur’an was created. This resource will help other researchers to build the necessary processing tools for the Malay language. This research also develops a simple question-answer prototype to demonstrate the use of the Malay Qur’an resource for text processing. This prototype has been developed using Python. The prototype pre-processes the Malay Qur’an and an input query using a stemming algorithm and then searches for occurrences of the query word stem. The result produced shows improved matching likelihood between user query and its answer. A POS-tagging algorithm has also been produced. The stemming and tagging algorithms can be used as tools for research related to other Malay texts and can be used to support applications such as information retrieval, question answering systems, ontology-based search and other text analysis tasks.

Keywords: language resource, Malay translated Qur'an, natural language processing (NLP), text processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2706 Differences in the Processing of Sentences with Lexical Ambiguity and Structural Ambiguity: An Experimental Study

Authors: Mariana T. Teixeira, Joana P. Luz

Abstract:

This paper is based on assumptions of psycholinguistics and investigates the processing of ambiguous sentences in Brazilian Portuguese. Specifically, it aims to verify if there is a difference in processing time between sentences with lexical ambiguity and sentences with structural (or syntactic) ambiguity. We hypothesize, based on the Garden Path Theory, that the two types of ambiguity entail different cognitive efforts, since sentences with structural ambiguity require that two structures be processed, whereas ambiguous phrases whose root of ambiguity is in a word require the processing of a single structure, which admits a variation of punctual meaning, within the scope of only one lexical item. In order to test this hypothesis, 25 undergraduate students, whose average age was 27.66 years, native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, performed a self-monitoring reading task of ambiguous sentences, which had lexical and structural ambiguity. The results suggest that unambiguous sentence processing is faster than ambiguous sentence processing, whether it has lexical or structural ambiguity. In addition, participants presented a mean reading time greater for sentences with syntactic ambiguity than for sentences with lexical ambiguity, evidencing a greater cognitive effort in sentence processing with structural ambiguity.

Keywords: Brazilian portuguese, lexical ambiguity, sentence processing, syntactic ambiguity

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
2705 An Event-Related Potentials Study on the Processing of English Subjunctive Mood by Chinese ESL Learners

Authors: Yan Huang

Abstract:

Event-related potentials (ERPs) technique helps researchers to make continuous measures on the whole process of language comprehension, with an excellent temporal resolution at the level of milliseconds. The research on sentence processing has developed from the behavioral level to the neuropsychological level, which brings about a variety of sentence processing theories and models. However, the applicability of these models to L2 learners is still under debate. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying English subjunctive mood processing by Chinese ESL learners. To this end, English subject clauses with subjunctive moods are used as the stimuli, all of which follow the same syntactic structure, “It is + adjective + that … + (should) do + …” Besides, in order to examine the role that language proficiency plays on L2 processing, this research deals with two groups of Chinese ESL learners (18 males and 22 females, mean age=21.68), namely, high proficiency group (Group H) and low proficiency group (Group L). Finally, the behavioral and neurophysiological data analysis reveals the following findings: 1) Syntax and semantics interact with each other on the SECOND phase (300-500ms) of sentence processing, which is partially in line with the Three-phase Sentence Model; 2) Language proficiency does affect L2 processing. Specifically, for Group H, it is the syntactic processing that plays the dominant role in sentence processing while for Group L, semantic processing also affects the syntactic parsing during the THIRD phase of sentence processing (500-700ms). Besides, Group H, compared to Group L, demonstrates a richer native-like ERPs pattern, which further demonstrates the role of language proficiency in L2 processing. Based on the research findings, this paper also provides some enlightenment for the L2 pedagogy as well as the L2 proficiency assessment.

Keywords: Chinese ESL learners, English subjunctive mood, ERPs, L2 processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
2704 Leaf Image Processing: Review

Authors: T. Vijayashree, A. Gopal

Abstract:

The aim of the work is to classify and authenticate medicinal plant materials and herbs widely used for Indian herbal medicinal preparation. The quality and authenticity of these raw materials are to be ensured for the preparation of herbal medicines. These raw materials are to be carefully screened, analyzed and documented due to mistaken of look-alike materials which do not have medicinal characteristics.

Keywords: authenticity, standardization, principal component analysis, imaging processing, signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
2703 Influence of Processing Regime and Contaminants on the Properties of Postconsumer Thermoplastics

Authors: Fares Alsewailem

Abstract:

Material recycling of thermoplastic waste offers practical solution for municipal solid waste reduction. Post-consumer plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), and polystyrene (PS) may be separated from each other by physical methods such as density difference and hence processed as single plastic, however one should be cautious about the contaminants presence in the waste stream inform of paper, glue, etc. since these articles even in trace amount may deteriorate properties of the recycled plastics especially the mechanical properties. furthermore, melt processing methods used to recycle thermoplastics such as extrusion and compression molding may induce degradation of some of the recycled plastics such as PET and PS. In this research, it is shown that care should be taken when processing recycled plastics by melt processing means in two directions, first contaminants should be extremely minimized, and secondly melt processing steps should also be minimum.

Keywords: Recycling, PET, PS, HDPE, mechanical

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
2702 Role of Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval; Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

This paper aims to analyze the role of natural language processing (NLP). The paper will discuss the role in the context of automated data retrieval, automated question answer, and text structuring. NLP techniques are gaining wider acceptance in real life applications and industrial concerns. There are various complexities involved in processing the text of natural language that could satisfy the need of decision makers. This paper begins with the description of the qualities of NLP practices. The paper then focuses on the challenges in natural language processing. The paper also discusses major techniques of NLP. The last section describes opportunities and challenges for future research.

Keywords: data retrieval, information retrieval, natural language processing, text structuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
2701 Graph Similarity: Algebraic Model and Its Application to Nonuniform Signal Processing

Authors: Nileshkumar Vishnav, Aditya Tatu

Abstract:

A recent approach of representing graph signals and graph filters as polynomials is useful for graph signal processing. In this approach, the adjacency matrix plays pivotal role; instead of the more common approach involving graph-Laplacian. In this work, we follow the adjacency matrix based approach and corresponding algebraic signal model. We further expand the theory and introduce the concept of similarity of two graphs. The similarity of graphs is useful in that key properties (such as filter-response, algebra related to graph) get transferred from one graph to another. We demonstrate potential applications of the relation between two similar graphs, such as nonuniform filter design, DTMF detection and signal reconstruction.

Keywords: graph signal processing, algebraic signal processing, graph similarity, isospectral graphs, nonuniform signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
2700 Advances in Food Processing Using Extrusion Technology

Authors: Javeed Akhtar, R. K. Pandey, Z. R. Azaz Ahmad Azad

Abstract:

For the purpose of making different uses of food material for the development of extruded foods are produced using single and twin extruders. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing of novel food. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and physical quality of the product. Extrusion processing of food ingredients characteristically depends on associating process conditions that influence the product qualities. The process parameters are optimized for extrusion of food material in order to obtain the maximum nutritive value by inactivating the anti-nutritional factors. The processing conditions such as moisture content, temperature and time are controlled to avoid over heating or under heating which otherwise would result in a product of lower nutritional quality.

Keywords: extrusion processing, single and twin extruder, operating condition of extruders and extruded novel foods, food and agricultural engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
2699 Rural Women’s Skill Acquisition in the Processing of Locust Bean in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Adekunle, A. M. Omoare, W. O. Oyediran

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess rural women’s skill acquisition in the processing of locust bean in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 90 women locust bean processors for this study. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The result showed that the mean age of respondents was 40.72 years. Most (70.00%) of the respondents were married. The mean processing experience was 8.63 years. 93.30% of the respondents relied on information from fellow locust beans processors and friends. All (100%) the respondents did not acquire improved processing skill through trainings and workshops. It can be concluded that the rural women’s skill acquisition on modernized processing techniques was generally low. It is hereby recommend that the rural women processors should be trained by extension service providers through series of workshops and seminars on improved processing techniques.

Keywords: locust bean, processing, skill acquisition, rural women

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
2698 Automatic Algorithm for Processing and Analysis of Images from the Comet Assay

Authors: Yeimy L. Quintana, Juan G. Zuluaga, Sandra S. Arango

Abstract:

The comet assay is a method based on electrophoresis that is used to measure DNA damage in cells and has shown important results in the identification of substances with a potential risk to the human population as innumerable physical, chemical and biological agents. With this technique is possible to obtain images like a comet, in which the tail of these refers to damaged fragments of the DNA. One of the main problems is that the image has unequal luminosity caused by the fluorescence microscope and requires different processing to condition it as well as to know how many optimal comets there are per sample and finally to perform the measurements and determine the percentage of DNA damage. In this paper, we propose the design and implementation of software using Image Processing Toolbox-MATLAB that allows the automation of image processing. The software chooses the optimum comets and measuring the necessary parameters to detect the damage.

Keywords: artificial vision, comet assay, DNA damage, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
2697 Assessment Of Factors Affecting Sustainability of Rice (Oryza sativa) Processing and Marketing in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. M. Omoare, O. O. Sofowora, W. O. Oyediran

Abstract:

The study was carried out to assess the factors affecting the sustainability of rice processing and marketing in Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) respondents for the study. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the objectives while hypotheses were analyzed with Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The result showed that most (85%) of the respondents was less than 50 years old and had been in rice business for more than 6 years. The majority (66.67%) of the respondents got their capitals from cooperative societies. All (100%) the respondents used rice as household food security and source of income. However, efficient rice processing and marketing were affected by inadequate manpower capacity development and inputs. There was a positive and significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics and processing techniques (p < 0.05). It is hereby recommended that extension service providers should introduce improved rice processing systems to the rice millers traders in the study area.

Keywords: sustainability, rice processing, marketing, constraints, millers traders

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
2696 Relation between Sensory Processing Patterns and Working Memory in Autistic Children

Authors: Abbas Nesayan

Abstract:

Background: In recent years, autism has been under consideration in public and research area. Autistic children have dysfunction in communication, socialization, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. In addition, they clinically suffer from difficulty in attention, challenge with familiar behaviors and sensory processing problems. Several variables are linked to sensory processing problems in autism, one of these variables is working memory. Working memory is part of the executive function which provides the necessary ability to completing multiple stages tasks. Method: This study has categorized in correlational research methods. After determining of entry criteria, according to purposive sampling method, 50 children were selected. Dunn’s sensory profile school companion was used for assessment of sensory processing patterns; behavioral rating inventory of executive functions was used (BRIEF) for assessment of working memory. Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression were used for data analyzing. Results: The results showed the significant relationship between sensory processing patterns (low registration, sensory seeking, sensory sensitivity and sensory avoiding) with working memory in autistic children. Conclusion: According to the findings, there is the significant relationship between the patterns of sensory processing and working memory. So, in order to improve the working memory could be used some interventions based on the sensory processing.

Keywords: sensory processing patterns, working memory, autism, autistic children

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
2695 Exploring the Sources of Innovation in Food Processing SMEs of Kerala

Authors: Bhumika Gupta, Jeayaram Subramanian, Hardik Vachhrajani, Avinash Shivdas

Abstract:

Indian food processing industry is one of the largest in the world in terms of production, consumption, exports and growth opportunities. SMEs play a crucial role within this. Large manufacturing firms largely dominate innovation studies in India. Innovation sources used by SMEs are often different from that of large firms. This paper focuses on exploring various sources of innovation adopted by food processing SMEs in Kerala, South India. Outcome suggests that SMEs use various sources like suppliers, competitors, employees, government/research institutions and customers to get new ideas.

Keywords: food processing, innovation, SMEs, sources of innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2694 Information Processing and Visual Attention: An Eye Tracking Study on Nutrition Labels

Authors: Rosa Hendijani, Amir Ghadimi Herfeh

Abstract:

Nutrition labels are diet-related health policies. They help individuals improve food-choice decisions and reduce intake of calories and unhealthy food elements, like cholesterol. However, many individuals do not pay attention to nutrition labels or fail to appropriately understand them. According to the literature, thinking and cognitive styles can have significant effects on attention to nutrition labels. According to the author's knowledge, the effect of global/local processing on attention to nutrition labels have not been previously studied. Global/local processing encourages individuals to attend to the whole/specific parts of an object and can have a significant impact on people's visual attention. In this study, this effect was examined with an experimental design using the eye-tracking technique. The research hypothesis was that individuals with local processing would pay more attention to nutrition labels, including nutrition tables and traffic lights. An experiment was designed with two conditions: global and local information processing. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either global or local conditions, and their processing style was manipulated accordingly. Results supported the hypothesis for nutrition tables but not for traffic lights.

Keywords: eye-tracking, nutrition labelling, global/local information processing, individual differences

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
2693 Women Entrepreneurial Skills in Maize Processing and Value Addition in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Wasiu Oyeleke Oyediran

Abstract:

Maize is a common staple food for human consumption and livestock feeds. It provides employment and means of livelihood for women in both rural areas and urban centres in Nigeria. However, the entrepreneurial skills of women engaged in its processing and value addition has not been fully enhanced. This study was therefore carried out to investigate rural women entrepreneurial skills in maize processing and value addition in Ogun State, Nigeria. Snow ball sampling technique was used in the selection of 70 respondents for this study. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and chi-square. Results revealed that majority (50.0%) of the respondents were 31 - 40 years of age and 60% of the respondents had spent 6 – 10 years in maize processing. The respondents have great entrepreneurial skills in popcorn (85.7%), corn cake (80.0%), corn balls (64.3%) and kokoro (52.9%) making. The majority of the respondents accessed information and entrepreneurial skills through fellow processors (88.6%) and friends and neighbours (62.9%). Major constraints to maize processing and value addition were scarcity of raw materials during off season periods (95.7%), ineffective preservation methods (88.6%), lack of modern processing equipment (82.9%), and high cost of processing machines (72.9%). Result of chi-square showed that there is significant association between personal characteristics of the respondents and entrepreneurial skills of the women at p < 0.05. It is hereby recommended that subsidized processing equipment should be made available to the maize processors in the study area by the government and NGOs.

Keywords: women, entreprenuerial skills, maize prcessing, value addition

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2692 DocPro: A Framework for Processing Semantic and Layout Information in Business Documents

Authors: Ming-Jen Huang, Chun-Fang Huang, Chiching Wei

Abstract:

With the recent advance of the deep neural network, we observe new applications of NLP (natural language processing) and CV (computer vision) powered by deep neural networks for processing business documents. However, creating a real-world document processing system needs to integrate several NLP and CV tasks, rather than treating them separately. There is a need to have a unified approach for processing documents containing textual and graphical elements with rich formats, diverse layout arrangement, and distinct semantics. In this paper, a framework that fulfills this unified approach is presented. The framework includes a representation model definition for holding the information generated by various tasks and specifications defining the coordination between these tasks. The framework is a blueprint for building a system that can process documents with rich formats, styles, and multiple types of elements. The flexible and lightweight design of the framework can help build a system for diverse business scenarios, such as contract monitoring and reviewing.

Keywords: document processing, framework, formal definition, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
2691 Activities of Processors in Domestication/Conservation and Processing of Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) in Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Authors: Iwuchukwu J. C., Mbah C.

Abstract:

There seems to be dearth on information on how oil bean is being exploited, processed and conserved locally. This gap stifles initiatives on the evaluation of the suitability of the methods used and the invention of new and better methods. The study; therefore, assesses activities of processors in domestication/conservation and processing of oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) Enugu State, South East Nigeria. Three agricultural zones, three blocks, nine circles and seventy-two respondents that were purposively selected made up the sample for the study. Data were presented in percentage, chart and mean score. The result shows that processors of oil bean in the area were middle-aged, married with relatively large household size and long years of experience in processing. They sourced oil bean they processed from people’s farmland and sourced information on processing of oil bean from friends and relatives. Activities involved in processing of oil bean were boiling, dehulling, washing, sieving, slicing, wrapping. However, the sequence of these activities varies among these processors. Little or nothing was done by the processors towards the conservation of the crop while poor storage and processing facilities and lack of knowledge on modern preservation technique were major constraints to processing of oil bean in the area. The study concluded that efforts should be made by governments and processors through cooperative group in provision of processing and storage facility for oil bean while research institute should conserve and generate improved specie of the crop to arouse interest of the farmers and processors on the crop which will invariably increase productivity.

Keywords: conservation, domestication, oil bean, processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2690 Pitch Processing in Autistic Mandarin-Speaking Children with Hypersensitivityand Hypo-Sensitivity: An Event-Related Potential Study

Authors: Kaiying Lai, Suiping Wang, Luodi Yu, Yang Zhang, Pengmin Qin

Abstract:

Abnormalities in auditory processing are one of the most commonly reported sensory processing impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Tonal language speaker with autism has enhanced neural sensitivity to pitch changes in pure tone. However, not all children with ASD exhibit the same performance in pitch processing due to different auditory sensitivity. The current study aimed to examine auditory change detection in ASD with different auditory sensitivity. K-means clustering method was adopted to classify ASD participants into two groups according to the auditory processing scores of the Sensory Profile, 11 autism with hypersensitivity (mean age = 11.36 ; SD = 1.46) and 18 with hypo-sensitivity (mean age = 10.64; SD = 1.89) participated in a passive auditory oddball paradigm designed for eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN) under the pure tone condition. Results revealed that compared to hypersensitive autism, the children with hypo-sensitivity showed smaller MMN responses to pure tone stimuli. These results suggest that ASD with auditory hypersensitivity and hypo-sensitivity performed differently in processing pure tone, so neural responses to pure tone hold promise for predicting the auditory sensitivity of ASD and targeted treatment in children with ASD.

Keywords: ASD, sensory profile, pitch processing, mismatch negativity, MMN

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2689 A Pilot Study on the Sensory Processing Difficulty Pattern Association between the Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Deficit Child

Authors: Sheng-Fen Fan, Sung-Hui Tseng

Abstract:

Attention deficit hyperactivity deficit (ADHD) child display diverse sensory processing difficulty behaviors. There is less evidence to figure out how the association between executive function and sensory deficit. To determine whether sensory deficit influence the executive functions, we examined sensory processing by SPM and try to indicate hot/cold executive function (EF) by BRIEF2, respectively. We found that the hot executive function deficit might associate with auditory processing in a variety of settings, and vestibular input to maintain balance and upright posture; the cold EF deficit might opposite to the hot EF deficit, the vestibular sensory modulation difficulty association with emotion shifting and emotional regulation. These results suggest that sensory processing might be another consideration factor to influence the higher cognitive control or emotional regulation of EF. Overall, this study indicates the distinction between hot and cold EF impairments with different sensory modulation problem. Moreover, for clinician, it needs more cautious consideration to conduct intervention with ADHD.

Keywords: hot executive function, cold executive function, sensory processing, ADHD

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
2688 Information Needs of Cassava Processors on Small-Scale Cassava Processing in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Rafiat Bolanle Fasasi-Hammed

Abstract:

Cassava is an important food crop in rural households of Nigeria. It has a high potential for product diversification, because it can be processed into various products forms for human consumption and can be made into chips for farm animals, and also starch and starch derivatives. However, cassava roots are highly perishable and contain potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides which necessitate its processing. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess information needs of cassava processors on food safety practices in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of 110 respondents for this study. Descriptive statistics and chi-square were used to analyze the data collected. Results of this study showed that the mean age of the respondents was 39.4 years, majority (78.7%) of the respondents was married, 51.9% had secondary education; 45.8% of the respondents have spent more than 12 years in cassava processing. The mean income realized was ₦26,347.50/month from cassava processing. Information on cassava processing got to the respondents through friends, family and relations (73.6%) and fellow cassava processors (58.6%). Serious constraints identified were ineffective extension agents (93.9%), food safety regulatory agencies (88.1%) and inadequate processing and storage facilities (67.8%). Chi-square results showed that significant relationship existed between socio-economic characteristics of the respondents (χ2 = 29.80, df = 2,), knowledge level (χ2 = 9.26, df = 4), constraints (χ2 = 13.11, df = 2) and information needs at p < 0.05 level of significance. The study recommends that there should be regular training on improved cassava processing methods for the cassava processors in the study area.

Keywords: information, needs, cassava, Oyo State, processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
2687 A Study of Cloud Computing Solution for Transportation Big Data Processing

Authors: Ilgin Gökaşar, Saman Ghaffarian

Abstract:

The need for fast processed big data of transportation ridership (eg., smartcard data) and traffic operation (e.g., traffic detectors data) which requires a lot of computational power is incontrovertible in Intelligent Transportation Systems. Nowadays cloud computing is one of the important subjects and popular information technology solution for data processing. It enables users to process enormous measure of data without having their own particular computing power. Thus, it can also be a good selection for transportation big data processing as well. This paper intends to examine how the cloud computing can enhance transportation big data process with contrasting its advantages and disadvantages, and discussing cloud computing features.

Keywords: big data, cloud computing, Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITS, traffic data processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
2686 The Design of a Die for the Processing of Aluminum through Equal Channel Angular Pressing

Authors: P. G. F. Siqueira, N. G. S. Almeida, P. M. A. Stemler, P. R. Cetlin, M. T. P. Aguilar

Abstract:

The processing of metals through Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) leads to their remarkable strengthening. The ECAP dies control the amount of strain imposed on the material through its geometry, especially through the angle between the die channels, and thus the microstructural and mechanical properties evolution of the material. The present study describes the design of an ECAP die whose utilization and maintenance are facilitated, and that also controls the eventual undesired flow of the material during processing. The proposed design was validated through numerical simulations procedures using commercial software. The die was manufactured according to the present design and tested. Tests using aluminum alloys also indicated to be suitable for the processing of higher strength alloys.

Keywords: ECAP, mechanical design, numerical methods, SPD

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2685 Subsea Processing: Deepwater Operation and Production

Authors: Md Imtiaz, Sanchita Dei, Shubham Damke

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a rapidly accelerating shift from traditional surface processing operations to subsea processing operation. This shift has been driven by a number of factors including the depletion of shallow fields around the world, technological advances in subsea processing equipment, the need for production from marginal fields, and lower initial upfront investment costs compared to traditional production facilities. Moving production facilities to the seafloor offers a number of advantage, including a reduction in field development costs, increased production rates from subsea wells, reduction in the need for chemical injection, minimization of risks to worker ,reduction in spills due to hurricane damage, and increased in oil production by enabling production from marginal fields. Subsea processing consists of a range of technologies for separation, pumping, compression that enables production from offshore well without the need for surface facilities. At present, there are two primary technologies being used for subsea processing: subsea multiphase pumping and subsea separation. Multiphase pumping is the most basic subsea processing technology. Multiphase pumping involves the use of boosting system to transport the multiphase mixture through pipelines to floating production vessels. The separation system is combined with single phase pumps or water would be removed and either pumped to the surface, re-injected, or discharged to the sea. Subsea processing can allow for an entire topside facility to be decommissioned and the processed fluids to be tied back to a new, more distant, host. This type of application reduces costs and increased both overall facility and integrity and recoverable reserve. In future, full subsea processing could be possible, thereby eliminating the need for surface facilities.

Keywords: FPSO, marginal field, Subsea processing, SWAG

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
2684 Impact of Natural Language Processing in Educational Setting: An Effective Approach towards Improved Learning

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an effective approach for bringing improvement in educational setting. This involves initiating the process of learning through the natural acquisition in the educational systems. It is based on following effective approaches for providing the solution for various problems and issues in education. Natural Language Processing provides solution in a variety of different fields associated with the social and cultural context of language learning. It is based on involving various tools and techniques such as grammar, syntax, and structure of text. It is effective approach for teachers, students, authors, and educators for providing assistance for writing, analysis, and assessment procedure. Natural Language Processing is widely integrated in the large number of educational contexts such as research, science, linguistics, e-learning, evaluations system, and various other educational settings such as schools, higher education system, and universities. Natural Language Processing is based on applying scientific approach in the educational settings. In the educational settings, NLP is an effective approach to ensure that students can learn easily in the same way as they acquired language in the natural settings.

Keywords: natural language processing, education, application, e-learning, scientific studies, educational system

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
2683 The Effect of Parameters on Production of NİO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 Composite Nanofibers by Using Sol-Gel Processing and Electrospinning Technique

Authors: F. Sevim, E. Sevimli, F. Demir, T. Çalban

Abstract:

For the first time, nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters of 500 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by TG/DTA, FT-IR, XRD and SEM analyses.

Keywords: nano fibers, NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite, sol-gel processing, electro spinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
2682 Optimization in Friction Stir Processing Method with Emphasis on Optimized Process Parameters Laboratory Research

Authors: Atabak Rahimzadeh Ilkhch

Abstract:

Friction stir processing (FSP) has promised for application of thermo-mechanical processing techniques where aims to change the micro structural and mechanical properties of materials in order to obtain high performance and reducing the production time and cost. There are lots of studies focused on the microstructure of friction stir welded aluminum alloys. The main focus of this research is on the grain size obtained in the weld zone. Moreover in second part focused on temperature distribution effect over the entire weld zone and its effects on the microstructure. Also, there is a need to have more efforts on investigating to obtain the optimal value of effective parameters such as rotational speed on microstructure and to use the optimum tool designing method. the final results of this study will be present the variation of structural and mechanical properties of materials in the base of applying Friction stir processing and effect of (FSP) processing and tensile testing on surface quality. in the hand, this research addresses the FSP f AA-7020 aluminum and variation f ration of rotation and translational speeds.

Keywords: friction stir processing, AA-7020, thermo-mechanical, microstructure, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2681 Thermo-Mechanical Treatment of Chromium Alloyed Low Carbon Steel

Authors: L. Kučerová, M. Bystrianský, V. Kotěšovec

Abstract:

Thermo-mechanical processing with various processing parameters was applied to 0.2%C-0.6%Mn-2S%i-0.8%Cr low alloyed high strength steel. The aim of the processing was to achieve the microstructures typical for transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. Thermo-mechanical processing used in this work incorporated two or three deformation steps. The deformations were in all the cases carried out during the cooling from soaking temperatures to various bainite hold temperatures. In this way, 4-10% of retained austenite were retained in the final microstructures, consisting further of ferrite, bainite, martensite and pearlite. The complex character of TRIP steel microstructure is responsible for its good strength and ductility. The strengths achieved in this work were in the range of 740 MPa – 836 MPa with ductility A5mm of 31-41%.

Keywords: pearlite, retained austenite, thermo-mechanical treatment, TRIP steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
2680 Microstructure and Mechanical Evaluation of PMMA/Al₂O₃ Nanocomposite Fabricated via Friction Stir Processing

Authors: Reham K. El Sawah, N. S. M. El-Tayeb

Abstract:

This study aims to produce a polymer matrix composite reinforced with Al₂O₃ nanoparticles in order to enhance the mechanical properties of PMMA. The composite was fabricated via Friction stir processing to ensure homogenous dispersion of Al₂O₃ nanoparticles in the polymer, and the processing was submerged to prevent the sputtering of nanoparticles. The surface quality, microstructure, impact energy and hardness of the prepared samples were investigated. Good surface quality and dispersion of nanoparticles were attained through employing sufficient processing conditions. The experimental results indicated that as the percentage of nanoparticles increased, the impact energy and hardness increased, reaching 2 kJ/m2 and 14.7 HV at a nanoparticle concentration of 25%, which means that the toughness and the hardness of the polymer-ceramic produced composite is higher than unprocessed PMMA by 66% and 33% respectively.

Keywords: friction stir processing, polymer matrix nanocomposite, mechanical properties, microstructure

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