Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: vicia faba

27 Assessment of Relationships between Agro-Morphological Traits and Cold Tolerance in Faba Bean (vicia faba l.) and Wild Relatives

Authors: Nisa Ertoy Inci, Cengiz Toker


Winter or autumn-sown faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one the most efficient ways to overcome drought since faba bean is usually grown under rainfed where drought and high-temperature stresses are the main growth constraints. The objectives of this study were assessment of (i) relationships between cold tolerance and agro-morphological traits, and (ii) the most suitable agro-morphological trait(s) under cold conditions. Three species of the genus Vicia L. includes 109 genotypes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), three genotypes of narbon bean (V. narbonensis L.) and two genotypes of V. montbretii Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Davis and Plitmann were sown in autumn at highland of Mediterranean region of Turkey. All relatives of faba bean were more cold-tolerant than the faba bean genotypes. Three faba bean genotypes, ACV-42, ACV-84 and ACV-88, were selected as sources of cold tolerance under field conditions. Path and correlation coefficients and factor and principal component analyses indicated that biological yield should be evaluated in selection for cold tolerance under cold conditions ahead of many agro-morphological traits. The seed weight should be considered for selection in early breeding generations because they had the highest heritability.

Keywords: cold tolerance, faba bean, narbon bean, selection

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26 The Effect of Salinity and Bentonite on the Hydrous Behaviors and Sodium Content of the Broad Bean Vicia faba var. Semilla violeta

Authors: T. Nouri, Y. H. A. Reguieg, A. Latigui, A. Ouaini


Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic factor. It limits growth and productivity of plants and degrades agricultural soils and ecosystem in arid and semi arid area. The study was conducted on Vicia faba L.’Semilla violeta’. Sowing was realized in plastic pots containing sandy substrates of bentonite 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10% associated with abiotic stresses of salinity corresponding to doses of NaCl, MgCl2 and MgSO4 20, 40, and 60 mmol/l respectively. The purpose of this work is to study the combined effect of salinity and of bentonite on a plant commonly cultivated in Algeria the broad bean Vicia faba has through the chemical and hydrous parameter. The results show that the combined action of strong concentration salt (40 and 60 mmol/l) and of bentonite a reduction of the relative content water reveals, against an increase in the content of hydrous deficit and of sodium. The growth of broad bean is significant in the substrate amended to 5 % of bentonite.

Keywords: salinity, bentonite, Vicia faba L, sodium content, hydrous parameters

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25 Phenotypic and Symbiotic Characterization of Rhizobia Isolated from Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) in Moroccan Soils

Authors: Y. Hajjam, I. T. Alami, S. M. Udupa, S. Cherkaoui


Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important food legume crop in Morocco. It is mainly used as human food and feed for animals. Faba bean also plays an important role in cereal-based cropping systems, when rotated with cereals it improves soil fertility by fixing N2 in root nodules mediated by Rhizobium. Both faba bean and its biological nitrogen fixation symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium are affected by different stresses such as: salinity, drought, pH, heavy metal, and the uptake of inorganic phosphate compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenotypic diversity among the faba bean rhizobial isolates and to select the tolerant strains that can fix N2 under environmental constraints for inoculation particularly for affected soils, in order to enhance the productivity of faba bean and to improve soil fertility. Result have shown that 62% of isolates were fast growing with the ability of producing acids compounds , while 38% of isolates are slow growing with production of alkalins. Moreover, 42.5% of these isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 and the index of solubilization was ranged from 2.1 to 3.0. The resistance to extreme pH, temperature, water stress heavy metals and antibiotics lead us to classify rhizobial isolates into different clusters. Finally, the authentication test under greenhouse conditions showed that 55% of the rhizobial isolates could induce nodule formation on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) under greenhouse experiment. This phenotypic characterization may contribute to improve legumes and non legumes crops especially in affected soils and also to increase agronomic yield in the dry areas.

Keywords: rhizobia, vicia faba, phenotypic characterization, nodule formation, environmental constraints

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24 Agro Morphological Characterization of Vicia faba L. Accessions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Zia Amjad, Salem Safar Alghamdi


This experiment was carried out at student educational farm College of Food and Agriculture, KSU, kingdom of Saudi Arabia; in order to characterize 154 Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity. Icia faba L. accessions were based on ipove and ibpgr descriptors. 24 agro-morphological characters including 11 quantitative and 13 qualitative were observed for genetic variation. All the results were analyzed using multivariate analysis i.e. principle component analysis. First 6 principle components with eigenvalue greater than one; accounted for 72% of available Vicia faba genetic diversity. However, first three components revealed more than 10% of genetic diversity each i.e. 22.36%, 15.86%, and 10.89% respectively. PCA distributed the V. faba accessions into different groups based on their performance for the characters under observation. PC-1 which represented 22.36% of the genetic diversity was positively associated with stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks, pod degree of curvature and to some extent with 100 seed weight. PC-2 covered 15.86 of the genetic diversity and showed positive association for average seed weight per plant, pod length, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks (same as in PC-1), and to some extent for pod degree of curvature and number of pods per plant. PC-3 revealed 10.89% of genetic diversity and expressed positive association for number of pods per plant and number of leaflets per plant.

Keywords: Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity

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23 The Biofertilizer Effect of Pseudomonas of Salt Soils of the North-West Algerian, Study of Comportment of Bean (Vicia Faba)

Authors: Djoudi Abdelhak, Djibaoui Rachid, Reguieg Yassaad Houcine


Our study focuses on the identification of some species of Pseudomonas (P4, P5, P7 and P8) isolated from saline soils in northwestern Algeria and the effect of their metabolites on the growth of Alternaria alternata the causative agent of the blight of the bean disease (Vicia faba). We are also interested in stimulating the growth of this plant species in saline conditions (60 mM/l NaCl) and the absence of salts. The analysis focuses on rates of inhibition of mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata strain and the rate of growth of plants inoculated with strains of Pseudomonas expressed by biometrics. According to the results of the in-vitro test, P5 and P8 species and their metabolites showed a significant effect on mycelia growth and production of spores of Alternaria alternata. The in-vivo test shows that the species P8 and P5 were significantly and positively influencing the growth in biometric parameters of the bean in saline and salt-free condition. Inoculation with strain P5 has promoted the growth of the bean in stem height, stem fresh weight and dry weight of stems of 108.59%, 115.28%, 104.33%, respectively, in the presence of salt Inoculation with strain P5 has fostered the growth of the bean stem fresh weight of 112.47% in the presence of salt The effect of Pseudomonas species on the development of Vicia faba and the growth of Alternaria alternata is considering new techniques and methods of biological production and crop protection.

Keywords: pseudomonas, vicia faba, alternaria alternata, promoting of plant growth

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22 Spectrophotometric Determination of L-Dopa in Germinated and Non-Germinated Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) and Chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.)

Authors: Wissame Gouigah, Amina Medellel, Mahmoud Trachi, Djedjiga Benamara, Salem Benamara


The purpose of this work is to investigate, by UV/VIS spectrophotometry, the distribution of L-dopa, known as precursor of dopamine which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in broad beans (Vicia faba) (Vf) and chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.) (CA). In the case of Vf, the different organs were analyzed separately: 1) First, in the fresh state: pod (GF), cotyledons (CF), green shell (EF) and placenta (PF) which is the organ through which the seed is attached to the pod, 2) in the dry state (S): peel of the dry seed (ES) and cotyledons (CS), and 3) in the germinated state: peel (EGe), cotyledons (CGe) and germ (GeVf). Results showed that the content of L-dopa is unevenly distributed between different parts of fresh Vf. But the most important result concerns the predominance of L-dopa in placenta with an L-dopa content (~ 60 mg/g of wet weight, ww) sometimes 7-fold higher (p≤0.05) than those of other considered parts of fresh Vf. In the case of CA, the L-dopa concentration in germinated gains was higher than those found in all analyzed Vf organs, excepted PF.

Keywords: broad bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.), L-dopa, Parkinson disease, placenta

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21 Eco-Ethology of Bees Visitors on Vicia faba L. var. Major (Fabaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, S. Doumandji, K. Louadi, S. Iserbyt, F. Acheuk


Due to their ecological key position and diversity, plant-bee relationships constitute excellent models to understand the processes of food specialisation. The purpose of this study is to define and identify the most important species of bees foraging broadbean flowers, we estimated morphological, phonological and behavioural features. We discuss the results by considering the food specialisation level of the visitor. In the studied populations (Algiers, Algeria), visiting bees belong to four different genus: Apis, Andrena, Eucera and Xylocopa. Eucera is foraging broad beans flowers during months of April, May. The genus Andrena and Xylocopa were found on weeds after the flowering period of beans. The two species have not a preferred type of vegetation compared to Eucera. The main pollinators were generalist bees such as Apis mellifera L. and Xylocopa pubescens Spinola (Apidae), and specialist bees such Eucera numida Lep. (Apidae). The results show that no one of the studied species, neither the specialist, nor the generalist ones, share adaptative morphological or behavioural features that may improve foraging on Vicia faba. However, there is a narrow synchronisation between the daily and yearly phenologies of Eucera numida and those of V. faba. This could be an adaptation of the specialist bee to its host plant. Thus, the food specialisation of Eucera numida, as for most specialist bees, would be more linked to its adapted phenology than to an adapted morphology.

Keywords: Vicia faba, bees, pollinators, Algeria

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20 Study of Pseudomonas as Biofertiliser in Salt-Affected Soils of the Northwestern Algeria: Solubilisation of Calcium Phosphate and Growth Promoting of Broad Bean (Vcia faba)

Authors: A. Djoudi, R. Djibaou, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad


Our study focuses on the study of a bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas solubilizing tricalcium phosphate. They were isolated from rhizosphere of a variety of broad bean grown in salt-affected soils (electrical conductivity between 4 and 8 mmhos/cm) of the irrigated perimeter of Mina in northwestern Algeria. Isolates which have advantageous results in the calcium phosphate solubilization index test were subjected to identification using API20 then used to re-inoculate the same soil in pots experimentation to assess the effects of inoculation on the growth of the broad bean (Vicia faba). Based on the results obtained from the in-vitro tests, two isolates P5 and P8 showed a significant effect on the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate with an index I estimated at 314% and 283% sequentially. According to the results of in-vivo tests, the inoculation of the soil with P5 and P8 were significantly and positively influencing the growth in biometric parameters of the broad bean. Inoculation with strain P5 has promoted the growth of the broad bean in stem height, stem fresh weight and stem dry weight of 108.59%, 115.28%, 104.33%, respectively. Inoculation with strain P8 has fostered the growth of the broad bean stem fresh weight of 112.47%. The effect of Pseudomonas on the development of Vicia faba is considered as an interesting process by which PGPR can increase biological production and crop protection.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Vicia faba, promoting of plant growth, solubilization tricalcium phosphate

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19 How Does Vicia faba-rhizobia Symbiosis Improve Its Performance under Low Phosphorus Availability?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, M. Mouradi, A. Kabbadj, M. Farissi, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam


This work focuses on the responses of Vicia fabarhizobia symbiosis to phosphorus deficiency and their contribution to tolerate this constraint. The study was carried out on four faba bean varieties, Aguadulce, Alfia, Luz Otono, and Reina Mora submitted to two phosphorus treatments, deficient and sufficient and cultivated under field and greenhouse hydroaeroponic culture. Plants were harvested at flowering stage for growth, nodulation and phosphorus content assessment. Phosphatases in nodules and rhizospheric soil were analyzed. The impact of phosphorus deficiency on yield component was assessed at maturity stage. Under field conditions, phosphorus deficiency affected negatively nodule biomass and nodule phosphorus content with Alfia and Reina Mora showing the highest biomass reduction. The phosphatase activities in nodules and rhizospheric soil were increased under phosphorus deficiency. At maturity stage, under soil low available phosphorus, the pods number and 100 seeds weight were reduced. The genotypic variation was evident for almost all tested parameters.

Keywords: faba bean, phosphorus, rhizobia, yield

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18 Mathematical Modeling of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Content of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) during Microwave Treatments

Authors: Ridha Fethi Mechlouch, Ahlem Ayadi, Ammar Ben Brahim


Given the importance of the preservation of polyphenols and carotenoids during thermal processing, we attempted in this study to investigate the variation of these two parameters in faba beans during microwave treatment using different power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g), then to perform a mathematical modeling by using non-linear regression analysis to evaluate the models constants. The variation of the carotenoids and polyphenols ratio of faba beans and the models are tested to validate the experimental results. Exponential models were found to be suitable to describe the variation of caratenoid ratio (R²= 0.945, 0.927 and 0.946) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively, and polyphenol ratio (R²= 0.931, 0.989 and 0.982) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively. The effect of microwave power density Pd(W/g) on the coefficient k of models were also investigated. The coefficient is highly correlated (R² = 1) and can be expressed as a polynomial function.

Keywords: microwave treatment, power density, carotenoid, polyphenol, modeling

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17 Phytotoxicity of Lead on the Physiological Parameters of Two Varieties of Broad Bean (Vicia faba)

Authors: El H. Bouziani, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad


The phytotoxicity of heavy metals can be expressed on roots and visible part of plants and is characterized by molecular and metabolic answers at various levels of organization of the whole plant. The present study was undertaken on two varieties of broad bean Vicia faba (Sidi Aïch and Super Aguadulce). The device was mounted on a substrate prepared by mixing sand, soil and compost, the substrate was artificially contaminated with three doses of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] 0, 500 and 1000 ppm. Our objective is to follow the behavior of plant opposite the stress by evaluating the physiological parameters. The results reveal a reduction in the parameters of the productivity (chlorophyll and proteins production) with an increase in the osmoregulators (soluble sugars and proline).These results show that the production of broad bean is strongly modified by the disturbance of its internal physiology under lead exposure.

Keywords: broad bean, lead, stress, physiological parameters, phytotoxicity

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16 The Effect of Salinity on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa and Faba Bean

Authors: Mouffok Ahlem, Belhamra Mohamed, Mouffok Sihem


The use of nitrogen fertilizers inevitable consequence, the increase in the nitrate content of water, which may contribute to the production of nitrite and the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. The nitrogen fertilizer may also affect the structure and function of the microbial community. And the fight against eutrophication of aquatic environments represents a cost to the student statements. The agronomic, ecological and economic legumes such as faba beans and alfalfa are not demonstrated, especially in the case of semi-arid and arid areas. Osmotic stress due to drought and / or salinity deficit, nutritional deficiencies is the major factors limiting symbiotic nitrogen fixation and productivity of pulses. To study the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the region of Biskra, we used soil samples collected from 30 locations. This work has identified several issues of ecological and agronomic interest. Evaluation of symbiotic potential of soils in the region of Biskra; by trapping technique, show different levels of susceptibility to rhizobial microflora. The effectiveness of the rhizobial symbiosis in both legumes indicates that air dry biomass and the amount of nitrogen accumulated in the aerial part, depends mainly on the rate of nodulation and regardless of the species and locality. The correlation between symbiotic nitrogen fixation and some physico-chemical properties of soils shows that symbiotic nitrogen fixation in both legumes is strongly related to soil conditions of the soil. Salinity disrupts the physiological process of growth, development and more particularly that of the symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Against by phosphorus promotes rhizobial symbiosis.

Keywords: rhizobia, faba bean, alfalfa, salinity

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15 Extracellular Hydrolase-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Chilca Salterns in Peru

Authors: Carol N. Flores-Fernández, Guadalupe Espilco, Cynthia Esquerre, Amparo I. Zavaleta


Saline environments represent a valuable source of enzymes with novel properties and particular features for application in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry. This study focuses on the isolation and screening of hydrolase-producing bacteria from Chilca salterns and the evaluation of their biotechnological potential. Soil samples were collected from Chilca salterns in Peru. For the isolation, medium containing 0.2 % of yeast extract, 5 % of NaCl and 10 % of the soil sample was used. After 72 h of incubation at 37 °C, serial dilutions were made up to 10−12 dilutions, spread on agar plates with 0.5 % of yeast extract and 5 % of NaCl, and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. Screening of hydrolase-producing bacteria was carried out for cellulases, amylases, lipases, DNase, and proteases on specific media. Moreover, protease-producing bacteria were tested using protein extracted from the following legumes as substrate: Glycine max, Lupinus mutabilis, Pisum sativum, Erythrina edulis, Cicer arietinum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba. A total of 16 strains were isolated from soil samples. On the screening media; 75, 44, 81 and 50 % were cellulase, amylase, DNase and protease producers, respectively. Also, 19 % of the isolates produced all the hydrolytic enzymes above mentioned. Lipase producers were not found. The 37 % and 12 % of the strains grew at 20 % and 30 % of salt concentration, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the strains grew at pH range between 5 and 10. From the total of protease-producing bacteria, 100 % hydrolyzed Glycine max, Lupinus mutabilis, and Pisum sativum protein, while 87 % hydrolyzed Erythrina edulis and Cicer arietinum protein. Finally, 75 % and 50 % of the strains hydrolyzed Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba protein, respectively. Hydrolase-producing bacteria isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru grew at high salt concentrations and wide range of pH. In addition, protease-producing bacteria hydrolyzed protein from different sources such as leguminous. These enzymes have great biotechnological potential and could be used for different industrial processes and applications.

Keywords: bacteria, extracellular, hydrolases, Peru, salterns

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14 Impact of Zinc on Heavy Metals Content, Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Faba Bean in Milk Ripeness

Authors: M. Timoracká, A. Vollmannová., D.S. Ismael, J. Musilová


We investigated the effect of targeted contaminated soil by Zn model conditions. The soil used in the pot trial was uncontaminated. Faba beans (cvs Saturn, Zobor) were harvested in milk ripeness. With increased doses applied into the soil the strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and Zn amount in seeds of both of faba bean cultivars was confirmed. Despite the high Zn doses applied into the soil in model conditions, in all variants the determined Zn amount in faba bean cv. Saturn was just below the maximal allowed content in foodstuffs given by the legislative. In cv. Zobor the determined Zn content was higher than maximal allowed amount (by 2% and 12%, respectively). Faba bean cvs. Saturn and Zobor accumulated (in all variants higher than hygienic limits) high amounts of Pb and Cd. The contents of all other heavy metals were lower than hygienic limits. With increased Zn doses applied into the soil the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity determined in seeds of both cultivars Saturn and Zobor were increased. The strong statistical relationship between soil Zn content and the total polyphenols contents as well as the total antioxidant capacity in seeds of faba bean cultivars was confirmed.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, faba bean, polyphenols, zinc

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13 Effect of BYMV on Faba Bean Productivity in Libya

Authors: Abdullah S. El-Ammari, Omar M. El-Sanousi, Fathi S. El-Mesmari


One distinct virus namely bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (BYMV) was isolated from naturally infected faba bean plants and identified through the serological reaction, mechanical transmission, host range and symptomology. To study the effect of BYMV on faba bean crop productivity, the experiment was carried out in naturally infected field in a completely randomized design with two treatments (the early infected plants and the lately infected plants). T- test was used to analyze the data. plants of each treatment were harvested when the pods were fully ripened. Early infection significantly reduced the yield of broad bean crop leading to 85.04% yield loss in productivity of seeds per plant, 72.42% yield loss in number of pods per plants, 31.58% yield loss in number of seeds per pod and 18.2% yield loss in weight of seeds per plant.

Keywords: bean yellow mosaic potyvirus, faba bean, productivity, libya

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12 Density Interaction in Determinate and Indeterminate Faba Bean Types

Authors: M. Abd El Hamid Ezzat


Two field trials were conducted to study the effect of plant densities i.e., 190, 222, 266, 330 and 440 10³ plants ha⁻¹ on morphological characters, physiological and yield attributes of two faba bean types viz. determinate (FLIP-87 -117 strain) and indeterminate (c.v. Giza-461). The results showed that the indeterminate plants significantly surpassed the determinate plants in plant height at 75 and 90 days from sowing, number of leaves at all growth stages and dry matter accumulation at 45 and 90 days from sowing. Determinate plants possessed greater number of side branches than that of the indeterminate plants, but it was only significant at 90 days from sowing. Greater number of flowers were produced by the indeterminate plants than that of the determinate plants at 75 and 90 days from sowing, and although shedding was obvious in both types, it was greater in the determinate plants as compared with the indeterminate one at 90 days from sowing. Increasing plant density resulted in reductions in number of leaves, branches flowers and dry matter accumulation per plant of both faba bean types. However, plant height criteria took a reversible magnitude. Moreover, under all rates of plant densities the indeterminate type plants surpassed the determinate plants in all growth characters studied except for number of branches per plant at 90 days from sowing. The indeterminate plant leaves significantly contained greater concentrations of photosynthetic pigments i.e., chl. a, b and carotenoids than those found in the determinate plant leaves. Also, the data showed significant reduction in photosynthetic pigments concentration as planting density increases. Light extinction coefficient (K) values reached their maximum level at 60 days from sowing, then it declined sharply at 75 days from sowing. The data showed that the illumination inside the determinate faba bean canopies was better than the indeterminate plants. (K) values tended to increase as planting density increases, meanwhile, significant interactions were reported between faba bean type as planting density on (K) at all growth stages. Both of determinate and indeterminate faba bean plant leaves reached their maximum expansion at 75 days from sowing reflecting the highest LAI values, then their declined in the subsequent growth stage. The indeterminate faba bean plants significantly surpassed the determinate plants in LAI up to 75 days from sowing. Growth analysis showed that NAR, RGR and CGR reached their maximum rates at (60-75 days growth stage). Faba bean types did not differ significantly in NAR at the early growth stage. The indeterminate plants were able to grow faster with significant CGR values than the determinate plants. The indeterminate faba bean plants surpassed the determinate ones in number of seeds/pod and per plant, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant and per hectare at all rates of plant density. Seed yield increased with increasing plant densities of both types. The highest seed yield was attained for both types 440 103 plants ha⁻¹.

Keywords: determinate, indeterminate faba bean, Physiological attributes, yield attributes

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11 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Alimentary and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Akrpoum Souad, Lalaoui Korrichi


Vicia faba L.,Vaccinium macrocarpon, Punica granatum, Lavandula officinalis, Artemisia absinthium, Linum capitatum and Camellia sinensis were frequently used in our alimentation. In this study, we have tested the antimicrobial activity of their ethanolic and methanolic extracts on some pathogen bacteria, then their ability to in vivo inhibit the growth of Strepcoccus pneumonia. The phytochemical screening has given the composition of the most active extracts. According to the obtained results, the ethanolic extract of Lavendula. officinalis and A absinthium has shown an inhibition of all the tested strains of becteria3. The ethanolic extract of L. officinalis has given the highest activity against S. pneumoniae, followed by the methanolic extract of C. sinensis 1, 2 and P. granatum. The phytochemical screening showed that the most active extracts contained mainly naturels compounds.

Keywords: plants, extracts, antimicrobial activity, streptococcus pneumoniae, phytochemical screening

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10 Genotypic Response Differences among Faba Bean Accessions under Regular Deficit Irrigation (RDI)

Authors: M. Afzal, Salem Safer Alghamdi, Awais Ahmad


Limited amount of irrigation water is an alarming threat to arid and semiarid agriculture. However, genotypic response differences to water deficit conditions within species have been reported frequently. Present study was conducted in order to measure the genotypic differences among faba bean accessions under Regular Deficit Irrigation (RDI). Five seeds from each accession were sown in 135 silt filled pots (30 x 24 cm). Experiment was planned under split plot arrangement and replicated thrice. Treatments consisted of three RDI levels (100% (control), 60% and 40% of the field capacity) and fifteen faba bean accessions (two local accessions as reference while thirteen from different sources around the world). Irrigation treatment was started from the very first day of sowing. Plant height, shoot dry weight, stomatal conductance and total chlorophyll contents (SPAD reading) were measured one month after germination. Irrigation, faba bean accessions and the all possible interactions has stood significantly high for all studied parameters. Regular deficient irrigation has hampered the plant growth and associated parameters in decreasing order (100% < 60% < 40%). Accessions have responded differently under regular deficient irrigation and some of them are even better than local accession. A highly significant correlation among all parameters has also been observed. It was concluded from results that above parameters could be used as markers to identify the genotypic differences for water deficit stress response. This outcome encouraged the use of superior faba bean genotypes in breeding programs for improved varieties to enhance water use efficiency under stress conditions.

Keywords: accessions, stomatal conductance, total chlorophyll contents, RDI, regular deficient irrigation

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9 Study of Salinity Stress and Calcium Interaction on Morphological and Physiological Traits of Vicia villosa under Hydroponic Condition

Authors: Raheleh Khademian, Roghayeh Aminian


For the study of salinity stress on Vicia villosa and calcium effect for modulation of that, an experiment was conducted under hydroponic condition, and some important morphological and physiological characteristics were evaluated. This experiment was conducted as a factorial based on randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments include salinity stress in three levels (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl) and calcium in two levels (content in Hoagland solution and double content). The results showed that all morphological and physiological traits include root and shoot length, root and shoot wet and dry weight, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content, RWC, CMS, and biological yield was significantly different from the control and is affected by the salinity stress severely. But, calcium effect on them was not significant despite of decreasing salinity effect.

Keywords: Vicia villossa, salinity stress, calcium, hydroponic

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8 Which Mechanisms are Involved by Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis to Increase Its Phosphorus Use Efficiency under Low Phosphorus Level?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, A. Bargaz, M. Mouradi, M. Farissi, A. Kabbaj, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam


Legume species are able to establish a nitrogen fixing symbiosis with soil rhizobia that allows them, when it operates normally, to ensure their necessary nitrogen nutrition. This biological process needs high phosphorus (P) supply and consequently it is limited under low phosphorus availability. To overcome this constraint, legume-rhizobia symbiosis develops many mechanisms to increase P availability in the rhizosphere and also the efficiency of P fertilizers. The objectives of our research works are to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms implemented by legume-rhizobia symbiosis to increase its P use efficiency (PUE) in order to select legume genotypes-rhizobia strains combination more performing for BNF under P deficiency. Our studies were carried out on two grain legume species, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and faba bean (Vicia faba) tested in farmers’ fields and in experimental station fewer than two soil phosphorus levels. Under field conditions, the P deficiency caused a significant decrease of Plant and nodule biomasses in all of the tested varieties with a difference between them. This P limitation increased the contents of available P in the rhizospheric soils that was positively correlated with the increase of phosphatases activities in the nodules and the rhizospheric soil. Some legume genotypes showed a significant increase of their P use efficiency under P deficiency. The P solubilization test showed that some rhizobia strains isolated from Haouz region presented an important capacity to grow on solid and liquid media with tricalcium phosphate as the only P source and their P solubilizing activity was confirmed by the assay of the released P in the liquid medium. Also, this P solubilizing activity was correlated with medium acidification and the excretion of acid phosphatases and phytases in the medium. Thus, we concluded that medium acidification and excretion of phosphatases in the rhizosphere are the prominent reactions for legume-rhizobia symbiosis to improve its P nutrition.

Keywords: legume, phosphorus deficiency, rhizobia, rhizospheric soil

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7 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ambient Particle Industrial Complex Upon Vegetation Near Settling at El-Fatyah,Libya

Authors: Ashraf M. S. Soliman, Mohsen Elhasadi


The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of ambient particles emitted from an industrial complex located at El-Fatyah on growth, phytomass partitioning and accumulation, pigment content and nutrient uptake of two economically important crop species; barley (Hordeum vulgare L.Family: Poaceae) and broad bean (Vicia faba L. Family: Fabaceae) growing in the region. It was obvious from the present investigation that chlorophyll and carotenoid content showed significant responses to the industrial dust. Generally, the total pigment content of the two investigated crops in the two locations continually increased till the plant age reached 70 days after sowing then begins to decrease till the end of the growing season..The total uptake of N, P and K in the two studied species decreased in response to industrial dust in the study area compared to control location. In conclusion, barley and broad bean are very sensitive to air pollutants, and may consider as bioindicators for atmospheric pollution. Pollutants caused damage of their leaves, impair plant growth, hindered nutrient uptake and consequently limit primary productivity.

Keywords: Effect of Industrial Complex on barley and broad bean

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6 Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis Method to Assess Rumen Microbial Diversity of Ruminant

Authors: A. Natsir, M. Nadir, S. Syahrir, A. Mujnisa, N. Purnomo, A. R. Egan, B. J. Leury


Rumen degradation characteristic of feedstuff is one of the prominent factors affecting microbial population in rumen of animal. High rumen degradation rate of faba bean protein may lead to inconstant rumen conditions that could have a prominent impact on rumen microbial diversity. Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) is utilized to monitor diversity of rumen microbes on sheep fed low quality forage supplemented by faba beans. Four mature merino sheep with existing rumen cannula were used in this study according to 4 x 4 Latin square design. The results of study indicated that there were 37 different ARDRA types identified out of 136 clones examined. Among those clones, five main clone types existed across the treatments with different percentages. In conclusion, the ARDRA method is potential to be used as a routine tool to assess the temporary changes in the rumen community as a result of different feeding strategies.

Keywords: ARDRA method, cattle, genomic diversity, rumen microbes

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5 In Vitro Digestibility of Grains and Straw of Seventeen Ecotypes of Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia) in the North of Morocco

Authors: Boukrouh Soumaya, Cabaraux Jean-François, Avril Claire, Noutfia Ali, Chentouf Mouad


The introduction of marginal leguminous forage species in the diet of ruminants are of great importance. Bitter vetch is a good source of proteins, highly resistant against drought and poor soil conditions. Accordingly; two years field trials (2018/2019 and 2019-2020) were conducted to determine the digestibility of straw and grains of 17 promising bitter vetch ecotypes(Vicia ervilia) in the north of Morocco. In vitro dry and organic matter digestibility, gas production, and kinetics of fermentation of grains and straw were evaluated using gas production technique, pepsin-cellulase enzymatic digestibility of DM (CDDM)and OM (CDOM), as well as protease enzymatic CP degradation (CPD) and in vitro true digestibility, were performed using DAISYII Incubator. In vitro digestibility was performed using gas production method of (Menke et al., 1979) improved by Menke and Steingass (1988). Samples were incubated in glass syringes that contained rumen fluid and incubation solution that conserved in water bath in 39°C during 72 hours. Gas production was recorded after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Studied digestibility parameters were dry and organic matter digestibility, microbial biomass production, partitioning factor, and volatile fatty acids. Enzymatic dry matter digestibility was different (p < 0.05) among grains and straw for all ecotypes. It varied from 804.1 to 957.7 g/kg DM and 270.4 to 412.3 g/kg DM for grains and straw, respectively. Metabolizable energy varied between 11.7 to 14.3 MJ/kg DM and 2.6 to 5.0 MJ/kg DM for grains and straw, respectively. Potential gas production (A), the rate constants (c and d), and lag times of grains and straws from different bitter vetch ecotypes were different (p > 0.05). The results emphasized that in any evaluation of bitter vetch ecotypes, where straw of this legume seed is used as an animal feed, not only seed yield but also yield and quality of straw should be taken into consideration, particularly in areas where straw from this legume is considered as an important feedstuff for ruminants. Enzymatic digestibility was lower than in vitro digestibility by gaz production and by the DAISYII method because rumen fluid contains bacteria than increase digestibility. There was no difference between in vitro digestibility by gaz production and the DAISY II method. The DAISY II method can be used to increase labor efficiency in the in vitro DM digestibility analysis if gaz production is not necessary for analysis.

Keywords: bitter vetch, grains, straw, ecotype, in vitro digestibility, gaz production, enzymatic digestibility

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4 Changes in Physicochemical Characteristics of a Serpentine Soil and in Root Architecture of a Hyperaccumulating Plant Cropped with a Legume

Authors: Ramez F. Saad, Ahmad Kobaissi, Bernard Amiaud, Julien Ruelle, Emile Benizri


Agromining is a new technology that establishes agricultural systems on ultramafic soils in order to produce valuable metal compounds such as nickel (Ni), with the final aim of restoring a soil's agricultural functions. But ultramafic soils are characterized by low fertility levels and this can limit yields of hyperaccumulators and metal phytoextraction. The objectives of the present work were to test if the association of a hyperaccumulating plant (Alyssum murale) and a Fabaceae (Vicia sativa var. Prontivesa) could induce changes in physicochemical characteristics of a serpentine soil and in root architecture of a hyperaccumulating plant then lead to efficient agromining practices through soil quality improvement. Based on standard agricultural systems, consisting in the association of legumes and another crop such as wheat or rape, a three-month rhizobox experiment was carried out to study the effect of the co-cropping (Co) or rotation (Ro) of a hyperaccumulating plant (Alyssum murale) with a legume (Vicia sativa) and incorporating legume biomass to soil, in comparison with mineral fertilization (FMo), on the structure and physicochemical properties of an ultramafic soil and on root architecture. All parameters measured (biomass, C and N contents, and taken-up Ni) on Alyssum murale conducted in co-cropping system showed the highest values followed by the mineral fertilization and rotation (Co > FMo > Ro), except for root nickel yield for which rotation was better than the mineral fertilization (Ro > FMo). The rhizosphere soil of Alyssum murale in co-cropping had larger soil particles size and better aggregates stability than other treatments. Using geostatistics, co-cropped Alyssum murale showed a greater root surface area spatial distribution. Moreover, co-cropping and rotation-induced lower soil DTPA-extractable nickel concentrations than other treatments, but higher pH values. Alyssum murale co-cropped with a legume showed a higher biomass production, improved soil physical characteristics and enhanced nickel phytoextraction. This study showed that the introduction of a legume into Ni agromining systems could improve yields of dry biomass of the hyperaccumulating plant used and consequently, the yields of Ni. Our strategy can decrease the need to apply fertilizers and thus minimizes the risk of nitrogen leaching and underground water pollution. Co-cropping of Alyssum murale with the legume showed a clear tendency to increase nickel phytoextraction and plant biomass in comparison to rotation treatment and fertilized mono-culture. In addition, co-cropping improved soil physical characteristics and soil structure through larger and more stabilized aggregates. It is, therefore, reasonable to conclude that the use of legumes in Ni-agromining systems could be a good strategy to reduce chemical inputs and to restore soil agricultural functions. Improving the agromining system by the replacement of inorganic fertilizers could simultaneously be a safe way of rehabilitating degraded soils and a method to restore soil quality and functions leading to the recovery of ecosystem services.

Keywords: plant association, legumes, hyperaccumulating plants, ultramafic soil physicochemical properties

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3 Effect of Spermidine on Physicochemical Properties of Protein Based Films

Authors: Mohammed Sabbah, Prospero Di Pierro, Raffaele Porta


Protein-based edible films and coatings have attracted an increasing interest in recent years since they might be used to protect pharmaceuticals or improve the shelf life of different food products. Among them, several plant proteins represent an abundant, inexpensive and renewable raw source. These natural biopolymers are used as film forming agents, being able to form intermolecular linkages by various interactions. However, without the addition of a plasticizing agent, many biomaterials are brittle and, consequently, very difficult to be manipulated. Plasticizers are generally small and non-volatile organic additives used to increase film extensibility and reduce its crystallinity, brittleness and water vapor permeability. Plasticizers normally act by decreasing the intermolecular forces along the polymer chains, thus reducing the relative number of polymer-polymer contacts, producing a decrease in cohesion and tensile strength and thereby increasing film flexibility allowing its deformation without rupture. The most commonly studied plasticizers are polyols, like glycerol (GLY) and some mono or oligosaccharides. In particular, GLY not only increases film extensibility but also migrates inside the film network often causing the loss of desirable mechanical properties of the material. Therefore, replacing GLY with a different plasticizer might help to improve film characteristics allowing potential industrial applications. To improve film properties, it seemed of interest to test as plasticizers some cationic small molecules like polyamines (PAs). Putrescine, spermidine (SPD), and spermine are PAs widely distributed in nature and of particular interest for their biological activities that may have some beneficial health effects. Since PAs contains amino instead of hydroxyl functional groups, they are able to trigger ionic interactions with negatively charged proteins. Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia; BV) is an ancient grain legume crop, originated in the Mediterranean region, which can be found today in many countries around the world. This annual Vicia genus shows several favorable features, being their seeds a cheap and abundant protein source. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different concentrations of SPD on the mechanical and permeability properties of films prepared with native or heat denatured BV proteins in the presence of different concentrations of SPD and/or GLY. Therefore, a BV seed protein concentrate (BVPC), containing about 77% proteins, was used to prepare film forming solutions (FFSs), whereas GLY and SPD were added as film plasticizers, either singly or in combination, at various concentrations. Since a primary plasticizer is generally defined as a molecule that when added to a material makes it softer, more flexible and easier to be processed, our findings lead to consider SPD as a possible primary plasticizer of protein-based films. In fact, the addition of millimolar concentrations of SPD to BVPC FFS allowed obtaining handleable biomaterials with improved properties. Moreover, SPD can be also considered as a secondary plasticizer, namely an 'extender', because of its ability even to enhance the plasticizing performance of GLY. In conclusion, our studies indicate that innovative edible protein-based films and coatings can be obtained by using PAs as new plasticizers.

Keywords: edible films, glycerol, plasticizers, polyamines, spermidine

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2 Evaluation of Forage Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Barley and Legumes

Authors: Abdollah Javanmard, Fariborz Shekari


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa), and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 based on seed numbers) were used to investigate forage yield and competition indices. The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grasspea75 (5.44 t ha-1) mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1). The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64) than intercropped legumes (K=1.20), indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

Keywords: forage, grass pea, intercropping, LER, monetary advantage

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1 The Effect of Extruded Full-Fat Rapeseed on Productivity and Eggs Quality of Isa Brown Laying Hens

Authors: Vilma Sasyte, Vilma Viliene, Agila Dauksiene, Asta Raceviciute-Stupeliene, Romas Gruzauskas, Saulius Alijosius


The eight-week feeding trial was conducted involving 27-wk-old Isa brown laying hens to study the effect of dry extrusion processing on partial reduction in total glucosinolates content of locally produced rapeseed and on productivity and eggs quality parameters of laying hens. Thirty-six hens were randomly assigned one of three treatments (CONTR, AERS and HERS), each comprising 12, individual caged layers. The main composition of the diets was the same, but extruded soya bean seed were replaced with 2.5% of the extruded rapeseed in the AERS group and 4.5 % in the HERS group. Rapeseed was extruded together with faba beans. Due to extrusion process the glucosinolates content was reduced by 7.83 µmol/g of rapeseed. The results of conducted trial shows, that during all experimental period egg production parameters, such as the average feed intake (6529.17 vs. 6257 g/hen/14 day; P < 0.05) and laying intensity (94.35% vs. 89.29; P < 0.05) were statistically different for HERS and CONTR laying hens respectively. Only the feed conversion ratio to produce 1 kg of eggs, kg in AERS group was by 11 % lower compared to CONTR group (P < 0.05). By analysing the effect of extruded rapeseed on egg mass, the statistical differences between treatments were no determined. The dietary treatments did not affect egg weight, albumen height, haugh units, albumen and yolk pH. However, in the HERS group were get eggs with the more intensive yolk color, higher redness (a) and yellowness (b) values. The inclusion of full-fat extruded rapeseed had no effect on egg shell quality parameters, i.e. shell breaking strength, shell weight with and without coat and shell index, but in the experimental groups were get eggs with the thinner shell (P < 0.05). The internal egg quality analysis showed that with higher content of extruded rapeseed (4.5 %) level in the diet, the total cholesterol in the eggs yolk decreased by 1.92 mg/g in comparison with CONTR group (P < 0.05). Eggs laid by hens fed the diet containing 2.5% and 4.5% had increasing ∑PNRR/∑SRR ratio and decreasing ∑(n-6)/∑(n-3) ratio values of eggs yolk fatty acids than in CONTR group. Eggs of hens fed different amount of extruded rapeseed presented an n-6 : n-3 ratio changed from 5.17 to 4.71. The analysis of the relationship between hypocholesteremia/ hypercholesterolemia fatty acids (H/H), which is based on the functional properties of fatty acids, found that the value of it ratio is significant higher in laying hens fed diets supplemented with 4.5% extruded rapeseed than the CONTR group, demonstrating the positive effects of extruded rapeseed on egg quality. The results of trial confirmed that extruded full fat rapeseed to the 4.5% are suitable to replace soyabean in the compound feed of laying hens.

Keywords: egg quality, extruded full-fat rapeseed, laying hens, productivity

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