Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: phytosterol

3 Chocomerr (Merr Leaves Chocolate) Alternative Food in Increasing Breastmilk Quantity

Authors: Rara Wulan Anggareni, Narita Putri, Riski Septianing Astuti

Abstract:

Breastfeeding is a key to prevent mortality and morbidity in children. It is also the second highest risk responsible for Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) among children below five years old. UNICEF estimates that during 1995 – 2003, there are only about 38% infants in developing countries who get to be exclusively breastfed during the first six months of their lives. According to Demography and Health Survey in Indonesia 2007, breastfeed practice rate still considered as low which is about 41%. One of the factors causing the low breastfeed practice rate in Indonesia is the anxiety and postpartum depression, and also the weanling dilemma in which mother feels that her breastmilk cannot suffice infant needs. Those factors finally resulting into low or even stopped production of breastmilk. Breastmilk production can be enhanced by consuming food containing phytosterol and lactogoga effect. Food with the highest phytosterol level is Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr leaf (merr leaf). In this study, we made alternative food which named Chocomerr for breastfeeding mothers. Chocomerr consists of merr leaves which have lactogoga effect and chocolate for relaxation. Based on organoleptic tests conducted towards 2 age groups, which are 18 – 21 and 25 – 40 years old, this product gets good acceptance in taste, texture, and colour categories. Chocomerr can be used as an alternative way for increasing breastmilk production to aim for the decreasing number of DALYs among children aged under 5 years old.

Keywords: breastfeeding, increasing, chocolate, merr leaves

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2 Determination of Phytostearol in Serial Grains

Authors: Sumonthip Kongtun Janphuk

Abstract:

Ten cereal grains that usually used as ingredients in healthy products were studied for phytosteryl glucoside contents. β-sitosteryl glucoside in 10 cereal grains, including Phasecolus vulgaris L. (kidney bean), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus), Vigna radiate L. (mung bean), Coix lacrymajobi (job’tears), Oryza sativa. (red rice), Glycine max L. Merrill. (soybean),Cucurbita maschata Decne (pumpkin) and Helianthas annuus (sunflower seeds), were analyzed using Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All grains were extracted with methanol before analysis. Red bean showed the maximum phytosteryl glucoside content of 0.42% w/w. The content of others were as follows: pumpkin seed 0.173%, mung bean 0.099 %, soybean 0.07%, dried moringa seed 0.067%, lotus seed 0.044%, sorghum 0.032%, sunflower seed 0.016%, Job's tears 0.012%, and brown rice 0.006%.

Keywords: cereal grains, phytosterol, β-sitosteryl glucoside, food analysis.

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
1 Identification of Bioactive Metabolites from Ficus carica and Their Neuroprotective Effects of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Hanan Khojah, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel

Abstract:

Neurodegenerative disease including Alzheimer’s disease is a major cause of long-term disability. Oxidative stress is frequently implicated as one of the key contributing factors to neurodegenerative diseases. Protection against neuronal damage remains a great challenge for researchers. Ficus carica (commonly known as fig) is a species of great antioxidant nutritional value comprising a protective mechanism against innumerable health disorders related to oxidative stress as well as Alzheimer’s disease. The purpose of this work was to characterize the non-polar active metabolites in Ficus carica endocarp, mesocarp, and exocarp. Crude extracts were prepared using several extraction solvents, which included 1:1 water: ethylacetate, acetone and methanol. The dried extracts were then solvent partitioned between equivalent amounts of water and ethylacetate. Purification and fractionation were accomplished by high-throughput chromatography. The isolated metabolites were tested on their effect on human neuroblastoma cell line by cell viability test and cell cytotoxicity assay with acrolein. Molecular weights of the active metabolites were determined via LC–HRESIMS and GC-EIMS. Metabolomic profiling was performed to identify the active metabolites by using differential expression analysis software (Mzmine) and SIMCA for multivariate analysis. Structural elucidation and identification of the interested active metabolites were studied by 1-D and 2-D NMR. Significant differences in bioactivity against a concentration-dependent assay on acrolein radicals were observed between the three fruit parts. However, metabolites obtained from mesocarp and the endocarp demonstrated bioactivity to scavenge ROS radical. NMR profiling demonstrated that aliphatic compounds such as γ-sitosterol tend to induce neuronal bioactivity and exhibited bioactivity on the cell viability assay. γ-Sitosterol was found in higher concentrations in the mesocarp and was considered as one of the major phytosterol in Ficus carica.

Keywords: alzheimer, Ficus carica, γ-Sitosterol, metabolomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 262