Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 264

Search results for: riparian forests

264 Riparian Buffer Strips’ Capability of E. coli Removal in New York Streams

Authors: Helen Sanders, Joshua Cousins

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The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether riparian buffer strips could be used to reduce Escherichia Coli (E. coli) runoff into streams in Central New York. Mainstream methods currently utilized to reduce E. coli runoff include fencing and staggered fertilizing plans for agriculture. These methods still do not significantly limit E. coli and thus, pose a serious health risk to individuals who swim in contaminated waters or consume contaminated produce. One additional method still in research development involves the planting of vegetated riparian buffers along waterways. Currently, riparian buffer strips are primarily used for filtration of nitrate and phosphate runoff to slow erosion, regulate pH and, improve biodiversity within waterways. For my research, four different stream sites were selected for the study, in which rainwater runoff was collected at both the riparian buffer and the E. coli sourced runoff upstream. Preliminary results indicate that there is an average 70% decrease in E. coli content in streams at the riparian buffer strips compared to upstream runoff. This research could be utilized to include vegetated buffer planting as a method to decrease manure runoff into essential waterways.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, riparian buffer strips, vegetated riparian buffers, runoff, filtration

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263 Genetic Parameters as Indicators of Sustainability and Diversity of Schinus terebinthifolius Populations in the Riparian Area of the São Francisco River

Authors: Renata Silva-Mann, Sheila Valéria Álvares Carvalho, Robério Anastácio Ferreira, Laura Jane Gomes

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There is growing interest in defining indicators of sustainability, which are important for monitoring the conservation of native forests, particularly in areas of permanent protection. These indicators are references for assessing the state of the forest and the status of the depredated area and its ability to maintain species populations. The aim of the present study was to select genetic parameters as indicators of sustainability for Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Fragments located in riparian areas between the Sergipe and Alagoas States in Brazil. This species has been exploited for traditional communities, which represent 20% of the incoming. This study was carried out using the indicators suggested by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which were identified as Driving-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) factors. The genetic parameters were obtained in five populations located on the shores and islands of the São Francisco River, one of the most important rivers in Brazil. The framework for Schinus conservation suggests seventeen indicators of sustainability. In accordance with genetic parameters, the populations are isolated, and these genetic parameters can be used to monitor the sustainability of those populations in riparian area with the aim of defining strategies for forest restoration.

Keywords: alleles, molecular markers, genetic diversity, biodiversity

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262 Influence of the Location of Flood Embankments on the Condition of Oxbow Lakes and Riparian Forests: A Case Study of the Middle Odra River Beds on the Example of Dragonflies (Odonata), Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Plant Communities

Authors: Magda Gorczyca, Zofia Nocoń

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Past and current studies from different countries showed that river engineering leads to environmental degradation and extinction of many species - often those protected by local and international wildlife conservation laws. Through the years, the main focus of rivers utilization has shifted from industrial applications to recreation and wildlife preservation with a focus on keeping the biodiversity which plays a significant role in preventing climate changes. Thus an opportunity appeared to recreate flooding areas and natural habitats, which are very rare in the scale of Europe. Additionally, river restoration helps to avoid floodings and periodic droughts, which are usually very damaging to the economy. In this research, the biodiversity of dragonflies and ground beetles was analyzed in the context of plant communities and forest stands structure. Results were enriched with data from past and current literature. A comparison was made between two parts of the Odra river. A part where oxbow lake and riparian forest were separated from the river bed by embankment and a part of the river with floodplains left intact. Validity assessment of embankments relocation was made based on the research results. In the period between May and September, insects were collected, phytosociological analysis were taken, and forest stand structure properties were specified. In the part of the river not separated by the embankments, rare and protected species of plants were spotted (e.g., Trapanatans, Salvinianatans) as well as greater species and quantitive diversity of dragonfly. Ground beetles fauna, though, was richer in the area separated by the embankment. Even though the research was done during only one season and in a limited area, the results can be a starting point for further extended research and may contribute to acquiring legal wildlife protection and restoration of the researched area. During the research, the presence of invasive species Impatiens parviflora, Echinocystislobata, and Procyonlotor were observed, which may lead to loss of the natural values of the researched areas.

Keywords: carabidae, floodplains, middle Odra river, Odonata, oxbow lakes, riparian forests

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261 Plantation Forests Height Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial System

Authors: Shiming Li, Qingwang Liu, Honggan Wu, Jianbing Zhang

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Plantation forests are useful for timber production, recreation, environmental protection and social development. Stands height is an important parameter for the estimation of forest volume and carbon stocks. Although lidar is suitable technology for the vertical parameters extraction of forests, but high costs make it not suitable for operational inventory. With the development of computer vision and photogrammetry, aerial photos from unmanned aerial system can be used as an alternative solution for height mapping. Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry technique can be used to extract DSM and DEM information. Canopy height model (CHM) can be achieved by subtraction DEM from DSM. Our result shows that overlapping aerial photos is a potential solution for plantation forests height mapping.

Keywords: forest height mapping, plantation forests, structure-from-motion photogrammetry, UAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
260 Characteristics of Old-Growth and Secondary Forests in Relation to Age and Typhoon Disturbance

Authors: Teng-Chiu Lin, Pei-Jen Lee Shaner, Shin-Yu Lin

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Both forest age and physical damages due to weather events such as tropical cyclones can influence forest characteristics and subsequently its capacity to sequester carbon. Detangling these influences is therefore a pressing issue under climate change. In this study, we compared the compositional and structural characteristics of three forests in Taiwan differing in age and severity of typhoon disturbances. We found that the two forests (one old-growth forest and one secondary forest) experiencing more severe typhoon disturbances had shorter stature, higher wood density, higher tree species diversity, and lower typhoon-induced tree mortality than the other secondary forest experiencing less severe typhoon disturbances. On the other hand, the old-growth forest had a larger amount of woody debris than the two secondary forests, suggesting a dominant role of forest age on woody debris accumulation. Of the three forests, only the two experiencing more severe typhoon disturbances formed new gaps following two 2015 typhoons, and between these two forests, the secondary forest gained more gaps than the old-growth forest. Consider that older forests generally have more gaps due to a higher background tree mortality, our findings suggest that the age effects on gap dynamics may be reversed by typhoon disturbances. This study demonstrated the effects of typhoons on forest characteristics, some of which could negate the age effects and rejuvenate older forests. If cyclone disturbances were to intensity under climate change, the capacity of older forests to sequester carbon may be reduced.

Keywords: typhoon, canpy gap, coarse woody debris, forest stature, forest age

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
259 Impact of Marine Hydrodynamics and Coastal Morphology on Changes in Mangrove Forests (Case Study: West of Strait of Hormuz, Iran)

Authors: Fatemeh Parhizkar, Mojtaba Yamani, Abdolla Behboodi, Masoomeh Hashemi

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The mangrove forests are natural and valuable gifts that exist in some parts of the world, including Iran. Regarding the threats faced by these forests and the declining area of them all over the world, as well as in Iran, it is very necessary to manage and monitor them. The current study aimed to investigate the changes in mangrove forests and the relationship between these changes and the marine hydrodynamics and coastal morphology in the area between qeshm island and the west coast of the Hormozgan province (i.e. the coastline between Mehran river and Bandar-e Pol port) in the 49-year period. After preprocessing and classifying satellite images using the SVM, MLC, and ANN classifiers and evaluating the accuracy of the maps, the SVM approach with the highest accuracy (the Kappa coefficient of 0.97 and overall accuracy of 98) was selected for preparing the classification map of all images. The results indicate that from 1972 to 1987, the area of these forests have had experienced a declining trend, and in the next years, their expansion was initiated. These forests include the mangrove forests of Khurkhuran wetland, Muriz Deraz Estuary, Haft Baram Estuary, the mangrove forest in the south of the Laft Port, and the mangrove forests between the Tabl Pier, Maleki Village, and Gevarzin Village. The marine hydrodynamic and geomorphological characteristics of the region, such as average intertidal zone, sediment data, the freshwater inlet of Mehran river, wave stability and calmness, topography and slope, as well as mangrove conservation projects make the further expansion of mangrove forests in this area possible. By providing significant and up-to-date information on the development and decline of mangrove forests in different parts of the coast, this study can significantly contribute to taking measures for the conservation and restoration of mangrove forests.

Keywords: mangrove forests, marine hydrodynamics, coastal morphology, west of strait of Hormuz, Iran

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258 Determining Optimal Number of Trees in Random Forests

Authors: Songul Cinaroglu

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Background: Random Forest is an efficient, multi-class machine learning method using for classification, regression and other tasks. This method is operating by constructing each tree using different bootstrap sample of the data. Determining the number of trees in random forests is an open question in the literature for studies about improving classification performance of random forests. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is an optimal number of trees in Random Forests and how performance of Random Forests differ according to increase in number of trees using sample health data sets in R programme. Method: In this study we analyzed the performance of Random Forests as the number of trees grows and doubling the number of trees at every iteration using “random forest” package in R programme. For determining minimum and optimal number of trees we performed Mc Nemar test and Area Under ROC Curve respectively. Results: At the end of the analysis it was found that as the number of trees grows, it does not always means that the performance of the forest is better than forests which have fever trees. In other words larger number of trees only increases computational costs but not increases performance results. Conclusion: Despite general practice in using random forests is to generate large number of trees for having high performance results, this study shows that increasing number of trees doesn’t always improves performance. Future studies can compare different kinds of data sets and different performance measures to test whether Random Forest performance results change as number of trees increase or not.

Keywords: classification methods, decision trees, number of trees, random forest

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257 Hydrological Benefits Sharing Concepts in Constructing Friendship Dams on Transboundary Tigris River Between Iraq and Turkey

Authors: Thair Mahmood Altaiee

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Because of the increasing population and the growing water requirements from the transboundary water resources within riparian countries in addition to un-proper management of these transboundary water resources, it is likely that a conflicts on the water will be occurred. So it is mandatory to search solutions to mitigate the action and probabilities of these undesired conflicts. One of the solutions for these crises may be sharing the riparian countries in the management of their transboundary water resources and share benefit. Effective cooperation on a transboundary river is any action by the riparian countries that lead to improve management of the river to their mutual acceptance. In principle, friendship dams constructed by riparian countries may play an important role in preventing conflicts like the Turkish-Syrian friendship dam on Asi river (Orontes), Iranian-Tukmenistan dam on Hariroud river, Bulgarian-Turkish dam on Tundzha river, Brazil-Paraguay dam on Parana river, and Aras dam between Iran and Azerbaijan. The objective of this study is to focus the light on the hydrological aspects of cooperation in constructing dams on the transboundary rivers, which may consider an option to prevent conflicts on water between the riparian countries. The various kinds of benefits and external impacts associated with cooperation in dams construction on the transboundary rivers with a real examples will be presented and analyzed. The hydrological benefit sharing from cooperation in dams construction, which type of benefit sharing mechanisms are applicable to dams, and how they vary were discussed. The study considered the cooperative applicability to dams on shared rivers according to selected case study of friendship dams in the world to illustrate the relevance of the cooperation concepts and the feasibility of such propose cooperation between Turkey and Iraq within the Tigris river. It is found that the opportunities of getting benefit from cooperation depend mainly on the hydrological boundary and location of the dam in relation to them. The desire to cooperate on dams construction on transboundary rivers exists if the location of a dam upstream will increase aggregate net benefits. The case studies show that various benefit sharing mechanisms due to cooperation in constructing friendship dams on the riparian countries border are possible for example when the downstream state (Iraq) convinces the upstream state (Turkey) to share building a dam on Tigris river across the Iraqi –Turkish border covering the cost and sharing the net benefit derived from this dam. These initial findings may provide guidance for riparian states engaged in and donors facilitating negotiation on dam projects on transboundary rivers.

Keywords: friendship dams, transboundary rivers, water cooperation, benefit sharing

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256 Forest Risk and Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study from East Bokaro Coal Mining Area in India

Authors: Sujata Upgupta, Prasoon Kumar Singh

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The expansion of large scale coal mining into forest areas is a potential hazard for the local biodiversity and wildlife. The objective of this study is to provide a picture of the threat that coal mining poses to the forests of the East Bokaro landscape. The vulnerable forest areas at risk have been assessed and the priority areas for conservation have been presented. The forested areas at risk in the current scenario have been assessed and compared with the past conditions using classification and buffer based overlay approach. Forest vulnerability has been assessed using an analytical framework based on systematic indicators and composite vulnerability index values. The results indicate that more than 4 km2 of forests have been lost from 1973 to 2016. Large patches of forests have been diverted for coal mining projects. Forests in the northern part of the coal field within 1-3 km radius around the coal mines are at immediate risk. The original contiguous forests have been converted into fragmented and degraded forest patches. Most of the collieries are located within or very close to the forests thus threatening the biodiversity and hydrology of the surrounding regions. Based on the vulnerability values estimated, it was concluded that more than 90% of the forested grids in East Bokaro are highly vulnerable to mining. The forests in the sub-districts of Bermo and Chandrapura have been identified as the most vulnerable to coal mining activities. This case study would add to the capacity of the forest managers and mine managers to address the risk and vulnerability of forests at a small landscape level in order to achieve sustainable development.

Keywords: forest, coal mining, indicators, vulnerability

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255 Environmental Interactions in Riparian Vegetation Cover in an Urban Stream Corridor: A Case Study of Duzce Asar Suyu

Authors: Engin Eroğlu, Oktay Yıldız, Necmi Aksoy, Akif Keten, Mehmet Kıvanç Ak, Şeref Keskin, Elif Atmaca, Sertaç Kaya

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Nowadays, green spaces in urban areas are under threat and decreasing their percentages in the urban areas because of increasing population, urbanization, migration, and some cultural changes in quality. An important element of the natural landscape water and water-related natural ecosystems are exposed to corruption due to these pressures. A landscape has owned many different types of elements or units, a more dominant structure than other landscapes as good or bad perceptible extent different direction and variable reveals a unique structure and character of the landscape. Whereas landscapes deal with two main groups as urban and rural according to their location on the world, especially intersection areas of urban and rural named semi-urban or semi-rural present variety landscape features. The main components of the landscape are defined as patch-matrix-corridor. The corridors include quite various vegetation types such as riparian, wetland and the others. In urban areas, natural water corridors are an important elements of the diversity of the riparian vegetation cover. In particular, water corridors attract attention with a natural diversity and lack of fragmentation, degradation and artificial results. Thanks to these features, without a doubt, water corridors are the important component of all cities in the world. These corridors not only divide the city into two separate sides, but also assured the ecological connectivity between the two sides of the city. The main objective of this study is to determine the vegetation and habitat features of urban stream corridor according to environmental interactions. Within this context, this study will be realized that 'Asar Suyu' is an important component of the city of Düzce. Moreover, the riparian zone touched contiguous area borders of the city and overlaid the urban development limits of the city, determining of characteristics of the corridor will be carried out as floristic and habitat analysis. Consequently, vegetation structure and habitat features which play an important role between riparian zone vegetation covers and environmental interaction will be determined. This study includes first results of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK-116O596; 'Determining of Landscape Character of Urban Water Corridors as Visual and Ecological; A Case Study of Asar Suyu in Duzce').

Keywords: corridor, Duzce, landscape ecology, riparian vegetation

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
254 Hydraulic Analysis on Microhabitat of Benthic Macroinvertebrates at Riparian Riffles

Authors: Jin-Hong Kim

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Hydraulic analysis on microhabitat of Benthic Macro- invertebrates was performed at riparian riffles of Hongcheon River and Gapyeong Stream. As for the representative species, Ecdyonurus kibunensis, Paraleptophlebia cocorata, Chironomidae sp. and Psilotreta kisoensis iwata were chosen. They showed hydraulically different habitat types by flow velocity and particle diameters of streambed materials. Habitat conditions of the swimmers were determined mainly by the flow velocity rather than by flow depth or by riverbed materials. Burrowers prefer sand and silt, and inhabited at the riverbed. Sprawlers prefer cobble or boulder and inhabited for velocity of 0.05-0.15 m/s. Clingers prefer pebble or cobble and inhabited for velocity of 0.06-0.15 m/s. They were found to be determined mainly by the flow velocity.

Keywords: benthic macroinvertebrates, riffles, clinger, swimmer, burrower, sprawler

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
253 Forest Polices and Management in Nigeria: Are Households Willing to Pay for Forest Management?

Authors: A. O. Arowolo, M. U. Agbonlahor, P. A. Okuneye, A. E. Obayelu

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Nigeria is rich with abundant resources with an immense contribution of the forest resource to her economic development and to the livelihood of the rural populace over the years. However, this important resource has continued to shrink because it is not sustainably used, managed or conserved. The loss of forest cover has far reaching consequences on regional, national and global economy as well as the environment. This paper reviewed the Nigeria forest management policies, the challenges and willingness to pay (WTP) for management of the community forests in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data for the empirical investigation were obtained using a cross-section survey of 160 rural households by multistage sampling technique. The WTP was assessed by the Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation. One major findings is that, the Nigerian forest reserves is established in order to conserve and manage forest resources but has since been neglected while the management plans are either non-existent or abandoned. Also, the free areas termed the community forests where people have unrestricted access to exploit are fast diminishing in both contents and scale. The mean WTP for sustainable management of community forests in the study area was positive with a value of ₦389.04/month. The study recommends policy measures aimed at participatory forest management plan which will include the rural communities in the management of community forests. This will help ensure sustainable management of forest resources as well as improve the welfare of the rural households.

Keywords: forests, management, WTP, Nigeria

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252 Local Pricing Strategy Should Be the Entry Point of Equitable Benefit Sharing and Poverty Reduction in Community Based Forest Management: Some Evidences from Lowland Community Forestry in Nepal

Authors: Dhruba Khatri

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Despite the short history of community based forest management, the community forestry program of Nepal has produced substantial positive effects to organize the local people at a local level institution called Community Forest User Group and manage the local forest resources in the line of poverty reduction since its inception in 1970s. Moreover, each CFUG has collected a community fund from the sale of forest products and non-forestry sources as well and the fund has played a vital role to improve the livelihood of user households living in and around the forests. The specific study sites were selected based on the criteria of i) community forests having dominancy of Sal forests, and ii) forests having 3-5 years experience of community forest management. The price rates of forest products fixed by the CFUGs and the distribution records were collected from the respective community forests. Nonetheless, the relation between pricing strategy and community fund collection revealed that the small change in price of forest products could greatly affect in community fund collection and carry out of forest management, community development, and income generation activities in the line of poverty reduction at local level.

Keywords: benefit sharing, community forest, equitable, Nepal

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251 Diversity of Rhopalocera in Different Vegetation Types of PC Hills, Philippines

Authors: Sean E. Gregory P. Igano, Ranz Brendan D. Gabor, Baron Arthur M. Cabalona, Numeriano Amer E. Gutierrez

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Distribution patterns and abundance of butterflies respond in the long term to variations in habitat quality. Studying butterfly populations would give evidence on how vegetation types influence their diversity. In this research, the Rhopalocera diversity of PC Hills was assessed to provide information on diversity trends in varying vegetation types. PC Hills, located in Palo, Leyte, Philippines, is a relatively undisturbed area having forests and rivers. Despite being situated nearby inhabited villages; the area is observed to have a possible rich butterfly population. To assess the Rhopalocera species richness and diversity, transect sampling technique was applied to monitor and document butterflies. Transects were placed in locations that can be mapped, described and relocated easily. Three transects measuring three hundred meters each with a 5-meter diameter were established based on the different vegetation types present. The three main vegetation types identified were the agroecosystem (transect 1), dipterocarp forest (transect 2), and riparian (transect 3). Sample collections were done only from 9:00 A.M to 3:00 P.M. under warm and bright weather, with no more than moderate winds and when it was not raining. When weather conditions did not permit collection, it was moved to another day. A GPS receiver was used to record the location of the selected sample sites and the coordinates of where each sample was collected. Morphological analysis was done for the first phase of the study to identify the voucher specimen to the lowest taxonomic level possible using books about butterfly identification guides and species lists as references. For the second phase, DNA barcoding will be used to further identify the voucher specimen into the species taxonomic level. After eight (8) sampling sessions, seven hundred forty-two (742) individuals were seen, and twenty-two (22) Rhopalocera genera were identified through morphological identification. Nymphalidae family of genus Ypthima and the Pieridae family of genera Eurema and Leptosia were the most dominant species observed. Twenty (20) of the thirty-one (31) voucher specimen were already identified to their species taxonomic level using DNA Barcoding. Shannon-Weiner index showed that the highest diversity level was observed in the third transect (H’ = 2.947), followed by the second transect (H’ = 2.6317) and the lowest being in the first transect (H’ = 1.767). This indicates that butterflies are likely to inhabit dipterocarp and riparian vegetation types than agroecosystem, which influences their species composition and diversity. Moreover, the appearance of a river in the riparian vegetation supported its diversity value since butterflies have the tendency to fly into areas near rivers. Species identification of other voucher specimen will be done in order to compute the overall species richness in PC Hills. Further butterfly sampling sessions of PC Hills is recommended for a more reliable diversity trend and to discover more butterfly species. Expanding the research by assessing the Rhopalocera diversity in other locations should be considered along with studying factors that affect butterfly species composition other than vegetation types.

Keywords: distribution patterns, DNA barcoding, morphological analysis, Rhopalocera

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
250 Carbon Stock Estimation of Urban Forests in Selected Public Parks in Addis Ababa

Authors: Meseret Habtamu, Mekuria Argaw

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Urban forests can help to improve the microclimate and air quality. Urban forests in Addis Ababa are important sinks for GHGs as the number of vehicles and the traffic constrain is steadily increasing. The objective of this study was to characterize the vegetation types in selected public parks and to estimate the carbon stock potential of urban forests by assessing carbon in the above, below ground biomass, in the litter and soil. Species which vegetation samples were taken using a systematic transect sampling within value DBH ≥ 5cm were recorded to measure the above, the below ground biomass and the amount of C stored. Allometric models (Y= 34.4703 - 8.0671(DBH) + 0.6589(DBH2) were used to calculate the above ground and Below ground biomass (BGB) = AGB × 0.2 and sampling of soil and litter was based on quadrates. There were 5038 trees recorded from the selected study sites with DBH ≥ 5cm. Most of the Parks had large number of indigenous species, but the numbers of exotic trees are much larger than the indigenous trees. The mean above ground and below ground biomass is 305.7 ± 168.3 and 61.1± 33.7 respectively and the mean carbon in the above ground and below ground biomass is 143.3±74.2 and 28.1 ± 14.4 respectively. The mean CO2 in the above ground and below ground biomass is 525.9 ± 272.2 and 103.1 ± 52.9 respectively. The mean carbon in dead litter and soil carbon were 10.5 ± 2.4 and 69.2t ha-1 respectively. Urban trees reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through sequestration which is important for climate change mitigation, they are also important for recreational, medicinal value and aesthetic and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: biodiversity, carbon sequestration, climate change, urban forests

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249 State Forest Management Practices by Indigenous Peoples in Dharmasraya District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia

Authors: Abdul Mutolib, Yonariza Mahdi, Hanung Ismono

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The existence of forests is essential to human lives on earth, but its existence is threatened by forest deforestations and degradations. Forest deforestations and degradations in Indonesia is not only caused by the illegal activity by the company or the like, even today many cases in Indonesia forest damage caused by human activities, one of which cut down forests for agriculture and plantations. In West Sumatra, community forest management are the result supported the enactment of customary land tenure, including ownership of land within the forest. Indigenous forest management have a positive benefit, which gives the community an opportunity to get livelihood and income, but if forest management practices by indigenous peoples is not done wisely, then there is the destruction of forests and cause adverse effects on the environment. Based on intensive field works in Dhamasraya District employing some data collection techniques such as key informant interviews, household surveys, secondary data analysis, and satellite image interpretation. This paper answers the following questions; how the impact of forest management by local communities on forest conditions (foccus in Forest Production and Limited Production Forest) and knowledge of the local community on the benefits of forests. The site is a Nagari Bonjol, Dharmasraya District, because most of the forest in Dharmasraya located and owned by Nagari Bonjol community. The result shows that there is damage to forests in Dharmasraya because of forest management activities by local communities. Damage to the forest area of 33,500 ha in Dharmasraya because forests are converted into oil palm and rubber plantations with monocultures. As a result of the destruction of forests, water resources are also diminishing, and the community has experienced a drought in the dry season due to forest cut down and replaced by oil palm plantations. Knowledge of the local community on the benefits of low forest, the people considered that the forest does not have better benefits and cut down and converted into oil palm or rubber plantations. Local people do not understand the benefits of ecological and environmental services that forests. From the phenomena in Dharmasraya on land ownership, need to educate the local community about the importance of protecting the forest, and need a strategy to integrate forests management to keep the ecological functions that resemble the woods and counts the economic benefits for the welfare of local communities. One alternative that can be taken is to use forest management models agroforestry smallholders in accordance with the characteristics of the local community who still consider the economic, social and environmental.

Keywords: community, customary land, farmer plantations, and forests

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248 Impact of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystem Services: In situ Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Forest Resources in Tropical Forests

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Pandey

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Forest genetic resources not only represent regional biodiversity but also have immense value as the wealth for securing livelihood of poor people. These are vulnerable to ecological due to depletion/deforestation and /or impact of climate change. These resources of various plant categories are vulnerable on the floor of natural tropical forests, and leading to the threat on the growth and development of future forests. More than 170 species, including NTFPs, are in critical condition for their survival in natural tropical forests of Central India. Forest degradation, commensurate with biodiversity loss, is now pervasive, disproportionately affecting the rural poor who directly depend on forests for their subsistence. Looking ahead the interaction between forest and water, soil, precipitation, climate change, etc. and its impact on biodiversity of tropical forests, it is inevitable to develop co-operation policies and programmes to address new emerging realities. Forests ecosystem also known as the 'wealth of poor' providing goods and ecosystem services on a sustainable basis, are now recognized as a stepping stone to move poor people beyond subsistence. Poverty alleviation is the prime objective of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, environmental sustainability including other MDGs, is essential to ensure successful elimination of poverty and well being of human society. Loss and degradation of ecosystem are the most serious threats to achieving development goals worldwide. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) was an attempt to identify provisioning and regulating cultural and supporting ecosystem services to provide livelihood security of human beings. Climate change may have a substantial impact on ecological structure and function of forests, provisioning, regulations and management of resources which can affect sustainable flow of ecosystem services. To overcome these limitations, policy guidelines with respect to planning and consistent research strategy need to be framed for conservation and sustainable development of forest genetic resources.

Keywords: climate change, forest ecosystem services, sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation

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247 Role of Community Based Forest Management to Address Climate Change Problem: A Case of Nepalese Community Forestry

Authors: Bikram Jung Kunwar

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Forests have central roles in climate change. The conservation of forests sequestrates the carbon from the atmosphere and also regulates the carbon cycle. However, knowingly and unknowingly the world’s forests were deforested and degraded annually at the rate of 0.18% and emitted the carbon to the atmosphere. The IPCC reports claimed that the deforestation and forest degradation accounts 1/5th of total carbon emission, which is second position after fossil fuels. Since 1.6 billion people depend on varying degree on forests for their daily livelihood, not all deforestation are undesirable. Therefore, to conserve the forests and find the livelihood opportunities for forest surrounding people is prerequisites to address the climate change problems especially in developing countries, and also a growing concern to the forestry sector researchers, planners and policy makers. The study examines the role of community based forest management in carbon mitigation and adaptation taking the examples of Nepal’s community forestry program. In the program, the government hands over a part of national forests to the local communities with sole forest management authorities. However, the government itself retained the ownership rights of forestland. Local communities organized through a local institution called Community Forest User Group (CFUG) managed the forests. They also formed an operational plan with technical prescriptions and a constitution with forest management rules and regulations. The implementation results showed that the CFUGs are not only found effective to organize the local people and construct a local institution to forest conservation and management activities, but also they are able to collect a community fund from the sale of forest products and carried out various community development activities. These development activities have decisive roles to improve the livelihood of forest surrounding people and eventually to address the climate change problems.

Keywords: climate change, community forestry, local institution, Nepal

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246 Soil Respiration Rate of Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

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We assessed the ecology of the organic and mineral soil layers of laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (BB-2 and Pw) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The soil respiration rate was higher in the deeper horizons (F and H) of organic layers than in those of mineral soil layers, suggesting organic layers may be where active microbial metabolism occurs. Respiration rates in the soil of BB-1, BB-2 and Pw forests were closely similar at 5 and 10°C. However, the soil respiration rate increased in proportion to temperatures of 15°C or above. We therefore consider the activity of soil microorganisms to markedly decrease at temperatures below 10°C. At a temperature of 15°C or above, the soil respiration rate in the BB-1 organic layers was higher than in those of the BB-2 and Pw organic layers, due to differences in forest vegetation that appeared to influence several salient soil properties, particularly pH and the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of the F and H horizons.

Keywords: forest soil, mineralization rate, heterotroph, soil respiration rate

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245 Comparative Study of the Abundance of Winter Nests of the Pine Processionary Caterpillar in Different Forests of Pinus Halepensis, pinus Pinaster, Pinus Pinea and Cedrus Atlantica, in Algeria

Authors: Boudjahem Ibtissem, Aouati Amel

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Thaumetopoea pityocampa is one of the major insect pests of pine forests in Algeria, the Mediterranean region, and central Europe. This pest is responsible for several natural and human damages these last years. The caterpillar can feed itself during the larval stage on several species of pine or cedar. The forests attack by the insect can reduce their resistance against other forest enemies, fires, or drought conditions. In this case, the tree becomes more vulnerable to other pests. To understand the eating behavior of the insect in its ecological conditions, and its nutritional preference, we realized a study of the abundance of winter nests of the pine processionary caterpillar in four different forests: Pinus halepensis; Pinus pinaster; Pinus pinea, and Cedrus atlantica. A count of the sites affected by the processionary caterpillar was carried out on a hundred trees from the forests in different regions in Algeria; Alkala region, Mila region, Annaba region, and Blida region; the total rate and average abundance are calculated for each forest. Ecological parameters are also estimated for each infestation. The results indicated a higher rate of infestation in Pinus halepensis trees (85%) followed by Cedrus atlantica (66%) and Pinus pinaster (50%) trees. The Pinus pinea forest is the least attacked region by the pine processionary caterpillar (23%). The abundance of the pine processionary caterpillar can be influenced by the height of the trees, the climate of the region, the age of the forest but also the quality of needles.

Keywords: Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Pinus halepensis, needles, winter nests

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244 Evaluation of Pheromone and Tree Trap Efficiency in Orthotomicus erosus (Col: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Monitoring in Pine Forests of Iran

Authors: Sudabe Amini, Jamasb Nozari, Somaye Rahimi

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Bark beetles are one of the most destructive groups of pests in the forest and green space. Mediterranean pine Engraver Orthotomicus erosus (Wollston) is the dominant species in the pine forests of Iran. Pine forests are considered a crucial region in the world and need high protection. Although there is no effective control method, mass trapping is the most common method to suppress the bark beetle population. Due to this, from 2018-to 2020, a survey was conducted on bark beetles mass trapping by using two kinds of traps, including pheromone and tree trap. These traps were evaluated in 10 different sites of pine forests. The statistical results proved that significant differences between the pheromone trap and tree trap were observed. It confirmed that the pheromone trap attracted more beetles than the tree trap. The results of this study suggest that the most effective and applicable method in bark beetle’s management of pines forest is using a pheromone trap that suppresses and maintains bark beetle’s population at an economic level, although tree traps attract bark beetles too. In the future, using tree-pheromone traps, which would synergist attraction of more bark beetles, is recommended.

Keywords: bark beetle, pines forest, Orthotomicus erosus, pheromone trap, tree trap

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243 Biodiversity and Climate Change: Consequences for Norway Spruce Mountain Forests in Slovakia

Authors: Jozef Mindas, Jaroslav Skvarenina, Jana Skvareninova

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Study of the effects of climate change on Norway Spruce (Picea abies) forests has mainly focused on the diversity of tree species diversity of tree species as a result of the ability of species to tolerate temperature and moisture changes as well as some effects of disturbance regime changes. The tree species’ diversity changes in spruce forests due to climate change have been analyzed via gap model. Forest gap model is a dynamic model for calculation basic characteristics of individual forest trees. Input ecological data for model calculations have been taken from the permanent research plots located in primeval forests in mountainous regions in Slovakia. The results of regional scenarios of the climatic change for the territory of Slovakia have been used, from which the values are according to the CGCM3.1 (global) model, KNMI and MPI (regional) models. Model results for conditions of the climate change scenarios suggest a shift of the upper forest limit to the region of the present subalpine zone, in supramontane zone. N. spruce representation will decrease at the expense of beech and precious broadleaved species (Acer sp., Sorbus sp., Fraxinus sp.). The most significant tree species diversity changes have been identified for the upper tree line and current belt of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) occurrence. The results have been also discussed in relation to most important disturbances (wind storms, snow and ice storms) and phenological changes which consequences are little known. Special discussion is focused on biomass production changes in relation to carbon storage diversity in different carbon pools.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, Norway spruce forests, gap model

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242 Estimation of Carbon Sequestration and Air Quality of Terrestrial Ecosystems Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Kanwal Javid, Shazia Pervaiz, Maria Mumtaz, Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram

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Forests and grasslands ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Land management activities influence both ecosystems and enable them to absorb and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). Similarly, in Pakistan, these terrestrial ecosystems are well known to mitigate carbon emissions and have a great source to supply a variety of services such as clean air and water, biodiversity, wood products, wildlife habitat, food, recreation and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration is the main agenda of developed and developing nations to reduce the impacts of global warming. But the amount of carbon storage within these ecosystems can be affected by many factors related to air quality such as land management, land-use change, deforestation, over grazing and natural calamities. Moreover, the long-term capacity of forests and grasslands to absorb and sequester CO2 depends on their health, productivity, resilience and ability to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, the main rationale of this study is to monitor the difference in carbon amount of forests and grasslands of Northern Pakistan using MODIS data sets and map results using Geographic Information System. Results of the study conclude that forests ecosystems are more effective in reducing the CO2 level and play a key role in improving the quality of air.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, grasslands, global warming, climate change.

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241 In-Farm Wood Gasification Energy Micro-Generation System in Brazil: A Monte Carlo Viability Simulation

Authors: Erich Gomes Schaitza, Antônio Francisco Savi, Glaucia Aparecida Prates

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The penetration of renewable energy into the electricity supply in Brazil is high, one of the highest in the World. Centralized hydroelectric generation is the main source of energy, followed by biomass and wind. Surprisingly, mini and micro-generation are negligible, with less than 2,000 connections to the national grid. In 2015, a new regulatory framework was put in place to change this situation. In the agricultural sector, the framework was complemented by the offer of low interest rate loans to in-farm renewable generation. Brazil proposed to more than double its area of planted forests as part of its INDC- Intended Nationally Determined Contributions to the UNFCCC-U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This is an ambitious target which will be achieved only if forests are attractive to farmers. Therefore, this paper analyses whether planting forests for in-farm energy generation with a with a woodchip gasifier is economically viable for microgeneration under the new framework and at if they could be an economic driver for forest plantation. At first, a static case was analyzed with data from Eucalyptus plantations in five farms. Then, a broader analysis developed with the use of Monte Carlo technique. Planting short rotation forests to generate energy could be a viable alternative and the low interest loans contribute to that. There are some barriers to such systems such as the inexistence of a mature market for small scale equipment and of a reference network of good practices and examples.

Keywords: biomass, distribuited generation, small-scale, Monte Carlo

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240 Credit Cooperatives: A Factor for Improving the Sustainable Management of Private Forests

Authors: Todor Nickolov Stoyanov

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Cooperatives are present in all countries and in almost all sectors, including agriculture, forestry, food, finance, health, marketing, insurance and credit. Strong cooperatives are able to overcome many of the difficulties faced by private owners. Cooperatives use seven principles, including the 'Community Concern" principle, which enables cooperatives to work for the sustainable development of the community. The members of cooperatives may use different systems for generating year-round employment and for receiving sustainable income through performing different forestry activities. Various methods are used during the preparation of the report. These include literature reviews, statistics, secondary data and expert interviews. The members of the cooperatives are benefits exclusively from increasing the efficiency of the various products and from the overall yield of the harvest, and ultimately from achieving better profit through cooperative efforts. Cooperatives also use other types of activities that are an additional opportunity for cooperative income. There are many heterogeneous activities in the production and service sectors of the forest cooperatives under consideration. Some cooperatives serve dairies, distilleries, woodworking enterprises, tourist homes, hotels and motels, shops, ski slopes, sheep breeding, etc. Through the revenue generated by the activity, cooperatives have the opportunity to carry out various environmental and protective activities - recreation, water protection, protection of endangered and endemic species, etc., which in the case of small-scale forests cannot be achieved and the management is not sustainable. The conclusions indicate the results received in the analysis. Cooperative management of forests and forest lands gives higher incomes to individual owners. The management of forests and forest lands through cooperatives helps to carry out different environmental and protective activities. Cooperative forest management provides additional means of subsistence to the owners of poor forest lands. Cooperative management of forests and forest lands support owners to implement the forest management plans and to apply sustainable management of these territories.

Keywords: cooperative, forestry, forest owners, principles of cooperation

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
239 Exploring Forest Biomass Changes in Romania in the Last Three Decades

Authors: Remus Pravalie, Georgeta Bandoc

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Forests are crucial for humanity and biodiversity, through the various ecosystem services and functions they provide all over the world. Forest ecosystems are vital in Romania as well, through their various benefits, known as provisioning (food, wood, or fresh water), regulating (water purification, soil protection, carbon sequestration or control of climate change, floods, and other hazards), cultural (aesthetic, spiritual, inspirational, recreational or educational benefits) and supporting (primary production, nutrient cycling, and soil formation processes, with direct or indirect importance for human well-being) ecosystem services. These ecological benefits are of great importance in Romania, especially given the fact that forests cover extensive areas countrywide, i.e. ~6.5 million ha or ~27.5% of the national territory. However, the diversity and functionality of these ecosystem services fundamentally depend on certain key attributes of forests, such as biomass, which has so far not been studied nationally in terms of potential changes due to climate change and other driving forces. This study investigates, for the first time, changes in forest biomass in Romania in recent decades, based on a high volume of satellite data (Landsat images at high spatial resolutions), downloaded from the Google Earth Engine platform and processed (using specialized software and methods) across Romanian forestland boundaries from 1987 to 2018. A complex climate database was also investigated across Romanian forests over the same 32-year period, in order to detect potential similarities and statistical relationships between the dynamics of biomass and climate data. The results obtained indicated considerable changes in forest biomass in Romania in recent decades, largely triggered by the climate change that affected the country after 1987. Findings on the complex pattern of recent forest changes in Romania, which will be presented in detail in this study, can be useful to national policymakers in the fields of forestry, climate, and sustainable development.

Keywords: forests, biomass, climate change, trends, romania

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238 Role of Community Youths in Conservation of Forests and Protected Areas of Bangladesh

Authors: Obaidul Fattah Tanvir, Zinat Ara Afroze

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Community living adjacent to forests and Protected Areas, especially in South Asian countries, have a common practice in extracting resources for their living and livelihoods. This extraction of resources, because the way it is done, destroys the biophysical features of the area. Deforestation, wildlife poaching, illegal logging, unauthorized hill cutting etc. are some of the serious issues of concern for the sustainability of the natural resources that has a direct impact on environment and climate as a whole. To ensure community involvement in conservation initiatives of the state, community based forest management, commonly known as Comanagement, has been in practice in 6 South Asian countries. These are -India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Involving community in forestry management was initiated first in Bangladesh in 1979 and reached as an effective co-management approach through a several paradigm shifts. This idea of Comanagement has been institutionalized through a Government Order (GO) by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of Bangladesh on November 23, 2009. This GO clearly defines the structure and functions of Co-management and its different bodies. Bangladesh Forest Department has been working in association with community to conserve and manage the Forests and Protected areas of Bangladesh following this legal document. Demographically young people constitute the largest segment of population in Bangladesh. This group, if properly sensitized, can produce valuable impacts on the conservation initiatives, both by community and government. This study traced the major factors that motivate community youths to work effectively with different tiers of comanagement organizations in conservation of forests and Protected Areas of Bangladesh. For the purpose of this study, 3 FGDs were conducted with 30 youths from the community living around the Protected Areas of Cox’s bazar, South East corner of Bangladesh, who are actively involved in Co-management organizations. KII were conducted with 5 key officials of Forest Department stationed at Cox’s Bazar. 2 FGDs were conducted with the representatives of 7 Co-management organizations working in Cox’s Bazar region and approaches of different community outreach activities conducted for forest conservation by 3 private organizations and Projects have been reviewed. Also secondary literatures were reviewed for the history and evolution of Co-management in Bangladesh and six South Asian countries. This study found that innovative community outreach activities that are financed by public and private sectors involving youths and community as a whole have played a pivotal role in conservation of forests and Protected Areas of the region. This approach can be replicated in other regions of Bangladesh as well as other countries of South Asia where Co-Management exists in practice.

Keywords: community, co-management, conservation, forests, protected areas, youth

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237 Preliminary Analysis of a Phylogeography Study of Dendropsophus minutus in the Guiana Shield

Authors: Mera-Martínez Daniela

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Dendropsophus minutus, is a species distributed in South America including the slopes of the Andes, the Amazon basin, forests of southeastern Brazil and in Guyana where tropical forests are characteristic. The relationship of amphibians found in this locality is evidenced by molecular markers, with the objective of analyzing if the geographic distance is influencing the structure of the populations of D. minutus in Guyana; we analyzed 65 sequences from the 3 localities of Guyana where haplotype networks, Mantel Test and phylogeny were realized to know the influence. It was evidenced that there is a haplotypic difference in the locality of Guyana compared to Suriname and French Guyana, but this does not have a correlation with the geographic distance, but this one can be influenced by the conditions of the places.

Keywords: phylogeography, Dendropsophus, geographic distance, molecular markers

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236 Study of the Microflora of Cedar Forests with Different Degrees of Decline in the National Park Belezma (Batna, Algeria)

Authors: Cherak Imen, Sellami Mehdi

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The Atlas cedar, Cedrus atlantica, is endemic to the mountains of North Africa. This is one of the most valuable softwood, both economically, ecologically, aesthetically and culturally. In Algeria, the cedar forests currently have worrying symptoms of decline which therefore require special monitoring. Fungal endophytes are involved in various diseases of the Atlas cedar. They attack all organs on which they cause many symptoms. These microflora live in complex interaction with plants. In this study, we identified a total of 09 mycotaxons collected needles Cedarwood at three stations with different degrees of decline (Talmet, Boumerzoug and Tuggurt) in the National Park Belezma (Batna, Algeria). The study conducted on a total of 12 trees were identified 08 mycoendophytes in Talmet station, 04 species in the Boumerzoug station and 03 in Tuggurt station. The total species richness mycoendophytes depending on the types of cedar forests showed that the largest diversity was recorded at the cedar forest healthy, Alternaria is the most common type in all stations. This work should be completed by further detailed studies to identify other endophyte species and better know its interactions with the Atlas cedar.

Keywords: Cedrus atlantica, endophytic fungi, microflora, mycotaxons, mycoendophyte

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
235 Community Forestry Programme through the Local Forest Users Group, Nepal

Authors: Daniyal Neupane

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Establishment of community forestry in Nepal is a successful step in the conservation of forests. Community forestry programme through the local forest users group has shown its positive impacts in the society. This paper discusses an overview of the present scenario of the community forestry in Nepal. It describes the brief historical background, some important forest legislations, and organization of forest. The paper also describes the internal conflicts between forest users and district forest offices, and possible resolution. It also suggests some of the aspects of community forestry in which the research needs to be focused for the better management of the forests in Nepal.

Keywords: community forest, conservation of forest, local forest users group, better management, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 235