Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Zofia Nocoń

8 Influence of the Location of Flood Embankments on the Condition of Oxbow Lakes and Riparian Forests: A Case Study of the Middle Odra River Beds on the Example of Dragonflies (Odonata), Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Plant Communities

Authors: Magda Gorczyca, Zofia Nocoń


Past and current studies from different countries showed that river engineering leads to environmental degradation and extinction of many species - often those protected by local and international wildlife conservation laws. Through the years, the main focus of rivers utilization has shifted from industrial applications to recreation and wildlife preservation with a focus on keeping the biodiversity which plays a significant role in preventing climate changes. Thus an opportunity appeared to recreate flooding areas and natural habitats, which are very rare in the scale of Europe. Additionally, river restoration helps to avoid floodings and periodic droughts, which are usually very damaging to the economy. In this research, the biodiversity of dragonflies and ground beetles was analyzed in the context of plant communities and forest stands structure. Results were enriched with data from past and current literature. A comparison was made between two parts of the Odra river. A part where oxbow lake and riparian forest were separated from the river bed by embankment and a part of the river with floodplains left intact. Validity assessment of embankments relocation was made based on the research results. In the period between May and September, insects were collected, phytosociological analysis were taken, and forest stand structure properties were specified. In the part of the river not separated by the embankments, rare and protected species of plants were spotted (e.g., Trapanatans, Salvinianatans) as well as greater species and quantitive diversity of dragonfly. Ground beetles fauna, though, was richer in the area separated by the embankment. Even though the research was done during only one season and in a limited area, the results can be a starting point for further extended research and may contribute to acquiring legal wildlife protection and restoration of the researched area. During the research, the presence of invasive species Impatiens parviflora, Echinocystislobata, and Procyonlotor were observed, which may lead to loss of the natural values of the researched areas.

Keywords: carabidae, floodplains, middle Odra river, Odonata, oxbow lakes, riparian forests

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7 Non-Standard Monetary Policy Measures and Their Consequences

Authors: Aleksandra Nocoń (Szunke)


The study is a review of the literature concerning the consequences of non-standard monetary policy, which are used by central banks during unconventional periods, threatening instability of the banking sector. In particular, the attention was paid to the effects of non-standard monetary policy tools for financial markets. However, the empirical evidence about their effects and real consequences for the financial markets are still not final. The main aim of the study is to survey the consequences of standard and non-standard monetary policy instruments, implemented during the global financial crisis in the United States, United Kingdom and Euroland, with particular attention to the results for the stabilization of global financial markets. The study analyses the consequences for short and long-term market interest rates, interbank interest rates and LIBOR-OIS spread. The study consists mainly of the empirical review, indicating the impact of the implementation of these tools for the financial markets. The following research methods were used in the study: literature studies, including domestic and foreign literature, cause and effect analysis and statistical analysis.

Keywords: asset purchase facility, consequences of monetary policy instruments, non-standard monetary policy, quantitative easing

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6 A Characterization of Skew Cyclic Code with Complementary Dual

Authors: Eusebio Jr. Lina, Ederlina Nocon


Cyclic codes are a fundamental subclass of linear codes that enjoy a very interesting algebraic structure. The class of skew cyclic codes (or θ-cyclic codes) is a generalization of the notion of cyclic codes. This a very large class of linear codes which can be used to systematically search for codes with good properties. A linear code with complementary dual (LCD code) is a linear code C satisfying C ∩ C^⊥ = {0}. This subclass of linear codes provides an optimum linear coding solution for a two-user binary adder channel and plays an important role in countermeasures to passive and active side-channel analyses on embedded cryptosystems. This paper aims to identify LCD codes from the class of skew cyclic codes. Let F_q be a finite field of order q, and θ be an automorphism of F_q. Some conditions for a skew cyclic code to be LCD were given. To this end, the properties of a noncommutative skew polynomial ring F_q[x, θ] of automorphism type were revisited, and the algebraic structure of skew cyclic code using its skew polynomial representation was examined. Using the result that skew cyclic codes are left ideals of the ring F_q[x, θ]/〈x^n-1〉, a characterization of a skew cyclic LCD code of length n was derived. A necessary condition for a skew cyclic code to be LCD was also given.

Keywords: LCD cyclic codes, skew cyclic LCD codes, skew cyclic complementary dual codes, theta-cyclic codes with complementary duals

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5 On the Construction of Some Optimal Binary Linear Codes

Authors: Skezeer John B. Paz, Ederlina G. Nocon


Finding an optimal binary linear code is a central problem in coding theory. A binary linear code C = [n, k, d] is called optimal if there is no linear code with higher minimum distance d given the length n and the dimension k. There are bounds giving limits for the minimum distance d of a linear code of fixed length n and dimension k. The lower bound which can be taken by construction process tells that there is a known linear code having this minimum distance. The upper bound is given by theoretic results such as Griesmer bound. One way to find an optimal binary linear code is to make the lower bound of d equal to its higher bound. That is, to construct a binary linear code which achieves the highest possible value of its minimum distance d, given n and k. Some optimal binary linear codes were presented by Andries Brouwer in his published table on bounds of the minimum distance d of binary linear codes for 1 ≤ n ≤ 256 and k ≤ n. This was further improved by Markus Grassl by giving a detailed construction process for each code exhibiting the lower bound. In this paper, we construct new optimal binary linear codes by using some construction processes on existing binary linear codes. Particularly, we developed an algorithm applied to the codes already constructed to extend the list of optimal binary linear codes up to 257 ≤ n ≤ 300 for k ≤ 7.

Keywords: bounds of linear codes, Griesmer bound, construction of linear codes, optimal binary linear codes

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4 Effect of 8 Weeks of Intervention on Physical Fitness, Hepatokines, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Subjects

Authors: Adela Penesova, Zofia Radikova, Boris Bajer, Andrea Havranova, Miroslav Vlcek


Background: The aim of our study was to compare the effect of intensified lifestyle intervention on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 after 8 weeks of lifestyle intervention. Methods: A group of 43 obese patients (13M/30F; 43.0±12.4 years; BMI (body mass index) 31.2±6.3 kg/m2 participated in a weight loss interventional program (NCT02325804) following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) and physical activity 150 minutes/week. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity indices according to Matsuda and Cederholm were calculated (ISImat and ISIced). Plasma ALT, AST, Fetuin-A, FGF 21, and physical fitness were measured. Results: The average reduction of body weight was 6.8±4.9 kg (0-15 kg; p=0.0006), accompanied with a significant reduction of body fat amount of fat mass (p=0.03), and waist circumference (p=0.02). Insulin sensitivity has been improved (IR HOMA 2.71±3.90 vs 1.24±0.83; p=0.01; ISIMat 6.64±4.38 vs 8.93±5.36 p ≤ 0.001). Total, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides decreased (p=0.05, p=0.04, p=0.04, respectively). Physical fitness significantly improved after intervention (as measure VO2 max (maximal oxygen uptake) (p ≤ 0.001). ALT decreased significantly (0.44±0.26 vs post 0.33±0.18 ukat/l, p=0.004); however, AST not (pre 0.40±0.15 vs 0.35±0.09 ukat/l, p=0.07). Hepatokine Fetuin-A significantly decreased after intervention (43.1±10.8 vs 32.6±8.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001); however, FGF 21 levels tended to decrease (146±152 vs 132±164 pg/ml, p=0.07). Conclusion: 8-weeks of diet and physical activity intervention program in obese otherwise healthy subjects led to an improvement of insulin resistance parameters and liver marker profiles, as well as increased physical fitness. This study was supported by grants APVV 15-0228; VEGA 2/0161/16.

Keywords: obesity, diet, exercice, insulin sensitivity

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3 Restriction on the Freedom of Economic Activity in the Polish Energy Law

Authors: Zofia Romanowska


Recently there have been significant changes in the Polish energy market. Due to the government's decision to strengthen energy security as well as to strengthen the implementation of the European Union common energy policy, the Polish energy market has been undergoing significant changes. In the face of these, it is necessary to answer the question about the direction the Polish energy rationing sector is going, how wide apart the powers of the state are and also whether the real regulator of energy projects in Poland is not in fact the European Union itself. In order to determine the role of the state as a regulator of the energy market, the study analyses the basic instruments of regulation, i.e. the licenses, permits and permissions to conduct various activities related to the energy market, such as the production and sale of liquid fuels or concessions for trade in natural gas. Bearing in mind that Polish law is part of the widely interpreted European Union energy policy, the legal solutions in neighbouring countries are also being researched, including those made in Germany, a country which plays a key role in the shaping of EU policies. The correct interpretation of the new legislation modifying the current wording of the Energy Law Act, such as obliging the entities engaged in the production and trade of liquid fuels (including abroad) to meet a number of additional requirements for the licensing and providing information to the state about conducted business, plays a key role in the study. Going beyond the legal framework for energy rationing, the study also includes a legal and economic analysis of public and private goods within the energy sector and delves into the subject of effective remedies. The research caused the relationships between progressive rationing introduced by the legislator and the rearrangement rules prevailing on the Polish energy market to be taken note of, which led to the introduction of greater transparency in the sector. The studies refer to the initial conclusion that currently, despite the proclaimed idea of liberalization of the oil and gas market and the opening of market to a bigger number of entities as a result of the newly implanted changes, the process of issuing and controlling the conduction of the concessions will be tightened, guaranteeing to entities greater security of energy supply. In the long term, the effect of the introduced legislative solutions will be the reduction of the amount of entities on the energy market. The companies that meet the requirements imposed on them by the new regulation to cope with the profitability of the business will in turn increase prices for their services, which will be have an impact on consumers' budgets.

Keywords: license, energy law, energy market, public goods, regulator

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2 Escaping Domestic Violence in Time of Conflict: The Ways Female Refugees Decide to Flee

Authors: Zofia Wlodarczyk


I study the experiences of domestic violence survivors who flee their countries of origin in times of political conflict using insight and evidence from forty-five biographical interviews with female Chechen refugees and twelve refugee resettlement professionals in Poland. Both refugees and women are often described as having less agency—that is, they lack the power to decide to migrate – refugees less than economic migrants and women less than men. In this paper, I focus on how female refugees who have been victims of domestic violence make decisions about leaving their countries of origin during times of political conflict. I use several existing migration theories to trace how the migration experience of these women is shaped by dynamics at different levels of society: the macro level, the meso level and the micro level. At the macro level of analysis, I find that political conflict can be both a source of and an escape from domestic violence. Ongoing conflict can strengthen the patriarchal cultural norms, increase violence and constrain women’s choices when it comes to marriage. However, political conflict can also destabilize families and make pathways for women to escape. At the meso level I demonstrate that other political migrants and institutions that emerge due to politically triggered migration can guide those fleeing domestic violence. Finally, at the micro level, I show that family dynamics often force domestic abuse survivors to make their decision to escape alone or with the support of only the most trusted female relatives. Taken together, my analyses show that we cannot look solely at one level of society when describing decision-making processes of women fleeing domestic violence. Conflict-related micro, meso and macro forces interact with and influence each other: on the one hand, strengthening an abusive trap, and on the other hand, opening a door to escape. This study builds upon several theoretical and empirical debates. First, it expands theories of migration by incorporating both refugee and gender perspectives. Few social scientists have used the migration theory framework to discuss the unique circumstances of refugee flows. Those who have mainly focus on “political” migrants, a designation that frequently fails to account for gender, does not incorporate individuals fleeing gender-based violence, including domestic-violence victims. The study also enriches migration scholarship, typically focused on the US and Western-European context, with research from Eastern Europe and Caucasus. Moreover, it contributes to the literature on the changing roles of gender in the context of migration. I argue that understanding how gender roles and hierarchies influence the pre-migration stage of female refugees is crucial, as it may have implications for policy-making efforts in host countries that recognize the asylum claims of those fleeing domestic violence. This study also engages in debates about asylum and refugee law. Domestic violence is normatively and often legally considered an individual-level problem whereas political persecution is recognized as a structural or societal level issue. My study challenges these notions by showing how the migration triggered by domestic violence is closely intertwined with politically motivated refuge.


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1 Metabolic Changes during Reprogramming of Wheat and Triticale Microspores

Authors: Natalia Hordynska, Magdalena Szechynska-Hebda, Miroslaw Sobczak, Elzbieta Rozanska, Joanna Troczynska, Zofia Banaszak, Maria Wedzony


Albinism is a common problem encountered in wheat and triticale breeding programs, which require in vitro culture steps e.g. generation of doubled haploids via androgenesis process. Genetic factor is a major determinant of albinism, however, environmental conditions such as temperature and media composition influence the frequency of albino plant formation. Cold incubation of wheat and triticale spikes induced a switch from gametophytic to sporophytic development. Further, androgenic structures formed from anthers of the genotypes susceptible to androgenesis or treated with cold stress, had a pool of structurally primitive plastids, with small starch granules or swollen thylakoids. High temperature was a factor inducing andro-genesis of wheat and triticale, but at the same time, it was a factor favoring the formation of albino plants. In genotypes susceptible to albinism or after heat stress conditions, cells formed from anthers were vacuolated, and plastids were eliminated. Partial or complete loss of chlorophyll pigments and incomplete differentiation of chloroplast membranes result in formation of tissues or whole plant unable to perform photosynthesis. Indeed, susceptibility to the andro-genesis process was associated with an increase of total concentration of photosynthetic pigments in anthers, spikes and regenerated plants. The proper balance of the synthesis of various pigments, was the starting point for their proper incorporation into photosynthetic membranes. In contrast, genotypes resistant to the androgenesis process and those treated with heat, contained 100 times lower content of photosynthetic pigments. In particular, the synthesis of violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein and chlorophyll b was limited. Furthermore, deregulation of starch and lipids synthesis, which led to the formation of very complex starch granules and an increased number of oleosomes, respectively, correlated with the reduction of the efficiency of androgenesis. The content of other sugars varied depending on the genotype and the type of stress. The highest content of various sugars was found for genotypes susceptible to andro-genesis, and highly reduced for genotypes resistant to androgenesis. The most important sugars seem to be glucose and fructose. They are involved in sugar sensing and signaling pathways, which affect the expression of various genes and regulate plant development. Sucrose, on the other hand, seems to have minor effect at each stage of the androgenesis. The sugar metabolism was related to metabolic activity of microspores. The genotypes susceptible to androgenesis process had much faster mitochondrium- and chloroplast-dependent energy conversion and higher heat production by tissues. Thus, the effectiveness of metabolic processes, their balance and the flexibility under the stress was a factor determining the direction of microspore development, and in the later stages of the androgenesis process, a factor supporting the induction of androgenic structures, chloroplast formation and the regeneration of green plants. The work was financed by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development within Program: ‘Biological Progress in Plant Production’, project no

Keywords: androgenesis, chloroplast, metabolism, temperature stress

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